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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Ultrasonic Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Seawater and Brackish Water

        So Young Park,Jong Sung Park,Ha Yoon Lee,Ji Yong Heo,Yeo Min Yoon,Kyung Ho Choi,Nam Guk Her 대한환경공학회 2011 Environmental Engineering Research Vol.16 No.3

        In this study, a series of experiments was conducted on the relative degradation of commonly known endocrine-disrupting compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (Ee₂) in a single-component aqueous solution using 28 and 580 kHz ultrasonic reactors. The experiments were conducted with three different types of model water: deionized water (DI), synthetic brackish water (SBW), and synthetic seawater (SSW) at pH 4, 7.5, and 11 in the presence of inert glass beads and humic acids. Significantly higher sonochemical degradation (93-97% for BPA) occurred at 580 kHz than at 28 kHz (43-61% for BPA), regardless of water type. A slightly higher degradation was observed for Ee₂ compared to that of BPA. The degradation rate of BPA and Ee₂ in DI water, SBW, and SSW after 30 min of ultrasound irradiation at 580 kHz increased slightly with the increase in pH from 4 (0.073-0.091 min-1 for BPA and 0.081-0.094 min-1 for Ee₂) to 7.5 (0.087-0.114 min-1 for BPA and 0.092?0.124 min-1 for Ee₂). In contrast, significant degradation was observed at pH 11 (0.149-0.221 min-1 for BPA and 0.147-0.228 min-1 for Ee₂). For the given frequencies of 28 and 580 kHz, the degradation rate increased in the presence of glass beads (0.1 mm and 25 g) for both BPA and Ee₂: 0.018-0.107 min-1 without beads and 0.052-0.142 min-1 with beads for BPA; 0.021-0.111 min-1 without beads and 0.054-0.136 min-1 with beads for Ee₂. A slight increase in degradation of both BPA and Ee₂ was found as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, humic acids) increased in both SBW and SSW: 0.107-0.115 min-1 in SBW and 0.087-0.101 min-1 in SSW for BPA; 0.111-0.111 min-1 in SWB and 0.092-0.105 min-1 in SSW for Ee₂. After 30 min of sonicating the humic acid solution, DOC removal varied depending on the water type: 27% (3 mg L-1) and 7% (10 mg L-1) in SBW and 7% (3 mg L-1) and 4% (10 mg L-1) in SSW.

      • KCI등재

        Corrosion Behavior of Hastelloy C-276 for Carbon-anode-based Oxide Reduction Applications

        Jeon, Min Ku,Kim, Sung-Wook,Choi, Eun-Young Korean Radioactive Waste Society 2020 방사성폐기물학회지 Vol.18 No.3

        The corrosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was investigated to identify its applicability for carbon-anode-based oxide reduction (OR), in which Cl<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub> are simultaneously evolved at the anode. Under a 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Ar flow, the corrosion rate was less than 1 g·m<sup>-2</sup>·h<sup>-1</sup> up to 500℃, whereas the rate increased exponentially from 500 to 700℃. The effects of the Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> composition on the corrosion rate at flow rates of 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub>, 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub>, and 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> with a constant 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Ar flow rate at 600℃ was analyzed. Based on the data from an 8 h reaction, the fastest corrosion rate was observed for the 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> case, followed by 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> and 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub>. The effects of the chlorine flow rate on the corrosion rate were negligible within the 5-30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> range. A surface morphology analysis revealed the formation of vertical scratches in specimens that reacted under the Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> mixed gas condition.

      • 전송율 향상을 위한 다단계 상호연결망

        신용태,이철희,조민수 崇實大學校 生産技術硏究所 1996 論文集 Vol.26 No.1

        This paper proposed two Multi-statge Interconnection Network(MIN) that had multiple outlet to improve throughput. These proposed MINS were made of Clos MIN, well known Non-blocking MIN. These proposed MINs were called ECFS(Expanded Clos Switch Fabric) adn TCSF(Tandem Clos Switch Fabric). ECFS was consist of expanded number of switchs for multiple oulet. TCSF was consist of serial Clos MIN for multiple outlet. Performance evaluation of these proposed MINs was calculated arrival probability of packet through the MIN. In teh result, these proposed MINs with multiple outlet had higher throughput than existed MIN with single outlet. We know the fact that as the outlet of MIN increase, throughput of MIN increase.

