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The purpose of this study was to compared the magnitude of excess post-oxygen consumption(EPOC) following resistance exercise(1-RM of 60%) and aerobic exercise(VO₂ max of 60%). The subjects of study were consisted of each ten trained and untrained male college students(19.7±2.3, 19.3±0.5 years). This study was designed to compare the magnitude of EPOC following two exercise types. For both exercise types, resistance and aerobic exercise was energy consumption of total 300㎉ during exercise(untrained aerobic & resistance 298.6±2.9, 297.8±2.1㎉ ; trained aerobic & resistance 299.6±2.6, 295.7±4.l㎉). The dependant variables in this study consisted of three parts, metabolic variables (VO₂, RER, rectal temperature, lactic acid), EPOC and total energy consumption after exercise. To compare the difference of metabolic variables rest, during exercise and recovery period of each groups, 2×2 combined design two-way ANOVA was used. 2×2×2 combined design three-way ANOVA were used for compare the metabolic variables rest, during exercise and recovery period between groups. EPOC and total energy consumption during recovery period was used one-way ANOVA. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. The results were obtained as following, first, VO₂ during recovery of each groups was higher significantly than the rest(both group; until 5 min, p<0.05). RER was decreased significantly in both untrain and train group(p<0.05). Rectal temperature(RT) and lactic acid concentration was higher significantly than the rest in each group(p<0.05). Second, the difference of exercise types was statistically significant among two groups. Finally, result of EPOC and total energy consumption was higher significantly trained group than untrained group in after aerobic exercise(p<0.05). However, resistance exercise was not statistically significant between groups, but the value was higher trained group. The results suggest that EPOC follow aerobic exercise higher the resistance exercise, thus exercise prescription for weight loss and fat oxidation following exercise include aerobic exercise. However resistance exercise is recommended, because fat oxidation ratio was higher during recovery period by resistance exercise.
Cell-mediated immunity frequently becomes severely impaired after burn. However, the cause of postburn immune dysfunction is unclear and controversy exists over both pathophysiology and clinical relevance of these abnormalities. This study was undertaken to invstigate the immune responses in vivo of patients with burn. Levels of soluble IL-2R, a sensitive marker of T-cell activation, were measured in 26 patients with burn. Serum soluble IL-2R levels in patients with burn were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Serum soluble IL-2R levels were correlated closely with the severity of the burn. The burn patients were classified according to the outcome. Patients with fatal outcom always showd a higher soluble IL-2R levels than survivors. Postburn sera significantly suppressed mitogen-indeced lymphocyte proliferation. These data indicate that soluble IL-2R might be useful parameters for monitoring of the clinical course in burn patients.
Background: Many chronic diseases are associated with the lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise. Attention is increasingly paid on the effect of exercise for the management of chronic disease these days. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of the smoking habit, alcohol drinking and physical exercise of the patients with chronic diseases. Methods: Total 793 persons(normal:422, chronic disease patients:371) in a hospital were questioned regarding the habits of smoking and alcohol drinking, and a practice of physical exercise in 1999. The patients with chronic illness were divided into three groups(Group I included the patients of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Group II includes respiratory disease and cancer. Group III included liver disease ). The rate of exercise, the rate of smoking cessation and the rate of abstinence were assessed. In logistic regression analysis with each independent variables in each disease groups(I, II and III), odds ratio for the presence of disease was controlled for age and education. Results: The rate of exercise, the rate of smoking cessation and the rate of abstinence was 31.5%, 27.3% and 9.5% in the patients with chronic disease, respectively. In control group, those were 31.5%, 21% and 2.1%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis with exercise as independent variable, odds ratios(95% CI) for age and education were significantly high, with smoking cessation, odds ratio for age was high and with abstinence, odds ratio for disease was high in all disease groups. Conclusion : It was suggested that an effort for proper changes of lifestyle related to disease such as smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise should be intervened in the patients with chronic diseases.
Objectives: Under the fee-for-service system, Korean hospitals have been suffering from the worsening profitability caused by law medical care fees. To overcome the difficulties, they have maximized the quantity of medical services and made relatively large investment in developing new medical services using high-priced medical equipment, medicines and medical supplies which were not covered by medical insurance system rather than reduced running costs. Materials and Methods: This study was made to analyze and forecast the revenue change of the department of Obstetrics and gynecology of an university hospital in Seoul, expecting the implementation of DRG system in 2000. Results: The results were as follows : 1.During the first two days of hospitalization. 41% of total medical service fee was occurred, which was thought that most of the check-ups and operations were made during this period. After two days of hospitalization, the new occurrence of medical service fee tended to reduce. 2.Out of total medical service fee, 67% of admission fee was occurred after 5 days of hospitalization. This was because medical service fees in obstetrics and gynecology department occurred during the first 5 days of hospitalization. 3.Out of fees for operation, treatment, medical supplies and blood transfusion. 71% was occurred during the first two days. 4. In case of fees for examination, 50% was occurred during the first two days. 5.A total of 53% of fees for medication and injection was occurred during the first 5 days. Conclusions: By the implementation of the DRG system, the income is forecast to increase by 800 won to 310,000 won by the disease group of obstetrics and gynecology department. To increase hospital income with the implementation of DRG system, the results of this study suggest that examinations should be done at out-patient departments before the hospitalization of patient, the discharge of patient should be noticed in advance to reduce the period of hospitalization, and admission appointment system should be implemented for the immediate operation and delivery.
