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The cytolysin A (ClyA) is a 34 kDa pore-forming cytotoxic protein and expressed by some enteric bacteria including Salmonella typhi. This toxin is transported on the bacterial surface and secreted without posttranslational modification. Using the surface display of ClyA, the expression vectors for 193-aa immunogenic antigen of spike protein (termed S1E) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were constructed. The vectors carried a gene encoding S. typhi ClyA conjugated to S1E at the C terminus (termed ClyA-S1E) and asd gene in pGEM-T and pBR322, named pGApLCS1E and pBApLCS1E, respectively. An asd-mutated E. coli transformed with these vectors could grow without diaminopimelic acid (DAP), indicating that they were stably maintained in such mutants. ClyA-S1E recombinant proteins from these vectors were expressed on the surface of the attenuated S. typhimurium deficient of global virulence gene regulator, ppGpp. However, they did not show the hemolytic activity on the blood agar plate and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. To examine whether bacteria expressing ClyA-S1E induced the immune response against S1E, S. typhimurium deficient of ppGpp and Asd was transformed with these vectors and orally immunized in mice. In the western blotting against GST-conjugated S1E using the immunized mouse sera, it was shown that the significant band was detected in the mouse serum by the bacteria transformed with pGApLCS1E but not with pBApLCS1E. It indicates that the immune response producing antibody was dependent on the expression level of ClyA-S1E. Therefore, ClyA delivery system can be used for SARS vaccine development.
Some attenuated bacteria have been studied as viable tumor-targeting agents. Among them, Salmonella typhimurium carrying many advantages such as growth in both of aerobic and anaerobic conditions, various attenuated virulent strains, universal genetic engineering tools, and the clarified full genome sequences has been studied the most up to now. In this paper, we review recent progresses of tumor treatment using this bacterium.
In this paper, we present the fabrication of mixed-scale PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) channels consisting of micro- and nano-channels using simple thermal nanoimprint and thermal bonding processes (microchannels: width = ~ 100 ㎛, height = ~ 8 ㎛; nanochannels: width = ~ 700 ㎚, height = ~ 150 ㎚, length = ~ 100 ㎛). In the nanoimprint process, a monolithic mixed-scale carbon structure was used as a mold. The monolithic carbon mold was fabricated using carbon-MEMS consisting of two-step photolithography processes for patterning a polymer structure and one step pyrolysis process for converting polymer to carbon. In pyrolysis, polymer structures shrank dramatically and thus micro-sized polymer structures could be converted into sub-micro-/nano-sized carbon structures. The shape of the monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold was pressed into a PMMA sheet while the polymer sheet was heated. After demolding the carbon mold from the patterned PMMA sheet, the patterned channel networks on the PMMA sheet was sealed by bonding another thin PMMA sheet to the patterned PMMA sheet with pressure and heat subsequent to an oxygen plasma treatment. The pyrolyzed carbon mold could be easily demolded because of its curved side walls resulting from anisotropic volume reduction in pyrolysis. This special geometry and good robustness of the carbon mold ensured reproducibility in nanoimprint process. PMMA has higher Young’s modulus compared to PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) that is widely used for the nano-channel fabrication so that the PMMA channels ensure consistent channel fabrication and nanofluidic experiments without channel collapse originated problems.
Ashida, Hisashi,Hong, Yeongjin,Murakami, Yoshiko,Shishioh, Nobue,Sugimoto, Nakaba,Kim, Youn Uck,Maeda, Yusuke,Kinoshita, Taroh American Society for Cell Biology 2005 Molecular biology of the cell Vol.16 No.3
<P>Within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mannoses and glucoses, donated from dolichol-phosphate-mannose and -glucose, are transferred to N-glycan and GPI-anchor precursors, and serine/threonine residues in many proteins. Glycosyltransferases that mediate these reactions are ER-resident multitransmembrane proteins with common characteristics, forming a superfamily of >10 enzymes. Here, we report an essential component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mannosyltransferase I (GPI-MT-I), which transfers the first of the four mannoses in the GPI-anchor precursors. We isolated a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant defective in GPI-MT-I but not its catalytic component PIG-M. The mutant gene, termed phosphatidylinositolglycan-class X (PIG-X), encoded a 252-amino acid ER-resident type I transmembrane protein with a large lumenal domain. PIG-X and PIG-M formed a complex, and PIG-M expression was <10% in the absence of PIG-X, indicating that PIG-X stabilizes PIG-M. We found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pbn1p/YCL052Cp, which was previously reported to be involved in autoprocessing of proproteinase B, is the functional homologue of PIG-X; Pbn1p is critical for Gpi14p/YJR013Wp function, the yeast homologue of PIG-M. This is the first report of an essential subcomponent of glycosyltransferases using dolichol-phosphate-monosaccharide.</P>
<P>The mammalian glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor consists of three mannoses attached to acylated GlcN-(acyl)PI to form Man(3)-GlcN-(acyl)PI. The first of the three mannose groups is attached to an intermediate to generate Man-GlcN-(acyl)PI by the first mannosyltransferase (GPI-MT-I). Mammalian and protozoan GPI-MT-I have different substrate specificities. PIG-M encodes the mammalial GPI-MT-I which has 423 amino acids and multiple transmembrane domains. In this work we cloned PIG-M homologues from humans, Plasmodium falciparum (PfPIG-M), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GPI14), to test whether they could complement GPI-MT-I-deficient mammalian cells, since this biosynthetic step is likely to be a good target for selective screening of inhibitors against many pathogenic organisms. PfPIG-M partially restored cell surface expression of the GPI-anchored protein CD59 in PIG-M deficient mammalian cells, and first mannose transfer activity in vitro; however, this was not the case for GPI14.</P>
