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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the features of the finishing material according to their type and color. The purpose of this in order is to improve the pleasantness of the interior, by using the proper finishing materials, in planning the interior, and to apply it to framing the prediction model for practical use in interior design, This stud was conducted by evaluating experiment manufactured with the CG(Computer Graphics). The process of the study is as follows, 1) The finishing materials used in the interior based on the previous study was classified. The color range of the selected finishing materials was examined. 2) The evaluation experiment using the CG was conducted on the basis of the selected finishing materials. 3) With that result, the evaluation properties was analyzed according to evaluating variables(that is, the finishing material, hue, value, and chroma) for the interior image. 4) Finally, the prediction model of the interior finishing materials was framed with the image type. Through the Factor Analysis of 19 Adjectives, 8 representative image types such as 「Open·Bright」, 「Gorgeous·Strong」, 「Quiet·Natural」, 「Smooth·Elaborate」, 「Coarse·Rough」, 「Elegant·Refined, 「Warm」」 and 「Cool」 were extracted. The prediction model was framed for the 8 representative image types. The 「Open·Bright」, 「Quiet·Natural」, 「Cool」images are as follows, 1) When you want to produce the 「Open·Bright」image, it is ideal to use wallpaper as finishing material and Y or B in hues. The higher the value and middle chroma you use. The bigger 「Open·Bright」 the efficiency you achieve. 2) When you want to produce the 「Quiet·Natural」 image, it is good to use woods for finishing materials, You can get a better image with the YR or R in hues, with higher value and lower chroma. 3) When you want to produce the 「Cool」image, it is better to use stones for finishing materials. Cool colors and the hue of B, PB, BG are recommended. The lower value and chroma are effective as well.
Evergestis extimalis (Scopoli) is a pest insect present in spring rape fields of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau. A survey of its distribution and analysis of its physiological and biochemical variances of its overwintering larvae were conducted in this study. Prior to 2006, Evergestis extimalis Scopli appeared only sporadically at the east agricultural district of Qinghai Province at 2,100 m elevation; after 2006, there have been frequent outbreaks at 2,200 m or so height. The insect's distribution has extended continuously toward higher altitudes yearly, and the scope of its damage reached 2,800 m height in 2010. These changes indicate that the cold hardiness of E. extimalis is on the rise. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for the insect's overwintering larvae from November 2011 to March 2012. The supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) ranged from −6.85°C to −12.49°C and from −6.23°C to −8.17°C, respectively, and both were at their respective lowest points in January 2012; the lowest points of water and fat contents (which did not vary to any extreme degree throughout the test period) were also observed in January 2012. Glycogen content varied from 2.42 mg/g to 4.56 mg/g. Protein content increased gradually at the first two months and reached its peak in January 2012 before dropping slightly. The activity of protective enzymes POD, CAT, and SOD varied with changes in environmental temperature, and each was at its lowest point in January 2012. With the exception of protein and glycerol content, other physiological and biochemical variances were generally parallel with environmental temperature, strongly indicating that E. extimalis has indeed developed cold hardiness.
Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen widely exposed to human beings, and there are more studies on its reproductive toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurobehavioral disorders. Recent few studies have found that BPA has immunotoxicity, and its mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the effects of BPA on immune system have attracted extensive attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of perinatal exposure to BPA on regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells in female offspring mice. Methods Twenty-one pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, low-dose BPA (0.2 μg/mL) and high-dose BPA (2.0 μg/mL) exposure group. All received BPA exposure via drinking water from gestational day 6 to the end of lactation. Female offspring were fed a normal diet and drinking water for 1 month. The percentages of Treg and Th17 cells, the levels of Foxp3 and RORγt protein and IL-17 and TGF-β from spleen tissue or blood were measured in female offspring. Results The percentage of Treg cells and levels of Foxp3 protein decreased, while the percentage of Th17 cells and levels of RORγt protein increased, which showed a dose–effect relationship. The levels of serum TGF-β were significantly lower and the levels of serum IL-17 were statistically higher in BPA-exposed female offspring compared with controls (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). But there were no statistical difference in the levels of serum TGF-β and IL-17 between 0.2 μg/mL and 2.0 μg/ mL BPA groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion BPA exposure during pregnancy and lactation could cause abnormal differentiation and function of Treg and Th17 cells in female offspring mice, which was associated with down-regulated Foxp3 and up-regulated RORγt protein, respectively. Our findings indicated that BPA exposure during early development may play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases later.
The purpose of this study is to explore the means to implant successfully the school-based budgeting system by analyzing the current status of financial management in schools and grasping the problems that arose during its implementation, which was first launched in March, 2001 in the national and public elementary, middle, and high schools nation-wide. To this end, the current status of financial management in schools that has been implemented during the last years is analyzed and both the success and failure in implementing the school-based budgeting system are investigated.