의약품은 약물을 생체에 적풋하기 위하여 유효성분의 효과가 언제나 일정하게 확보되고 사응에 편리하도록 만들어지는 것이므로 유효썽분 이외에 약효에 영향을 주지 않는 성분이 첨가되는 경운가 많다. 이 때 사용되는 용매들은 제피의 광택 및 건쪼시간의 단축 등을 위하여 휘발점이 낮을 용매들이 주로 사용되어진다. 본 연구는 의약품 필름코팅정제 중 잔류용매 4종(chlorofonr benzen, trichloro ethylen, 1,4-dioxane)에 대한 변형된 pirge & trap-GC 장치를 이용한 동시분석방법을 개발하였으며, 각 표준품의 RSD 값은 chloroform 3.03%, benzen 3.17%, trichloroethylen 3.69% and 1,4-dioxane 3.41%였다. 또한 시중 유통중인 의약품 50종에 대하여 잔류웅매 양을 측정하였으며, 검출되는 잔류용매는 한 건도 없었다. This study nras carried out to develope the analytical method for the mixture of chlorefonn, benzen, trichloroethylen and 1,4-dioxane simultaneously and determine the remainingorgauic solvents in coating tablets by Purge & Trap-GC. The results were as follouFs ; 1. Chloroform, benzen, trio:tloroethylen and 1,4-dioxane separated by tenax #5 trap by HP-624GC column by terrlperature programming. The peaks were separated completely at retentiontime of 6.88min for chloroform, 8.21min for benzen, 10.38miu for trichloroethylen and 11.95minfor 1,4-dioxane. 2. Standard RSD were individually chloroform 3.03%, benzen 3.17%, trichloroethylen 3.69%and 1,4-diorane 3.41%. 3. 60 samples were not detrcted chloroform, benzen, trichloroethylen and 1,4-dioxane.
Background: Superior colliculus is a part of midbrain, and participates in the visual reflexes, It receives afferent fibers from optic nerve, visual cortex, and spinotectal tract. After optic deprivation, the microscopic structure of the superior colliculus changed. Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) Play an important role in the neuronal protection, differentiation and reorganization of the central nervous system, Objectives and Methods: The effects of neonatal retinal deafferentation on a CBPs, calbindm D-28k (CB), Parvalbumin (PB) and calretimn (CR), and the existence of colocalization between the CBPs were examined immunohistochemically in the rat superior colliculus. Results: On the experimental (contralateral to enucleation) side of superior colliculus, the number of CB-immunoreactive (IR) cells was reduced (77.4% compared to control), but not fibers. The number of PB-IR neurons and fibers was also reduced on the experimental side (88.5% compared to control), In the other hand, the CR-IR cells were dramatically increased (642% compared to control), but CR-IR fibers were markedly decreased on the experimental side. The colocalization between CB-CR and PV-CR was rarely observed in the superior colliculus Conclusion: These results suggest that the changes of retinotectal projection may alter the expressional pattern of CBPs in different manners; relatively stable in CB- and PV-IR neurons and plastic in CR-IR neurons.
As a result of the enlarging pool of unvaccinated children and young adults, there has been an increase in measles in our countries. In these situation, it has been reported that measles associated pneumoinia is easily complicated with fatal respiratory failure, espycially in immunocompromised patients. Herein we report the case of lethal measles pneumonia after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adults proven by autopsy. Recently, one case of measles was encountered in 39-year-old female patients after allogenic bone marrow transplanted case (chronic myelogenous leukemia), who progressed into interstitial pneumonia pattern, despite treatment including antibiotics, immunoglobulin. The patient died of giant cell pneumonia compatible with that of measles which was comfirmed in the section of necropsy lung specimen. (Korean J Infect Dis 33:301∼309, 2001)
Kim, Jae-Sung,Yu, Sun-Kyoung,Lee, Myoung-Hwa,Park, Min-Gyeong,Park, Euteum,Kim, Su-Gwan,Lee, Sook-Young,Kim, Chun Sung,Kim, Heung-Joong,Chun, Hong Sung,Chun, Sang-Woo,Kim, Do Kyung Springer-Verlag 2013 Molecules and cells Vol.35 No.1
Resveratrol (3,4',5,-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in grapes, exerts a variety of actions to reduce superoxides, prevents diabetes mellitus, and inhibits inflammation. Resveratrol acts as a chemo-preventive agent and induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cells. However, the role of resveratrol in odontoblastic cell differentiation is unclear. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on regulating odontoblast differentiation was examined in MDPC-3 mouse odontoblastic cells derived from mouse dental papilla cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated mineralization as compared with the control culture in differentiation of MDPC-3 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expression of ALP mRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-3 cells. Resveratrol significantly accelerated expression of Col ⅠmRNA as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-3 cells. Resveratrol significantly increased expressions of DSPP and DMP-1 mRNAs as compared with the control in differentiation of MDPC-3 cells. Treatment of resveratrol did not significantly affect cell proliferation in MDPC-3 cells. Results suggest resveratrol facilitates odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in differentiation of MDPC-3 cells, and may have potential properties for development and clinical application of dentin regeneration materials.
<P>A tandem one-pot method for the construction of a pyridine moiety with selective control of substitution patterns has been developed through the sequential reactions of nitrile with a Reformatsky reagent and 1,3-enyne involving regio- and chemoselective addition of the Blaise reaction intermediate to 1,3-enyne, followed by isomerization, cyclization, and an aromatization cascade.</P>