      • KCI등재

        Corrosion Behavior of Inconel X-750 for Carbon Anode Oxide Reduction Application

        Jeon, Min Ku,Kim, Sung-Wook,Lee, Sang-Kwon,Choi, Eun-Young Korean Radioactive Waste Society 2020 방사성폐기물학회지 Vol.18 No.3

        The corrosion behavior of the Inconel X-750 alloy was investigated for its potential application under a Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> mixed gas flow in an Ar atmosphere. The corrosion rate was found to be negligible at temperatures up to 400℃ under a flow rate of 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Ar, whereas an exponential increase was observed in the corrosion rate at temperatures greater than 500℃. The suppression of the corrosion reaction due to the presence of O<sub>2</sub> was verified experimentally at flow rates of 30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> (4.96 g·m<sup>-2</sup>·h<sup>-1</sup>), 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> (2.02 g·m<sup>-2</sup> ·h<sup>-1</sup>), and 10 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> + 20 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> O<sub>2</sub> (1.34 g·m<sup>-2</sup>·h<sup>-1</sup>) under a constant Ar flow rate of 170 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> at 600℃ for 8 h. The surface morphology analysis results revealed that porous surfaces with tunnel-type holes were produced under the Cl<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>2</sub> mixed-gas condition. Furthermore, the effects of the Cl<sub>2</sub> flow rate on the corrosion rate were investigated, indicating that its impact was negligible within the range of 5-30 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> Cl<sub>2</sub> at 600℃.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        신장기능영상용 방사성의약품 Bz - MAG3 (Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine) 의 키트화 및 체내분포

        장영수,김영주,이명철,고창순,이동수,정준기,정재민,조정혁 대한핵의학회 1996 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.30 No.3

        The MAG₃ is a tubular excreting radiopharmaceutical for renal image.We synthe-sized benzoyl MAG₃ (Bz-MAG₃) and made a kit for labeling with Tc-99m. We checked the labeling effeciency of Tc-99m labeled MAG₃ and biodistribution. Labeling efficiency was checked by TLC- SG (acetonitrile/H₂O=2/1). After injecting of 1 mCi of Tc-99M-MAG3 to ICR-mice, Tmax(min), T1/2(min) were obtained in the renogram. Sequencial images (30sec, 2min, 5min, 10min, 15min, 20min) of TC-99m-MAG₃ were compared with those of commercial Tc-99m-DTPA (Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Co.) kit. 1) The Rf value of synthesized Tc-99m-MAG₃ was 0.78 and labeling efficiency was 97.5±1.9% (n=10). 2) The dynamic images of the Tc-99m-MAG₃ were better than those of the Tc-99m-DTPA. 3) The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-MAG₃ (n=10) were 1.5±0.5 (left), 1.4±0.4(right), and 4.3±1.4 (left), 4.8±2.0 (right), respectivel. The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-DTPA (n=7) were 2.7±1.6 (left), 2.7±1.6 right), and 3.8±1.7 (left), 4.5±2.7 (right), rly. The quaility of image and labeling efficiency of the synthesized Bz-MAG3 kit were excellent, that it was supposed to be used in routine clinical work.