<P>Biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is initiated by an unusually complex GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GPI-GnT) consisting of at least six proteins. Here, we report that human GPI-GnT requires another component, termed PIG-Y, a 71 amino acid protein with two transmembrane domains. The Burkitt lymphoma cell line Daudi, severely defective in the surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins, was a null mutant of PIG-Y. A complex of six components was formed without PIG-Y. PIG-Y appeared to be directly associated with PIG-A, implying that PIG-Y is the key molecule that regulates GPI-GnT activity by binding directly to the catalytic subunit PIG-A. PIG-Y is probably homologous to yeast Eri1p, a component of GPI-GnT. We did not obtain evidence for a functional linkage between GPI-GnT and ras GTPases in mammalian cells as has been reported for yeast cells. A single transcript encoded PIG-Y and, to its 5′ side, another protein PreY that has homologues in a wide range of organisms and is characterized by a conserved domain termed DUF343. These two proteins are translated from one mRNA by leaky scanning of the PreY initiation site.</P>
Kim, Jeong Tae,Barua, Sonia,Kim, Hyeongmin,Hong, Seong-Chul,Yoo, Seung-Yup,Jeon, Hyojin,Cho, Yeongjin,Gil, Sangwon,Oh, Kyungsoo,Lee, Jaehwi The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2017 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.25 No.4
In this study, the effect of particle size of genistein-loaded solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability was investigated. Genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles were prepared with glyceryl palmitostearate. Except for the particle size, other properties of genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles such as particle composition and drug loading efficiency and amount were similarly controlled to mainly evaluate the effect of different particle sizes of the solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability. The results showed that genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles exhibited a considerably increased drug dissolution rate compared to that of genistein bulk powder and suspension. The microparticles gradually released genistein as a function of time while the nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic drug release pattern, showing an initial burst drug release, followed by a sustained release. The oral bioavailability of genistein loaded in solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles in rats was also significantly enhanced compared to that in bulk powders and the suspension. However, the bioavailability from the microparticles increased more than that from the nanoparticles mainly because the rapid drug dissolution rate and rapid absorption of genistein because of the large surface area of the genistein-solid lipid nanoparticles cleared the drug to a greater extent than the genistein-solid lipid microparticles did. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that controlling the particle size of solid-lipid particulate systems at a micro-scale would be a promising strategy to increase the oral bioavailability of genistein.
Shin, Minsang,Song, Miryoung,Rhee, Joon Haeng,Hong, Yeongjin,Kim, You-Jin,Seok, Yeong-Jae,Ha, Kwon-Soo,Jung, Se-Hui,Choy, Hyon E Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in association with 2005 Genes & development Vol.19 No.19
<P>Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNP) carrying the house-keeping sigma subunit, sigma70 (Esigma70), is repressed by H-NS at a number of promoters including hdeABp in Escherichia coli, while initiation with RNP carrying the stationary phase sigma, sigma38 (Esigma38), is not. We investigated the molecular mechanism of selective repression by H-NS to identify the differences in transcription initiation by the two forms of RNPs, which show indistinguishable promoter selectivities in vitro. Using hdeABp as a model promoter, we observed with purified components that H-NS, acting at a sequence centered at -118, selectively repressed transcription by Esigma70. This selective repression is attributed to the differences in the interactions between hdeABp and the two forms of RNPs, since no other factor is required for the repression. We observed that the two forms of RNPs could form an open initiation complex (RP(O)) at hdeABp, but that Esigma70 failed to initiate transcription in the presence of H-NS. Interestingly, KMnO4 assays and high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that hdeABp DNA wrapped around Esigma70 more tightly than around Esigma38, resulting in the potential crossing over of the DNA arms that project out of Esigma70 . RP(O) but not out of Esigma38 . RP(O). Based on these observations, we postulated that H-NS bound at -118 laterally extends by the cooperative recruitment of H-NS molecules to the promoter-downstream sequence joined by wrapping of the DNA around Esigma70 . RP(O), resulting in effective sealing of the DNA loop and trapping of Esigma70. Such a ternary complex of H-NS . Esigma70 hdeABp was demonstrated by AFM. In this case, therefore, Esigma70 acts as a cofactor for DNA looping. Expression of this class of genes by Esigma38 in the stationary phase is not due to its promoter specificity but to the architecture of the promoter . Esigma38 complex.</P>
In eukaryotic cells, various proteins are anchored to the plasma membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). To study the biosynthetic pathways and modifications of GPI, various mutant cells have been isolated from the cells of Chinese hamster ovaries (CHO) supplemented with several exogenous genes involved in GPI biosynthesis using aerolysin, a toxin secreted from gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Alpha toxin from Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium septicum is homologous to large lobes (LL) of aerolysin, binds GPI-anchored proteins and possesses a cell-destroying mechanism similar to aerolysin. Here, to determine whether alpha toxins can be used as an isolation tool of GPI-mutants, like aerolysin, CHO cells stably transfected with several exogenous genes involved in GPI biosynthesis were chemically mutagenized and cultured in a medium containing alpha toxins. We isolated six mutants highly resistant to alpha toxins and deficient in GPI biosynthesis. By genetic complementation, we determined that one mutant cell was defective of the second subunit of dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM2) and other five cells were of a putative catalytic subunit of inositol acyltransferase (PIG-W). Therefore, C. septicum alpha toxins are a useful screening probe for the isolation of various GPI-mutant cells.