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The purpose of this study is to search for the identifing method that could separate buds with embryogenic potential from collected buds for increasing the efficiency of embryogenesis by microspore culture in Brassica species. It was investigated developmental stage of microspore by bud-size and ratio of petal/anther length and compared to amount of embryogenesis through isolated microspore culture from the buds with late-uninucleate stage. In Brasica napus, Lisandra of spring type showed bud-size of 3.2~4.1mm which belongs to late-uninucleate stage as embryogenic microspores and their range of petal/ anther length ratio were 1/2~3/4. Hallayuchae of winter type rapeseed showed bud-size of 3.1~3.6mm which belongs to late-uninucleate stage as embryogenic microspores and their range of petal/anther length ratio were 1/3~1/2. Two genotypes of B juncea had the same petal/anther length ratio as range of 1/2~3/4 with embryogenic microspores but their bud-size were some difference as bud-size of Young-sanpohwanggyeja were 2.9~4.0mm and bud-size of Hwanggyeja were 2.9~4.1mm. Also, two genotypes of B. campestris had the same petal/anther length ratio as range of 2/3~3/4 with embryogenic microspores but bud-sizes were some difference as bud-size of Hyakusai were 2.9~3.4mm and bud-size of Sosongchae were 2.9~3.2mm. In B. oleracea, the petal/anther length ratio with embryogenic microspores according to bud-size were showed range of 1/2~2/3 in all of two genotypes and bud-size of Broccoli were 2.4~3.2mm and bud-size of Cauliflower were 2.9~3.7mm. In the embryo yield per 100,000 microspores by isolated microspore culture from the buds with embryogenic microspores, Young-sanpohwanggyeja of B. juncea were 47 embryos and Hwanggyeja of B. juncea were 23 embryos, B. campestris of Hyakusai were 367 and Sosongchae were 123, B. oleracea of Broccoli were 678 and Cauliflower were 562. However in B. napus was showed much differences by the growth habit, the spring type of Lisandra were producted 7,047 embryos of which higher about 9.2 times than those of winter type Hallayuchae.
Background : Malignant melanoma in Korea has been increasing as in other countries, but there is no nationwide survey of malignant melanoma in Korea. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in Korea. Methods : The Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of109 primary cutaneous melanomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over a recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. The peak age was the 7th decade with the mean age of 58.1 years. Korea has a higher rate of acral melanoma and much lower rate of lentigo maligna melanoma. 2. Major component tumor cell was spindle cell type. 3. Clark level of tumor was Ⅲ or more and Breslow depth was 2 ㎜ or more at the time of the first diagnosis in many cases (62%). 4. Pre-existing melanocytic nevus was present in a few cases (3 cases). 5. All these features suggest that the racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian is evident. We also suggest that an early detection program is very important to cure this malignant tumor. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) 43∼47)