      • KCI등재

        “영자의 전성시대”, 1970년대와 ‘청년문화’의 복화술

        이민영 ( Lee Min-young ) 우리어문학회 2019 우리어문연구 Vol.63 No.-

        1970년대에는 대중문화가 발전하면서 다수의 흥행작들이 만들어진다. 문학과 영화계에서는 젊은이들의 삶을 다룬 작품들이 주목받고, 이들은 청년문화라는 이름을 얻게 된다. 통기타, 청바지, 생맥주로 대변되는 청년문화에는 명백한 물질적 상징이 존재하였지만, 이들을 하나로 묶어내는 통일된 사상이나 이념의 체계를 발견하기는 어려웠다. 당대의 사회는 이와 같은 청년문화의 모호성을 인식하고 이들의 문화를 정의하기 위한 다양한 논쟁을 벌인다. 논쟁의 과정에서 실제 청년문화의 산물들은 종종 비판의 대상이 되는데, 그것은 실질적인 청년 문학의 텍스트들이 저급하고 불온한 것으로 간주되었기 때문이다. 지식인 계층을 중심으로 청년문학의 퇴폐적이고 순응적인 태도가 비판되었다면, 유신정권은 청년문화를 불건전하고 불온한 것으로 간주하고 이들을 향한 검속을 강화한다. 본고에서는 이와 같은 청년문화에 대한 비판적인 시선들이 각각의 담론 구조속에서 상상된 청년의 정체성을 바탕으로 하고 있음을 전제로, 당대 문화에 나타난 실질적인 청년문화의 텍스트를 살펴보고자했다. 본고에서 주목한 것은 소설 「영자의 전성시대」와 영화 <영자의 전성시대>이다. 이 두 작품은 상상된 청년이 부재하는 서사에 호스티스를 주요인물로 등장시키고 있다는 점에서 청년 없는 청년문화의 실체에 근접한 작품이라 할 수 있다. 또한 두 작품은 매체적 특성을 적확하게 적용하여 전혀 다른 서사를 보여주고 있다. 이는 1970년대에 이르러 각각의 매체적 특성을 활용하게 된 대중문화의 발전양상을 드러내는 동시에, 하나의 이름으로 동일화 될 수 없는 다양한 청년문화의 정체성을 체현하는 것이라 할 수 있다. 본고에서는 소설이 일인칭 ‘나’의 서사에, 영화는 ‘영자’의 이야기에 중점을 두고 있다는 점을 바탕으로 각각의 작품들이 드러내는 모순적인 현실인식을 분석하였다. 소설의 서사는 남성 노동자의 위악적 목소리를 통해 이들의 삶이 지식인들에 의해 계몽될 수 없는 것임을 드러낸다. 그리고 영화의 서사는 영자의 수난사를 명랑의 정조로 재현함으로써, 비극적 현실과 명랑한 목소리의 간극을 극대화 한다. 이를 통해 검열자의 권력에 순응하는 한편, 이들의 시선 너머에서 청년들의 삶을 가시화하고자 노력한다. 영화와 소설은 서로 다른 방식으로 상상된 청년의 실체를 거부하고 스스로의 정체성을 끊임없이 유예하고 있는 것이다. 이를 통해 당대의 청년문화가 주체와 객체 사이의 모순을 드러내면서 표면적으로 드러나는 서사이면에서 복화술적인 서사의 구조를 만들어 내고 있음을 알 수 있다. In the 1970s, popular culture developed and produced a number of popular films and novels. Contemporary Literature and films are attracting the attention of young people and they got the name of “cheongnyeon munhwa”(Youth Culture) There was clear material symbols in the youth culture, which was represented by acoustic guitar, jeans, and draft beer. However it was difficult to find a unified system of ideas or ideology that tied them together. The contemporary society recognizes the ambiguity of Youth Culture and engages in various controversies to define their cultural identity. In the process of disputation, real youth literature is often criticized. It is because the actual texts of youth literature were regarded as low and unwholesomeness. While the decadent and adaptive attitudes of Youth literature centered on intellectuals were criticized, The Yushin regime regards the youth culture as unhealthy and strengthens the censorship for them. In this paper, it is presupposed that the critical gaze on youth culture is based on the imagined identity of youth in each discourse structure. What I have focused in this article is the novel “The Heydays of Young-ja” (Young-jaui Jeonseongsidae) and the movie “The Heydays of Young-ja” (Young-jaui Jeonseongsidae). These two works are close to the realities of ‘the youth culture without youth people” in that the Hostess appears as the main character in the narrative instead of imagined young man. In addition, the two works show an entirely different narrative structure by applying the media’s specificity precisely. This reveals the development of popular culture since the 1970s when the media characteristics are used precisely, at the same time, it can be said that it embodies the identity of various youth culture that cannot be identified by one name. In this paper, based on the fact that the novel focuses on the narration of the ‘I’ and the movie focuses on the story of ‘Young-ja’, I analyzed the contradictory perception of each work. The narrative of the novel reveals that the voice and the view of the male worker, who were regarded as objects of enlightenment, cannot be coincided with intellectuals. And the narrative of the film represented the passion of the women with the delightful mood, adapting to the censorship process of the authorities, and maximizing the gap between the tragic reality and the cheerful voices. This has led to the discovery of new ways of talking about things that are forbidden.

