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개구리皮膚의 伸張度와 X-線照射가 이에 미치는 影響을 알기 爲하여 腹部 및 背部皮膚에서 各各 矢狀 및 橫斷切片을 作成하여 길이-張力曲線中 彈性의 限界內에서 Hooke의 法則에 따르는 部位에서 Young率을 求 하고 1,000R의 X-線全身照射를 한 後 1,3,5,7 및 10日에서 各各 皮膚切片의 伸張度를 求하여 서로 比較 하였던 바 다음과 같은 結果를 얻었다. 1. 正常개구리의 腹部皮膚의 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 背部皮膚에서 얻은 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 2. X-線 全身照射를 한 群에서 腹部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 3日에서 5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그 後는 漸次 낮아지는 傾向을 나타내었고 照射 10日에서는 4.20×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値에 가까워지는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서는 照射 3日 및 5日에서 Young率이 各各 4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그後는 第10日까지 次次 낮아진듯하나 그 傾向이 矢狀切片에서 처럼 뚜렷하지 않았다. 3. X-線 全身照射로서 背部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 높아지는 傾向을 나타내고 그後는 漸次 낮아져서 第10日에서는 正常値와 비슷하게 되는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서의 Young率도 照射後 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠및 6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値보다 若干 높은듯 하고 그後는 낮아지는 傾向을 보이나 그 程度가 矢狀切片에서 처 럼 뚜렷하지 못하였다. In an attempt to observe the changes of the distensibility of the frog skin by whole body X-irradiation, the sagittal and transverse strips were excised from the abdominal and back skin of the frog (Rana nigromaculata) following whole body X-irradiation with 1,000R. Young Modulus of the strip was calculated from the length-tension curve of each sample, and a comparison was made with the non-irradiated control group. Experiments were performed on 1,3,5,7 and 10 days after the irradiation, and the results thus obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Young Modulus of the sagittal and transverse strips of the abdominal skin of the normal frog was 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ and 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠, respectively. Young Modulus of the back skin of the normal frog was 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the sagittal strip, and 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the transverse strip. 2. Young Modulus of the sagittal strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group was the highest (5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) on the 3rd post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease to the normal value on the 10th post-irradiation day was observed. In the transverse strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group, the highest values of Young Modulus were observed on the 3rd(4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease till 10th day was observed, but the tendency was not as prominent as in the sagittal strip. 3. A tendency of the elevated values of Young Modulus on the 3rd(4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day with the decreasing values to the normal value on the 10th day was observed in the sagittal strip of the back skin of the irradiated frog. In the transverse strip of the irradiated frog, Young Modulus showed a slight increase on the 3rd(6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) day after the irradiation, but a tendency of decrease was observed thereafter.
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The purpose of this study is to check the type and situation of young children′s right infringement by analyzing in young children′s right through the advanced search of the National daily newspaper, professional databases of Korea Press Foundation(korea Integrated News Database, KINDS). To do this, from 1 January 2004 to 30 November 2013, I chosen the scope of analysis of articles related to young children′s right and I collected and analyzed the data using KINDS searching engine. The results from this study are below. First, on the results of analyzing the outward reporting tendency about young children′s right and infringement articles, Since we d developed the Nuri curriculum in 2012, I get to know that the number of articles related to the type of young children′s rights infringement reported to the newspaper, have been increasing after that. The surface types of newspaper are in the order of the others(if the article is used to the title), the opinion-people(column, interviews, talk and debate), and a special edition In size analysis of an article, the overall size of an article is more than 1,000 letters, which is majority. When the article was dealt with a special edition, and the opinion- people was accounted for more than 2,000 letters. Second, when I analyzed the reporting tendency in content, the topic of the article was most common in policy and legislation for young children′s rights, after 2012, the type of articles was increasing about the young children′s rights infringement owing to the improper operation of daycare institutes. 본 연구는 한국언론진흥재단의 전문테이터베이스(korea Integrated News Database, KINDS)의 전국종합 일간지의 상세검색을 통해 영유아 권리 유형을 분석함으로써 영유아 권리침해 유형 및 실태를 확인해보고자 하였다. 이를 위해 2004년 1월 1일부터 2013년 11월 30일까지 영유아권리 관련 기사를 분석 범위로 선정하여 KINDS 검색사이트를 이용하여 자료를 수집하고 분석하였다. 본 연구에서 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 영유아 권리 및 침해 관련 기사의 외형적인 보도 경향을 분석한 결과, 신문에 보도된 영유아 권리침해 유형에 관한 기사의 수는 누리과정 실시 이후인 2012년 이후 신문보도 건수가 증가함을 알 수 있었다. 신문기사의 지면 유형은 기타(기사를 타이틀로 사용한 경우), 오피니언·인물(칼럼, 인터뷰, 좌담 및 토론), 특집 순으로 많았다. 기사의 분량 분석에서는 전체적인 기사 크기는 1,000자 이상이 대부분을 차지하였다. 신문지면의 종류 중 특집이나 오피니언, 인물을 다룬 경우에는 2,000자 이상의 기사를 차지하였다. 둘째, 내용적인 보도경향을 분석한 결과, 기사의 주제는 영유아 권리를 위한 정책이나 법률제정에 관한 내용이 가장 많았으며 2012년 이후 어린이집 기관의 부적절한 운영으로 인한 영유아 권리 침해에 대한 기사 유형의 신문기사가 증가하고 있음을 알 수 있었다.