Background : The relative frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of lymphomas vary according to geography and race. Data on the features of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea we limited. Objective : The aim of this study was to document the relative occurrence, the clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous lymphomas in Korea. Methods : The Korean Dermatopathology Research Group conducted a review of nationwide collection of 80 cutaneous lymphomas, diagnosed at 23 institutes over recent 3-year period. Clinical records and pathology slides of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion : 1. Korea has a higher rate of T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma and a much lower rate of cutaneous B cell lymphoma. 2. The relative frequency of the major diagnostic group according to WHO classification was as follows mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome, 42.5%; anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 19%; nasal and nasal type NK/T cell lymphoma, 15%; subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, 11%; peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, 7.5%; follicular lymphoma, 3%; marginal zone Iymphorna, 1%; angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, 1%. 3. Compared with Western countries, the rate of nasal and nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma were much higher. Therefore, The EORTC classification is not effective in dealing with Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. We consider the principles of the WHO classification are applicable to the Korean cases of cutaneous lymphoma. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(1) : 48∼57)
목적: 헬리코박터가 분비하는 요소분해효소는 병인에 중요한 역할을 하며 요소를 분해하여 생긴 암모니아는 강한 위산 환경에서 증식할 수 있는 환경을 제공하고 위상피세포에 강력한 세포독성을 초래한다. 만성 헬리코박터 감염시 국소적인 싸이토카인 생성을 유발해 표피성장인자와 같은 성장인자의 발현을 촉진하여 세포증식을 증가시킨다. 본 연구의 목적은 첫째, 비궤양성 소화불량증 환자에서 헬리코박터 세균 전후의 위액 내 암모니아와 표피성장인자를 측정하고자 하였으며 둘째, 암모니아와 표피성장인자 농도가 위점막 염증 정도를 반영할 수 있는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 대상 및 방법: 34명의 헬리코박터 양성의 비궤양성 소화불량증 환자와 35명의 헬리코박터 양성의 비궤양성 소화불량증 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 상부위장관내시경 및 ?C-요소호기검사를 시행하였다. 위액에서 암모니아, 표피성장인자 농도를 측정하였고, 전정부와 체부 조직에서 위 조직을 채취하여 위염증의 심한 정도를 검사하였다. 헬리코박터 양성인 35명 중 18명에게서 헬리코박터 세균 치료를 하였으며, 세균 전후로 위액 내 암모니아, 표피성장인자 농도 변화를 비교하였다. 결과: 위액 내 암모니아 농도는 헬리코박터 음성군에서 2,339±1,158 ㎛mol/L, 양성군에서 10,787±6,584 ㎛mol/L로 헬리코박터 양성군에서 더 높았다(p<0.0001). 69명의 비궤양성 소화불량증 환자에서 상위 95% 신뢰구간을 만족시키는 위액 내 암모니아 농도의 cut-off 값은 8,152 ㎛mol/L였다. 위액 내 표피성장인자 농도는 헬리코박터 음성군에서 1,088±499 ㎛mol/L 양성군에서 1,462±393 ㎛mol/L로 더 높았으며 (p<0.005), 위액 내 암모니아와 표피성장인자 농도는 양성 상관관계를 보였다.(r-0.63, p<0.0001). 헬리코박터 양성군에서 조직학적 위험 정도가 더 심했다(p<0.0001). 위액 내 암모니아 농도는 조직학적 염증 정도와 유외한 양성 상관관계를 보였으며 (r-0.41, p<0.0001). 위액 내 표피성장인자 농도도 조직학적염증 정도와 양성 상관관계를 보였다.(r-0.20, p<0.005). 결론: 헬리코박터 양성인 비궤양성 소화불량증 환자에서 위액 내 암모니아 농도가 높아짐에 따라 표피성장인자의 농도가 증가하였다. 헬리코박터 세균 후에 위액 내 암모니아 농도와 표피성장인자의 농도는 의미 있게 감소하였다. 이를 미루어 헬리코박터에 의한 위염에서 표피성장인자는 위점막 보호에 중요한 역할을 할 것으로 생각한다. Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the cause of peptic ulcer diseases, and gastric cancer. Hydrolysis of urea generating ammonia may cause cytotoxic effects on the gastric epithelium. The ammonia may induce the synthesis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in gastric epithelium as an adaptive cytoprotective mechanism. The first aim was to examine the concentration of ammonia and EGF in gastric juice before and after H. pylori eradication in functional dyspepsia patients. The second aim was to examine the corrclation among ammonia concentration, EGF concentration, and inflammatory score of gastritis. Methods: The concentration of ammonia and EGF were measured by ELISA. The grade and severity of gastritis were measured according to the updated Sydney system. Results: The concentration of ammonia in gastric juice was much higher in the H. pylori positive subjects (10,787±6,584 μmol/L) than in the negative subjects (2,339±1,158 μmol/L, p<0.0001). The concentrations of EGF in gastric juice was much higher in the positive subjects (1,462±393 pg/mL) than in the negative subjects (1,088±499 pg/mL, p<0.005). The concentration of ammonia and EGF in gastric juice showed significant correlation (r=0.63, p<0.0001). The concentrations of ammonia and histologic severities showed significant correlation (r=0.41, p<0.0001). Moreover, the level of EGF in gastric juice and histologic severities showed positive correlation (r=0.20, p<0.005). Conclusions: As the concentration of ammonia in gastric juices increased, the concentration of EGF was also increased in functional dyspepsia with H. pylori infection. The concentration of EGF in gastric juice may play a role in the adaptive cytoprotection in H. pylori-induced gastritis. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2004;43:283-290)
목적: 소아에서의 흉통은 흔히 접하게 되며 일반적으로 좋은 경과를 보인다. 가장 흔한 원인으로 특발성, 골격계이상, 위장관계 질환 등이 다양하게 언급되고 있으며 감별진단이 쉽지 않아 여러 검사를 시행하게 된다. 자세한 병력청취와 진찰이 진단에 가장 중요하다고 하지만 통계적 의의를 보고한 바는 드물다. 이에 흉통 원인을 분류하고 각각의 임상양상을 파악하여, 병력 청취와 진찰소견의 감별진단에 대한 유용성과 시행 검사들의 의의를 알아보고자 하였다. 방법: 2004년 3월 부터 2007년 8월 까지 조선대학교 병원 소아청소년과에 흉통을 주소로 방문한 환아 77명을 대상으로 하였다. 연령, 성별, 흉통의 위치, 지속시간, 양상, 빈도, 방문까지 걸린 시간, 동반증상, 유발인자의 각 항목과 원인 질환과의 관련성을 분석하였다. 흉부방사선, 심전도, 심초음파, 24시간 Holter, 운동부하 심전도, 상부 위장관 조영술, 24시간 pH 검사, 위내시경, 심근효소를 검사 하였다. 결과: 평균 나이는 10.2±2.8세로 6세에서 11세까지가 48명(62.3%)으로 가장 많은 분포를 보였고 남아 42명(54.5%), 여아 35명(45.5%)이었다. 흉통의 위치는 좌측이 32명(41.6%), 양상은 콕콕 찌르는 것이 27명(35.1%)으로 가장 많았고 지속시간은 1분미만이 36명(46.8%), 1-5분 사이가 28명(36.4%)으로 대부분 5분 미만이었다. 흉통 원인은 특발성이 27례(35.1%)로 가장 많았고, 위장관 질환 23례(29.9%), 늑골 연골염 12례(15.6%), 심혈관 질환 7례(9.1%), 정신신체화 질환 6례(7.8%), 폐질환 2례(2.6%)였다. 여아에서 연령이 높을수록 정신신체화 질환의 빈도가 높았다(P= 0.046). 흉골 하부 통증을 호소한 17명 중 13명(76.5%)이 위장관 질환으로 통계적으로 유의하였다(P= 0.023). 정신 신체화 질환은 6명에서, 위장관 질환도 20명(86.9%)에서 흉통지속시간이 5분 미만이었으나 통계적 의의는 없었다. 흉통 양상 중 타는 듯한 양상을 호소한 7명중 6명에서 위장관 질환이 원인이었으나 통계적 의의는 없었다. 선택 시행 검사 중 심초음파는 32명중 3례(9.4%), 24시간 Holter 검사는 13명중 5례(35.7%), 24시간 pH 검사는 28명 중 16례(57.1%)에서 이상소견을 보였다. 결론: 소아 흉통 환자 중 연령이 높은 여아에서는 정신 신체화 장애를, 흉골 하부 통증을 호소한 경우는 위장관 질환을 먼저 생각하는 것이 좋다고 판단된다. 흉통원인으로 위장관 질환의 빈도가 높고 시행검사들의 진단율을 볼때, 소아 흉통 환아 에서는 상부 위장관 조영술 등 위장관 질환의 검사를 기본적으로 시행하는 것이 좋을 것으로 생각된다. Purpose: Chest pain in children is usually benign. Chest pain in children results from a wide variety of causes. Differential diagnosis of causes is not easy and then many diagnostic approach is trying. Careful history and physical exams must guide the assessment of children with chest pain. The purpose of this study intends to evaluate children with chest pain and usefulness of careful history, physical examination and several diagnostic examinations. Methods: From March 2004 to August 2007, 77 patients presented with chest pain were enrolled. we evaluated age, sex, characteristics of chest pain (location, duration, description, frequency), accompanying symptoms, increasing reasons and relationship with cause of chest pain. Chest x-ray and ECG were checked in all patients. Cardiologic and gastrointestinal evaluations were checked when considered necessary. Results: The male and female ratio was 0.55:0.45, mean age 10.2 ± 2.8 year. Common ages of chest pain were 10 to 12 years old (38case, 49.3%). The location was on the left precordium in 32cases (41.6%) of the patients. The most common diagnostic findings of chest pain were idiopathic(27cases, 35.1%), gastrointestinal disorder (23cases, 29.9%), costo chondritis (12cases, 15.6%), cardiovascular disorder (7cases, 9.1%), psychosomatic disorder(6cases, 7.8%) and pulmonary disorder (2cases, 2.6%). Older children in female were more likely to have a psychosomatic cause (P= 0.046). The patients complained chest pain on substernal area were 17cases and 13cases (76.5%) were diagnosed as gastrointestinal disorder (P= 0.023). Positive findings of echocardio graphy, 24hr Holter ECG and 24hr pH monitoring were present in 3 (9.4%), 5 (35.7%) and 16 (57.1%) of the patients respectively. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal disorders are common causes and positive diagnostic rate of gastrointestinal evaluation is relatively high in children with chest pain. Old girls are more likely to have a psychosomatic disorder and substernal pain is the reliable sign to be considered as a gastrointestinal disease in children with chest pain. Hence, Diagnostic approach of gastrointestinal disease such as upper GI should be performed basically in mostly children with chest pain.
Generally, a knock sensor for a high power engine detects cylinder wall vibration and estimates pressure vibration in the combustion chamber. In this study, so combustion pressure detected by pressure tranducer and cylinder wall vibration detected by an accelation sensor are estimated and the difference of those two signals are anlayzed. These two signals are analysed by frequency analysis method and compared with theorical knocking mode in the combustion chamber of the spark ignition engine. Design parameters of the knock sensor are determined by these analysed data.
목적: hNIS는 갑상선 조직 외에 다른 조직들에서도 발현된다고 알려져 있다. 유방암 세포는 그런 조직들 중에 하나이며, 그에 의한 유방암의 방사성옥소치료의 가능성이 제시되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 유방암 조직에서 hNIS의 발현정도를 알아보고, ^99mTc-MIBI 유방스캔과 hNIS의 발현 정도와의 관계를 조사하여 보았다. 대상 및 방법: 본 연구에서는 유방암으로 수술을 시행했던 56명의 환자를 대상으로 하였다. hNIS의 발현은 면역조직화학염색에 의해서 평가되었으며, 그 결과를 ^99mTc-MIBI 유방스캔의 판정 결과와 비교하였다. 결과: 전체 56명의 환자에서 hNIS의 발현율은 41.1%였다. 병리학적 진단에 의해 침윤성관상피암종이었던 49명에서의 발현율은 42.9%, 관상피내암종이었던 7명에서의 발현율은 28.6%였다. ^99mTc-MIBI 유방스캔에서 국소섭취 소견이 관찰되었던 41명에서의 hNIS의 발현율은 31.7%였다. 비정상적인 섭취 소견이 관찰되지 않았던 15명의 환자에서의 hNIS의 발현율이 의미있게 높게 관찰되었다(66.7%, p>0.05). 결론: 유방암 환자에서의 hNIS의 발현율은 그다지 높지 않았다. ^99mTc-MIBI 유방스캔에서 섭취증가 소견이 없을 때 hNIS의 발현율이 더 높았다. Purpose: Human Na^+/I- symporter (hNIS) is known to be expressed in many tissues other than thyroid gland. The breast cancer cells are one of them and the possibility of radioiodine therapy in treatment of the breast cancer may be suggested. We investigated the expression rate of hNIS and the relationship between the expression of hNIS and the finding of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in the breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Surgically proved 56 patients with breast cancer were the subjects of this study. The expression of hNIS were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and the results were compared to the findings of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography. Results: Overall expression rate of hNIS was 41.1% in 56 patients. According to the pathologic diagnosis, it was 42.9% in 49 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and 28.6% in the 7 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. The expression rate of hNIS in the 41 cases with a focal increased uptake at he breast lesion on 99mTc-MIBI scintimammogram was 31.7%. That in the 15 cases without any abnormal uptake on the scan was significantly higher(66.7%, p<0.05). Conclusion: The expression rate of hNIS in the patients with breast cancer was not so high. The rate was higher in the patients with no increased uptake at the breast lesion on 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography. (Korean J Nucl Med 2002;36;325-32)