Private educational expenditure means the sum of the expenses individual household paid for educational activities but not processed through official accounting procedure. It includes private tutoring fees, books, room and board, school supplies and so on. Private educational spendings per student in the year of 2001 is 1,999 thousand won in pre- schools, 2,368 thousand won in elementary schools, 2,261 thousand won in middle schools, 2,307 thousand won in general high schools, 1,360 thousand won invocational high schools, 1,938 thousand won in junior colleges, 2,216 thousand won in industrial universities, 2,673 thousand won in four-year colleges and 2,330 thousand won in graduate schools. Total private educational expenditure estimated from these sample figures is 18,782 billion won for pre-school, middle school and high school students together and 7,891 billion won for students in higher education institutions. What we are most concerned about regarding the private educational expenditure is the amount of expenditure for the private tutoring. The percentage of private tutoring expenses on the average is about 48.6. Private educational spending per student has declined compared to the spending in 1998. Especially the spending for elementary school students, general high school students and college students had declined greatly. However, the spending for middle school students, vocational high school students and junior college students has slightly increased. The portion out of GDP also declined to 5.61% in 2001 from 6.53% in 1998.
From Nature to Nation:the Myth of the Rhine Ko, You-kyung [Abstract] This paper explores the birth and the growth of the well-known national myth in 19th century Germany: the myth of the Rhine. It helps us to understand how nature has been used to build the national identity and how the invention of nation has affected the shaping of the national nature. From the early 19th century, the Rhine was found by the German Romantics as an ideal terrain in which to envision the sublime and the medieval revival. After the victory of Wars of Liberation in 1813, German nationalist intellectuals such as Ernst Moritz Arndt, author of Germany`s river, but not Germany`s Border, politicized the Romantic Rhine by re-imagining it as the fountain of German nationhood. This process was paralleled with the canalization of the Rhine, which was in itself a sign of the taming of nature of the modern nation-state. During the Rhine crisis of 1840, in which France renewed its claims to the Rhine river as their ``natural border``, German nationalists struggled against their ``hereditary enemy`` by composing patriotic Rhine-songs and by constructing national monuments such as Cologne cathedral. In this process, the Rhine was more and more identified with Germania, the goddess-like national symbol of Germany. The myth of the Rhine still remains at the heart of many people in Germany, even if it has lost its pre-war influence after 1945.
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Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate splenic constipation syndrome(脾約證) in Shanghanlun by comparing 179 & 247 provisions. Methods : Including Shanghanlun, several texts which contain Cheng Wu-ji, Wan Mi-zhai, Qian Huang, Zhu Gong, Fang You-zhi, Yu Jia-yan, Zhang Lu, Cheng Ying-mao, Zhang Xi-ju, Chen Xiu-yuan, Wu Qian, Xu Ling-tai, You Zai-jing, Zhu Dan-xi`s opinion about the splenic constipation syndrome were chosen and comparative consideration was carried out. Results & Conclusions : The following conclusions could be drawn. 247 provisions in Shanghanlun is different from 179 provisions because the beginning of the each splenic constipation syndrome is different. The difference between 179 & 247 provisions are proved by comparing Mild Purgative Decoction which is used Taiyangyangming splenic constipation syndrome and Fructus Cannabis Pill which is used Dorsal pedal pulse splenic constipation syndrome. Cheng Wu-ji`s opinion that 179 & 247 provisions is different is meaningful because he is first investigated the different beginning of the splenic constipation syndrome. Several annotator`s opinion which oppose Cheng Wu-ji is majority and they set a high value on Jangbu(臟腑) factor. Several annotator`s opinion which agree Cheng Wu-ji is minority and they set a high value on splenic constipation syndrome also begins from Taiyangbing. The concept of overlapping of Taiyangyangming is different from the concept of Taiyangyangming. Consequently 179 & 247 provisions has to be distinguished.
It is one of the most economical method of Soil stabilization works to compact soil, which increases soil density artificially. The result obtained in this study on the effect that optimum moisture content and plastic Linit, natural moisture content, influence upon the maximum dry density effort 36 Samples are Summarized as follows. 1. The bigger the maximum dry density is, the smaller the optimum moisture content is, on the other hand, the smaller the maximum dry density is, the bigger the optimum moisture content is, ingeneral. 2. There is a relation which is rdmax=1/[0.00895(OMC+44.73)] between the maximum dry density and the optimum moisture content, namely, the maximum dry density is increased in propertion to decrease of the optimum moisture content. 3. There is a relation which is OMC=0.438+0.395 PL and OMC=42.30-1.20Wn 4. There are relation to be the straightline which the maximum dry density decrease, on the other hand, The optimum moisture content increase in accordance with enlargement of Atter berg Limit (LL.PL.PI) in compacted soils.