공감적 이해는 유아가 다른 사람의 생각과 느낌을 감정이입할 뿐만 아니라 타인의 내적인 상태를 자신의 것처럼 조망하고 경험하는 것을 의미한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 유아의 흥미와 발달에 적합한 동화를 매개로 공감적 이해에 기초한 유아 사회성 증진프로그램을 개발하고 그 효과를 검증하고자 하였다. 실험처치는 만5세 유아 40명(실험집단 20명, 비교집단 20명)을 대상으로 8주(총 24차시)에 걸쳐 수행되었으며, 유아의 감성지능과 사회적 기술에 미치는 효과를 검증하였다. 교수학습 방법은 동화를 들려준 후 1단계 ‘인물 탐색하기', 2단계 ‘감정 공감하여 이해하기', 3단계 ‘인물의 정서 표현하기', 4단계 ‘역할 수행하기', 5단계 ‘또래와 상호작용하기', 6단계 ‘또래와 협력하고 실천하기'의 과정이 적용되었다. 수집된 자료는 두 집단의 사전검사 점수를 공변인으로 처리한 공변량분석을 실시하였다, 연구 결과 본 연구의 공감적 이해에 기초한 유아 사회성 증진 프로그램은 유아의 감성지능과 사회적 기술에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. Young children's empathic understanding not only means they empathize with the other's minds and feelings, but also it means that they observe and experience the other's internal status as their own. So, this study was to develop a young children's sociality improvement program based on empathic understanding through fairy tales appropriate for children's interest and development, and to verify the effect. The experiment was executed for 8 weeks (total 24 sessions) and performed by 40 young children, age of 5, divided into two groups: 20 young children in the experimental group and another 20 in the comparison group. This also verified the effects derived from young children's emotional intelligence and social skills. After the group listened to the tale, the experiment was processed in teaching-learning six stages: 1. Browsing the characters, 2. Emotionally empathizing to understand, 3. Expressing the character's emotion, 4. Performing a role, 5. Interacting with peers, and 6. Cooperating and practicing with peers. ANCOVA was computed using the pre-test scores of each group as the covariance. As the result, young children's sociality promotion program based on the empathic understanding of this study had a positive effect on their emotional intelligence and social skills.
The purpose of this study is to examine the different communication messages behind African women's hairstyles, and to compare young and old African women's hairstyles. The contents of this research are: the hairstyle as communication media, the types of African women's hairstyles, and the difference between young and old women's hairstyles. We used a review of literature and an empirical study as the research methods for this study. For the literature review, we used papers on African hairstyles, and we linked hairstyles to corresponding communication. For the empirical study, we took a database of 240 pictures (120 pictures of young women and 120 pictures of old women) from websites related to African hairstyles and we analyzed the pictures to differentiate between young and old African women's hairstyles. The results of this study reveal that African women's hairstyles express messages of power, ceremony, and status and identification communication. Within the 240 pictures, we found out which hairstyles are preferred by young and old women. Young African women prefer long, straight hairstyles and artificial hair (wigs), while old women keep short, natural hairstyles. The result of this research will be useful for understanding African women's hairstyles as well as contribute to the field of hair design.
