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( Yeonhee Lee ),( Kyung Don Yoo ),( Seon Ha Baek ),( Yang Gyun Kim ),( Hyo Jin Kim ),( Ji Young Ryu ),( Jin Hyuk Paek ),( Sang Heon Suh ),( Se Won Oh ),( Jeonghwan Lee ),( Jong Hyun Jhee ),( Jin-soon 대한전해질학회 2022 Electrolytes & Blood Pressure Vol.20 No.1
The Korean Society for Electrolyte and Blood Pressure Research, in collaboration with the Korean Society of Nephrology, has published a clinical practice guideline (CPG) document for hyponatremia treatment. The document is based on an extensive evidence-based review of the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia with the multidisciplinary participation of representative experts in hyponatremia with methodologist support for guideline development. This CPG consists of 12 recommendations (two for diagnosis, eight for treatment, and two for special situations) based on eight detailed topics and nine key questions. Each recommendation begins with statements graded by the strength of the recommendations and the quality of the evidence. Each statement is followed by rationale supporting the recommendations. The committee issued conditional recommendations in favor of rapid intermittent bolus administration of hypertonic saline in severe hyponatremia, the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists in heart failure with hypervolemic hyponatremia, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis with moderate to severe hyponatremia, the individualization of desmopressin use, and strong recommendation on the administration of isotonic fluids as maintenance fluid therapy in hospitalized pediatric patients. We hope that this CPG will provide useful recommendations in practice, with the aim of providing clinical support for shared decision-making to improve patient outcomes.
Acetate, a major unwanted byproduct of industrial biological production and of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate, could have a great potential to be very cost-effective and alternative carbon source in the production of platform chemicals. Here we engineered Escherichia coli strain for 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) production from acetate. Several strategies of metabolic engineering including the disruption Acetyl-CoA competing pathways, blockage of glyoxylate shunt, improvement of cofactor (i.e., NADPH) supply, and redirection of the gluconeogenesis pathway were employed. Resting cell was adopted in acetate for the conversion of acetate to 3-HP, and the highest yield 0.16 mol/mol, about 32% of maximum theoretical yield was observed with the engineered producing strain.
Kim, Nam Jun,Ryu, Yeonhee,Lee, Bong Hyo,Chang, Suchan,Fan, Yu,Gwak, Young S.,Yang, Chae Ha,Bills, Kyle B.,Steffensen, Scott C.,Koo, Jin Suk,Jang, Eun Young,Kim, Hee Young Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing) 2019 Addiction Biology Vol.24 No.2
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>In December 2007, the <I>Hebei Spirit</I> oil spill occurred on the west coast of South Korea. Association between crude oil exposure and the levels of urinary oxidative stress biomarkers was reported among the local residents, 1.5years after the accident. The aim of this study was to follow-up possible longer-term effects of the oil spill among the residents near the oil spill. Six years after the accident, urinary oxidative stress biomarkers of the residents were associated with surrogates of oil exposure. The target subjects were divided into two groups based on the distance of their residence to the spill site, i.e., those near the spill site (‘Near’ group, <I>n</I> =476), and those far from the spill (‘Far’ group, <I>n</I> =152). A questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers or self-reporting, and demographic information and other parameters of the participants, such as socioeconomic status, smoking and drinking behaviors, disease history, and duration of clean-up activities after the spill, were collected. The participants' levels of 8–hydroxy–2–deoxyguanosine (8–OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in 12 h urine samples were measured as indicators of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. A general linear model was used for statistical analysis. Urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels measured from ‘Near’ group, i.e., geometric mean of 2.19μmol/g creatinine, and 5.41μg/g creatinine, respectively, were higher than those of ‘Far’ group. Especially, urinary 8-OHdG levels in the ‘Near’ group were significantly higher than those of ‘Far’ after adjusting relevant covariates. In addition, the duration of clean–up activities showed a significant association with both urinary 8–OHdG and MDA levels. Even 6years after the oil spill, positive associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and surrogates of oil exposure were evident. While the present study design lacks biomarkers of exposure, the results of this study suggest that the consequences of oil pollution may last for years.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Long-term health effects of Hebei Spirit Oil Spill were studied after 6years. </LI> <LI> Urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels were higher among those living near oil spill site and/or involved in more clean-up work. </LI> <LI> Detailed mechanisms of observed long-term effects warrant further investigations. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P>Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) semiconductor films are important as next generation solar cell materials and have great potential for use in device applications, especially for fabricating high-efficiency solar cells with practically no degradation of the absorber layer. In order to understand the physical properties of the CIGS films, the CIGS absorber layers have been characterized by many research groups so that the solar cell efficiencies could be further improved and theoretical efficiencies could be approached as far as practicable. To improve the efficiency of CIGS solar cells, a quantitative and depth-resolved elemental analysis of photovoltaic thin films is strongly required. In this work, using a three-stage evaporation process, different CIGS thin films were prepared on molybdenum back contacts deposited on soda-lime glass substrates. Surface analyses via XPS and SIMS were performed to characterize the CIGS thin films and compare their compositional distribution according to the depth. The average concentrations of the matrix elements, Cu, In, Ga, and Se were compared with the quantitative results of ICP-AES and EPMA. To identify the impurities in the CIGS layer, distributions of trace elements were also observed, according to the depth, by SIMS. Using SEM and TEM, we carried out detailed microstructural studies in cross-sections of CIGS thin film solar cells that had different cell efficiencies. The elemental composition, impurity distribution, and microstructure of the CIGS thin film solar cells were investigated to understand their effects on the solar cell conversion efficiency.</P>
Korea Peace Now! Women Mobilizing to End the Korean War is a transnational campaign led by four women’s peace organizations calling for the formal end to the Korean War with a peace agreement. These four organizations – Women Cross DMZ, Nobel Women’s Initiative, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) and Korean Women’s Movement for Peace – are focused on changing policy in the United States, at the United Nations, and key countries, including Canada and South Korea. Women Cross DMZ is leading efforts in the United States and the key organization leading the U.S.-based Korea Peace Now Grassroots Network (KPNGN). As a regional coordinator for one of the eleven regional chapters of the KPNGN, I will examine the way the campaign actualizes, in theory and in practice, a feminist approach to its peace work in the United States. This paper seeks to present the KPNGN as a critical part of the growing peace agenda mobilizing to shape U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea. The paper will identify the practices and tactics of Korea Peace Now! which, I argue, places the movement in the tradition of feminist peace movements. My analysis draws on the intellectual framework developed in Feminist Security Studies (FSS) and Feminist Transitional Justice (FTJ). I argue that feminist peacebuilding is meaningful and important in the context of imagining a recuperative future on the Korean Peninsula.