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Yim Suk-jay claimed that “Korean culture can be seen through Korean musok [shamanism],” meaning that Korean musok mirrors many aspects of Korean culture and behavior. In demonstrating this point, Yim coined the term parallelotheism for the musok pantheon in order to characterize its deities’ autonomy, absence of hierarchy, and even lack of mutual communication. like parallel lines, the gods each occupy a unique space that does not intersect with that of any other. Also, Korean musok is polytheistic and none of its deities is omnipotent. Each spirit has a specific function and limited power, no spirit is higher than another, and no god gives orders to or obeys another. This independence of the gods contrasts sharply with the pantheon of Chinese popular religion, in which many deities are thought to be organized into a vast supernatural bureaucracy. Yim further suggested that Korean parallelotheism offered insights into Korean individuals' high self-esteem and sense of independence. Though many scholars have claimed that Korea had a highly authoritarian and hierarchical social system, Yim’s analysis of the musok pantheon showed that Korean society could also be viewed as egalitarian and non-authoritarian. In the real world, people acquiesce to those with authority, but this apparent submission to hierarchy is a surface phenomenon necessitated by circumstances rather than a manifestation of a deep internal commitment. The gods, ghosts, and ancestors of musok represent living bureaucrats, beggars, and kin, respectively. The deities have limited power and are not thought to be inherently good or evil : whether they are helpful or harmful depends on how they are treated. If they are given regular offerings, they bring good fortune. Otherwise they inflict punishment. This appears to be very similar to the cultural understanding that many people have of Korean officials. Also, ancestors in musok rituals are imagined differently than ancestors at Confucian rites. In ritual contexts where musok prevails, ancestors are less authoritarian, less hierarchical, and more inclusive, encompassing also dead relatives who are not strictly agnatic forebears. Ghosts, like beseeching beggars, are given small offerings rather than ignored entirely. Yim’s analysis of musok showed that previous interpretations of Korean society overemphasized its hierarchial and authoritarian qualities. The deities of this Korean popular religion provide a vision of its more egalitarian and non-authoritarian characteristics.
The ferrimagnetic resonance technique, with the inclusion of shape anisotropy effects, was used to obtain information about the early stages in the precipitation of magnesium ferrite from iron-doped magnesia. The very small magnesioferrite particles were produced by precipitation method from solid solution of iron ion in single crystal magnesia. The temperature dependence of the resonance anisotropy field for a coherent assembly of hyperfine magnesium ferrite precipitates was investigated in the range 100~400K. The results are interpreted in terms of the shape anisotropy of the precipitates.
한 질량-3 보존계의 기저상태 에너지들을 쉬프와 벨�꼬�의한 대응되는 액체 헤리윰-4의 결과들을 사용하여 한 두 개의 성분으로 된 보존계에 적용한 질량차 섭동 이론과 임-매시 변분 방법에 의하여 여러 밀도들에서 계산하다. 이 결과들은 매시에 의한 결과들과 쉬프와 벨�꼬�의한 결과들과 상당히 잘 일치한다. 두 헤리윰-4원자들 간의 상호 관계된 함수들과 비교된 계산된 두 질량-3보존들 간의 상호 관계된 함수들은 매시 이론에서 비교된 것들과 정성적으로 일치한다. 또한, 계산된 결과들로부터 액체 헤리윰-3에 애스-페어링 상태들이 존재한다는 것을 결론한다. Ground state energies of a mass-3 boson system are calculated at various densities by the mass-defference perturbation theory and Yim-Massey bariational method for a binary boson system using the results of the corresponding liquid ⁴He by Schiff and Verlet. These results agree fairly well with results of Massey, and Schiff and VErlet. The present correlation functions between two mass-3 bosons compared with those between two ⁴He atoms are qualitatively in agreement with those in Massey theory. Also, we conclude theory. Also, we conclude there exist s-pairing states in the liquid ³He from the present results.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fashion life style factors on appearance management behavior and to show how self-monitoring influences appearance management behaviors. Subjects for the study were men aged in their thirties and forties living in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. For the purpose of the study, the survey was conducted using convenience samples. A total number of 370 questionnaires were used for data analysis. For statistical analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results of this study indicated that a fashion lifestyle was composed of four factors-fashion/appearance-oriented factor, ostentation-oriented factor, rational consumption- oriented factor, and dignity-oriented factor. The dependent variable of the study was appearance management behavior. Appearance management behavior consisted of interest in skin care and interest in fashion. A statistical analysis of multiple regression revealed that a fashion life style significantly influenced interest in skin care and interest in fashion. When subjects were categorized into two groups by self-monitoring, both respondents with high and low self-monitoring showed that fashion/appearance oriented factors significantly influenced interest in skin care. Fashion/appearance oriented factor influenced interest in skin care more for the subjects with high self-monitoring than for those with low self-monitoring. In contrast, fashion/appearance oriented factors had greater influence on interest in fashion for those subjects with low self-monitoring than those with high self-monitoring.
CYP4F11, together with CYP4F2, plays an important role in the synthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from arachidonic acid. We identified 21 variants by whole exome sequencing, including 4 non-synonymous variants in Korean subjects. The proteins of the wild-type CYP4F11 and the four coding variants (C276R, D315N, D374Y, and D446N) were expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α cells and purified to give cytochrome P450-specific carbon monoxide difference spectra. Wild-type CYP4F2 was also expressed and purified to compare its activity with the CYP4F11 wild-type. Wild-type CYP4F11 exhibited the highest maximal clearance for erythromycin N-demethylase activity followed by the variants D374Y, D446N, C276R, and D315N. In particular, the CYP4F11 D315N protein showed about 50% decrease in intrinsic clearance compared to the wild type. The ability of wild-type CYP4F11 and the variants to synthesize 20-HETE from arachidonic acid was similar; the CYP4F11 D315N variant, however, showed only 68% of wild-type activity. Furthermore, the ability of CYP4F2 to synthesize 20-HETE was 1.7-fold greater than that of CYP4F11. Overall, our results suggest that the metabolism of CYP4F11 substrates may be reduced in individuals carrying the CYP4F11 D315N genetic variant and individuals carrying the common D446N CYP4F11 variant likely exhibit comparable 20-HETE synthesis as individuals expressing wild-type CYP4F11.