      • KCI등재

        Accuracy of cardiac output measurements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: according to the vessel anastomosis sites

        Sung Yong Park,Dae Hee Kim,Han Bum Joe,Ji Young Yoo,Jin Soo Kim,Min Kang,Yong Woo Hong 대한마취통증의학회 2012 Korean Journal of Anesthesiology Vol.62 No.5

        Background: During beating heart surgery, the accuracy of cardiac output (CO) measurement techniques may be influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical agreement among stat CO mode (SCO), continuous CO mode (CCO), arterial pressure waveform-based CO estimation (APCO), and transesophageal Doppler ultrasound technique (UCCO) according to the vessel anastomosis sites. Methods: This study was prospectively performed in 25 patients who would be undergoing elective OPCAB. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at the following time points: during left anterior descending (LAD) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min; during obtuse marginal (OM) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min: and during right coronary artery (RCA) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min. The variables measured including the SCO, CCO, APCO, and UCCO. Results: CO measurement techniques showed different correlations according to vessel anastomosis site. However, the percent error observed was higher than the value of 30% postulated by the criteria of Critchley and Critchley during all study periods for all CO measurement techniques. Conclusions: In the beating heart procedure, SCO, CCO and APCO showed different correlations according to the vessel anastomosis sites and did not agree with UCCO. CO values from the various measurement techniques should be interpreted with caution during OPCAB. Background: During beating heart surgery, the accuracy of cardiac output (CO) measurement techniques may be influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical agreement among stat CO mode (SCO), continuous CO mode (CCO), arterial pressure waveform-based CO estimation (APCO), and transesophageal Doppler ultrasound technique (UCCO) according to the vessel anastomosis sites. Methods: This study was prospectively performed in 25 patients who would be undergoing elective OPCAB. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at the following time points: during left anterior descending (LAD) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min; during obtuse marginal (OM) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min: and during right coronary artery (RCA) anastomosis at 1 min and 5 min. The variables measured including the SCO, CCO, APCO, and UCCO. Results: CO measurement techniques showed different correlations according to vessel anastomosis site. However, the percent error observed was higher than the value of 30% postulated by the criteria of Critchley and Critchley during all study periods for all CO measurement techniques. Conclusions: In the beating heart procedure, SCO, CCO and APCO showed different correlations according to the vessel anastomosis sites and did not agree with UCCO. CO values from the various measurement techniques should be interpreted with caution during OPCAB.

      • KCI등재

        Effect of Jaeumkanghwatang (JEKHT), a Polyherbal Formula on the Pharmacokinetics Profiles of Tamoxifen in Male SD Rats (1)

        Min A Kwak,Soo Jin Park,Sung Hwan Park,Young Joon Lee,Sae Kwang Ku 대한한의학회 2016 대한한의학회지 Vol.37 No.2

        Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of Jaeumkanghwatang (JEKHT) on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen in combination therapy as a process of the comprehensive and integrative medicine against breast cancer. Methods: After 50 mg/kg of tamoxifen treatment, JEKHT 100 mg/kg was orally administered within 5 min. The plasma were collected at 30 min before administration, 30min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hrs after end of JEKHT treatment, and plasma concentrations of tamoxifen were analyzed using LC-MS/MS methods. PK parameters of tamoxifen (Tmax, Cmax, AUC, t1/2 and MRTinf) were analysis as compared with tamoxifen single administered rats. Results: JEKHT did not influenced on the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen after single oral co-administration, within 5min except for some negligible effects on plasma concentration. The Tmax, Cmax, AUC, t1/2 and MRTinf of tamoxifen in co-administered rats were quite similar to those of tamoxifen single treated rats. Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, JEKHT did not influenced on the oral bioavailability of tamoxifen, when they were single co-administered within 5min. However, more detail pharmacokinetic studies should be tested to conclude the possibilities that can be used as comprehensive and integrative therapy with JEKHT and tamoxifen for breast cancers, when they were co-administered, like the effects on the pretreatment of JEKHT and after repeat co-administrations.