( Eun Hye Lee ), ( Ah Young Leem ), ( Sang Hoon Lee ), ( Joo Han Song ), ( Song Yee Kim ), ( Kyung Soo Chung ), ( Ji Ye Jung ), ( Moo Suk Park ), ( Young Sam Kim ), ( Joon Chang ), ( Young Ae Kang ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2018 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.126 No.-
Background: The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD) is increasing worldwide. However, there is limited information about the NTM-LD of young age people. Methods: Patients diagnosed with NTM-LD at severance hospital between January 2006 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics and microbiologic features of patients under 40 years were compared with patients over 40 years. Results: Total 906 patients were identified NTM-LD. Of these, 29 patients (3.2%) were under 40 years of age (young age group) and the remaining 877 were over 40 years of age (old age group). Mean age of the two groups were 32 (IQR 24-33) and 64 (IQR 56-72), respectively. Female was predominant in both groups and about half of the patients had a history of tuberculosis (51.7% vs.51.5%, p=0.984). 7 patients (24.1%) of the young age group had malignancy history and among them, 6 patients were hematologic cancer who subsequently received bone marrow transplantation. The proportion of the nodular bronchiectatic form of NTM-LD is significantly higher in old age group (67.5%) compared to young age group (31.0%) (p=<0.001). M.avium complex (MAC) was the most common etiologic organism in both groups, however, it was less common in the young age group (44.8% vs. 65.3%, p=0.023). Identification of M.abscessus complex (MABC) was higher in young age group although statistically insignificant (24.1% vs. 17.0%, p=0.318). Conclusion: This study could help to better understand the characteristics and microbial features of NTM-LD of young age people.
Objectives: Although there have been several reports that described characteristics for young age stroke, information regarding very young age (18–30 years old) has been limited. We aimed to analyze demographic factors, stroke subtype, and 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patient who have relatively very young age in multicenter stroke registry. Methods: We evaluated all 122 (7.1%) consecutive acute ischemic stroke (within 7 days after symptom onset) patients aged 18 to 30 from 17,144 patients who registered in multicenter prospective stroke registry, 1997 to 2012. Etiology was classified by Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Stroke severity was defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and stroke outcome was defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after index stroke. Results: The mean age of all included patients was 25.1±3.7 years and 76 patients (62.2%) were male. The median NIHSS at admission was 4. Considering stroke subtype, 37 patients (30.3%) had stroke of other determined etiology (SOD), 37 (30.3%) had undetermined negative evaluation (UN) and 31 (25.4%) had cardioembolism (CE) were frequently noted. After adjusting age, sex and variables which had P<0.1 in univariable analysis (NIHSS and stroke subtype), CE stroke subtype (odds ratio, 4.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–15.48; P=0.011) were significantly associated with poor functional outcome (mRS≥3). Conclusion: In very young age ischemic stroke patients, SOD and UN stroke subtype were most common and CE stroke subtype was independently associated with poor discharge outcome.
김수현 ( Soo Hyun Kim ), 이아름 ( Ahreum Lee ), 김수지 ( Suji Kim ), 김경조 ( Kyeong Jo Kim ), 권오준 ( Ojun Kwon ), 최준영 ( Joon Young Choi ), 구진숙 ( Jin Suk Koo ), 노성수 ( Seong-soo Roh ) 대한본초학회 2017 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.32 No.4
Objectives : Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is bind formation of glucose and protein. Acceleration of AGE formation during hyperglycemia is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and causes kidney and skin damage. The aim of this study was investigated the AGEs inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of water extracts from young persimmon (YP) and heated young persimmon (HYP). Methods : Paeoniae Radix Alba (YP) is prepared by heating with 30% ethanol. AGEs formation inhibitory activities of YP and HYP measured using bovine serum albumin. To evaluate the protective effects of YP and HYP in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and methyl glyoxal (MGO), SD rats were distributed into four groups; normal mice (Nor), AGEs-induced rats (Con), AGEs-induced rats treated with 100 ㎎/㎏ YP (YP), AGEs-induced rats treated with 100 ㎎/㎏ heated YP (HYP) for 3weeks. Heated young persimmon respectively decrease AGEs construction. Results : YP and HYP administration inhibited the biomarkers of AGEs in serum, kidney and skin tissues. AGE-induced rats revealed that the significant decreased collagen however, heat processing methods of young persimmon up regulated inhibits AGEs-induced collagen decrease. The expressions of AGEs were decreased in YP and HYP treated group compared with the control group in tissues. It specifies that HYP has potential to serve as a positive regulator of via AGEs path way. Conclusion : It has proposed that may have an improvement effect on diabetic complications, heated young persimmon has AGEs inhibitory excellent activities and antioxidant effect.
