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<P>This paper reports a highly reliable electrostatic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) relay for high-power switching applications. The main proposal to elevate reliability is to reduce thermal damage in the contact area. Since a contact resistance is the key parameter determining the amount of Joule-heating and the corresponding thermal damage, we devised a unique spring structure to maximize the contact force (resulting in a low contact resistance) using a reasonable actuation voltage named a two-step spring system. Another important feature was applied to alleviate Joule-heating, which is to use an insulator having high thermal conductivity to dissipate the generated heat efficiently, named a heat sink insulator. The fabricated MEMS relay exhibited 2 m Omega in contact resistance, which is the lowest level reported so far with an actuation voltage of 45 V. Reliability was remarkably enhanced over ten times by the heat sink insulator. Consequently, by applying these two approaches simultaneously, the fabricated MEMS relay was successfully operated up to the 5.3 x 10(6) cycles at 1 V/200 mA in ambient air and hot switching condition, which is the highest reliability reported at that power level. [2015-0237]</P>
The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyze the active stability of shoulder joints according to the frequency of overhead motions, such as serving and spiking, engaged in by female professional volleyball athletes who play different positions, and to provide the results as the basic data for developing exercise programs to prevent shoulder joint injuries. The subjects of this study were 50 Korean female professional volleyball players and positions were as follows: left and right attackers, centers, setters, and liberos. The external rotation and internal rotation muscle strength and muscle strength ratios of the dominant and non-dominant arms of all subjects were measured using Biodex. The results of this study are as follows: Frist, no significant differences were found in the internal and external rotation muscle strength of the dominant and non-dominant arms between positions. Second, for the shoulder joint muscle strength ratio of the dominant arm, by position, the setter showed significantly greater stability compared to the other positions. Third, for the shoulder joint muscle strength ratio of the non-dominant arm, by position, no significant difference in stability between positions was found. Fourth, it was found that the dominant arm had significantly greater instability of the shoulder joint than the non-dominant arm for attackers and centers, but no significant difference was found for setters and liberos. This study comparatively analyzed the muscle strength ratios of the external/internal rotations and dominant/non-dominant arms, which can determine the stability of the shoulder joints between female professional volleyball playing positions that engage in jumps and spikes using only the dominant hand and positions that do not.
<div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div> Background: Post burn pruritus is a common distressing sequela of burn wounds. Empirical antipruritic treatment often fails, as the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the manifestation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and other related receptors in post burn pruritus. Methods: Sixty-five burn patients with (n=40) or without (n=25) pruritus were investigated, including skin biopsy and clinical assessments such as VAS (Visual analogue scale) for pruritus, PSAS (Patient scar assessment scale), and OSAS (Observer scar assessment scale). Keratinocytes and fibroblasts from skin biopsy samples were separated and real time PCR, western blotting, intracellular Ca2+ measurements were performed. Results: Real time-PCR showed that mRNA of TRPV3 was significantly increased in keratinocytes from pruritic burn scars than in keratinocytes from non-pruritic burn scars. With TRPV3 activation, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations were more significantly increased in keratinocytes from pruritic burn scars than in those from non-pruritic ones. Additionally, mRNA and protein levels of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) were also significantly increased in pruritic burn scars. Conclusion: We confirmed that TRPV3, PAR2, and NK1R were highly expressed in pruritic burn scars. These results may help determine a novel mechanism for post burn pruritus.
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen s testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.
This study presents a design method for predicting the static strength of a Circular Hollow Section (CHS) tubular K-joint at elevated temperature. The presented method is obtained based on a parametric study by the authors (He et al., 2015a). In determining the static strength of a tubular K-joint at elevated temperature, a deforming rate criterion is proposed, and it is proved to be much safer and more reasonable for design purposes rather than the conventional definition on that static strength by using 3% of chord ovalisation for the K-joint at ambient temperature. In the presented design method, a strength reduction factor k is proposed, and the static strength of a CHS K-joint at elevated temperature can be obtained simply by multiplying the static strength at ambient temperature with k. The strength reduction factor k is a product of two factors, a revised reduction factor of elastic modulus (λ) and a revised chord stress ratio ( ). From the finite element results of overall 57 K-joint models, the accuracy of the presented design method is assessed to be reliable and accurate.
<div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div><div style="display:none">fiogf49gjkf0d</div> Background: Nail dystrophy arises from various inflammatory dermatologic diseases. However, there has been no report on the prevalence of nail abnormality in atopic dermatitis (AD) and it's relation with severity of the disease. Objectives: This study is conducted to determine the prevalence and types of nail abnormalities in AD and evaluate the relation between nail abnormalities and the severity of AD. Methods: AD patients who visited outpatient clinic were thoroughly examined for nail abnormalities. Demographic information was collected and eczema area and severity index (EASI) score for severity of AD was checked. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test for nominal variables and the student's t-test for continuous variables were used. And relative frequency of risk factors was analyzed by logistic regression using backward model Results: Total 235 atopic dermatitis patients aged 2 to 19 were investigated. Average age was 7.41 ± 5.00. There were 24 patients had nail abnormalities. The average EASI score of total patients was 9.81 ± 8.75. There was no statistically significant difference of total EASI score and development of nail abnormalities (p = 0.236). But EASI score confined to lower extremities showed relation to the prevalence of toe nail dystrophy (Odds ratio, 1.115; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 . 1.32; p=0.03) Conclusion: Nail abnormalities in AD can be caused by eczematous change in nail matrix, and EASI score confined to lower limb is associated with toe nail change.
( Yong-hyun Ko ), ( Seon-kyung Kim ), ( Seung-hwan Kwon ), ( Jee-yeon Seo ), ( Bo-ram Lee ), ( Young-jung Kim ), ( Kwang-hyun Hur ), ( Sun Yeou Kim ), ( Seok-yong Lee ), ( Choon-gon Jang ) 한국응용약물학회 2019 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.27 No.4
Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4'-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4'-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4'-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4'-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4'-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4'-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.