      • 18–30세 사이에 발생하는 뇌경색의 특징, 다기관 레지스트리 연구

        장윤경,송태진,김용재,허지회,이경열,김영은,장민욱,조수진,강석윤 이화여자대학교 의과학연구소 2017 EMJ (Ewha medical journal) Vol.40 No.3

        Objectives: Although there have been several reports that described characteristics for young age stroke, information regarding very young age (18–30 years old) has been limited. We aimed to analyze demographic factors, stroke subtype, and 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patient who have relatively very young age in multicenter stroke registry. Methods: We evaluated all 122 (7.1%) consecutive acute ischemic stroke (within 7 days after symptom onset) patients aged 18 to 30 from 17,144 patients who registered in multicenter prospective stroke registry, 1997 to 2012. Etiology was classified by Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Stroke severity was defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and stroke outcome was defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after index stroke. Results: The mean age of all included patients was 25.1±3.7 years and 76 patients (62.2%) were male. The median NIHSS at admission was 4. Considering stroke subtype, 37 patients (30.3%) had stroke of other determined etiology (SOD), 37 (30.3%) had undetermined negative evaluation (UN) and 31 (25.4%) had cardioembolism (CE) were frequently noted. After adjusting age, sex and variables which had P<0.1 in univariable analysis (NIHSS and stroke subtype), CE stroke subtype (odds ratio, 4.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–15.48; P=0.011) were significantly associated with poor functional outcome (mRS≥3). Conclusion: In very young age ischemic stroke patients, SOD and UN stroke subtype were most common and CE stroke subtype was independently associated with poor discharge outcome.

      • Comparisons of obstetrical outcomes among vaginal, intramuscular progesterone treatment and conservative management for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancies with a short cervix

        ( Young Li Kim ),( Young Jae Lee ),( Hee Young Cho ),( Eun Ah Kim ),( Min Jung Baek ),( Young Ran Kim ),( Sukho Kang ),( Ji Yeon Lee ) 대한산부인과학회 2016 대한산부인과학회 학술대회 Vol.102 No.-

        목적: To determine the differences in pregnancy outcomes among cases treated by vaginal progesterone, intramuscular(IM) progesterone and conservative management in twin pregnancies with a short cervix. 방법: This is a retrospective study of 273 twin pregnancies complicated by a short cervix(<2.5cm) who delivered from 2007 to 2016 in CHA Bundang Medical Center. Women who received cervical cerclage were excluded. Treatment groups included 1) group I; conservative management group without progesterone treatment(n=174), 2) group II; vaginal progesterone suppository group(n=30), 3) group III; IM progesterone injection group(n=69). Primary outcomes were spontaneous birth at <28, 32, 34, or 36 weeks of gestational age(GA). The secondary outcomes included hospitalized for tocolytics or antenatal corticosteroids, small for gestational age and low APGAR score(<7) at 5 min. 결과: Preterm birth before 36 weeks of GA was different among 3 groups(29.3%[51/174] vs.20.0%[6/30] vs.43.5%[30/69], p=0.034). Low APGAR score(<7) at 5min was significantly different among 3 groups(7.8%[27/348] vs.5.0%[3/60] vs.15.2%[21/138], p=0.018). After multivariate analysis, preterm birth(<36 weeks) occurred more frequently in group III than group I(aOR 6.90 95%CI:1.06-45.04, p=0.044). However, there was no significant difference between group II and III. Meanwhile, there were more cases with low APGAR score(<7) at 5 min in group III than group I(aOR 6.58 95%CI:1.43-30.21, p=0.015) and group II(aOR 17.04 95%CI:1.56-185.74, p=0.020) after multivariate analysis. 결론: In twin pregnancies complicated by short cervical length, IM progesterone group showed significantly greater occurrence of preterm birth before 36 weeks of GA in comparison with vaginal progesterone group and conservative management group.

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