Purpose: The prognosis of young colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has not fully been addressed. The prognostic significance of systemic inflammatory markers was examined in those patients. Methods: A total of 965 patients with resectable CRC were divided into young (≤ 50 years, n = 101) and old groups (>51 years, n = 864). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 5, derived NLR (dNLR) > 3, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) < 2, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) > 150, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) < 45 were analyzed for prognosis. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared using the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: In the young group, NLR > 5, LMR < 2, and PNI < 45 were significantly associated with OS with univariate analyses. dNLR > 3 and those markers showed significance for PFS. LMR < 2 was a significant marker for poor PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 5.81; P = 0.020) in the multivariate analysis. In the old group, all inflammatory markers were significantly associated with OS and PFS with univariate analyses. LMR < 2 (HR, 2.66; P = 0.016) and PNI < 45 (HR, 2.14; P = 0.016) were independently associated with OS in multivariate analyses. PLR > 150 (HR, 1.45; P = 0.036) and PNI < 45 (HR, 1.73; P = 0.002) were significant markers for PFS. Conclusion: Systemic inflammation might be one of biologic factors that influence on prognosis of young CRC.
본 연구는 조리·외식전공 대학생을 대상으로 청년사업가를 위한 성장요인이 창업역량과 창업의도에 미치는 영향력을 조사하고 전공적합성에 따른 조절효과에 대한 실증분석을 실시하였다. 총 327명의 표본을 대상으로 측정항목의 신뢰성과타당도를분석하고구조방정식을통해2개의가설을 검증하였으며, 최종모형 적합도는 x2=495.217(p<.001), df=231, CMIN/DF 2.144, GFI .902, AGFI .878, NFI .911, CFI .954, RMSEA .067 등으로 조사되었다. 연구결과, 청년사업가의 성장요인과 창업역량과의 영향 관계에서 성장요인 중정책지원(β=.457, p<.001), 기술지식(β=.244, p<.01), 역할모델(β= .242, p<.05) 등이 창업역량에정(+)의 영향력을 미치는 것으로 조사되었으며, 창업역량(β= .787, p<.001)은 창업의도에 정(+)의 영향관계를 주는 것으로 조사되어, 성장요인과 창업역량, 그리고 창업의도간의 유기적인 인과관계를 검증하였다. 또한 창업역량과 창업의도간의 관계에서 전공적합성의 조절효과를 검증한 결과 전공적합도가 높을수록 창업의도를 높이는 요인으로 분석되어 조절효과가 존재하는 것으로 조사되었다. The purpose of this study is to understand interrelationships among young entrepreneurs` growth factors, entrepreneurial capability and entrepreneurial intentions, targeting the students who major in culinary and foodservice. Based on total 327 samples obtained from the empirical research, this study reviewed reliability and fitness of the research model and verified total 2 hypotheses with the Amos program. The proposed model provided an adequate fit for the data, x2=495.217 (p<.001), df=231, CMIN/DF 2.144, GFI .902, AGFI .878, NFI .911, CFI .954, RMSEA .067. The SEM results showed that the young entrepreneurs` growth factors such as policy support(β =.457, p<.001), skills & knowledge(β=.244, p<.01), role model(β= .242, p<.05) in order had significantly positive effects on entrepreneurial capability, and entrepreneurial capability(β= .787, p<.001) had positive(+) effects on entrepreneurial intentions, verifying organic causal relationships among the growth factors, entrepreneurial capability, and entrepreneurial capability. These study results showed that there should be more systematic supports to encourage young entrepreneurs. Limitations and further research directions are also discussed.