The meaning of this research work lies in providing useful basic resources which can be utilized in the strategic respect of internal marketing by investigating how sports center customer in relation to relationship marketing implement factors on relationship quality and purchasing behavior, and by identifying how their service orientation affect business performance taking service quality as parameter. Customer of sports centers in Chungnam region were selected as the subjects of this survey and 248 participants were sampled by Convenience Sampling Method. Resulting data were processed by Frequency Analysis, Exploratory Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Regression Analysis using SPSS 11.0 program. The results from these research methods and analyses revealed the followings: First, results from regression analysis of performance factors of relationship marketing and relations quality revealed that customer-relations orientation, responsiveness and incentive had significant influences on reliability, and that customer-relations orientation and responsiveness, on involvement. Second, results from regression analysis of performance factors of relationship marketing and purchase behavior exhibited that incentive had a significant influence on repurchase intention, and that responsiveness and incentive, on positive word of mouth. Third, results from regression analysis of relationship quality and purchase behavior revealed that there were significant influences of all variables including reliability and involvement on repurchase intention and positive word of mouth.
A study has been performed on the characteristics of rural and urban surface ozone concentration for the period of March 1992 to February 1993. The monitoring station of rural ozone is located at Kosan, Cheju and other urban monitoring stations are located at Seoul, Pusan and Kwangju. Rural's and urban's ozone data exhibit a distinct features in many ways. First, annual mean of rural ozone concentration is very high(42 ppbv) but urban's are very low(10~15 ppbv). Second, rural ozone data shows a seasonal variation with it's maximum in spring, and minimum in summer, but urban's show a seasonal variation with it's maximum in spring, and minimum in winter. Third, diurnal variation of rural data is very small but that of urban's are very large. Fourth, monthly mean of daily minimum of rural data is not low and shows a large seasonal variation, but those of urban's data are extremely low(<3 ppbv) and have no seasonal variations.
A systematic construction and re-use of technology related to the product development and production has been the most important for the semiconductor industry dependent on process and equipment Therefore, numerous outputs in the form of paper has been produced in the process of information management ranging from the creation to recycling and disposal of technologies. In this research, the technology and documents necessary for the business management in the field of semiconductor manufacturing were classified in an effort to solve problems while the modeling of document management architecture at the enterprise level was performed by properly setting up the security system to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of the product development technology to the third parties. Especially, the product and process specification are designed in such a way as to ensure a real-time response in interface with the production system in order to shorten the development lead-time and improve the productivity. This paper is to discuss the modeling approach, the strategy to construct the system and its results.