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This paper proposes an LLC resonant converter based battery charger which utilizes an adaptive turn ratio scheme to achieve a wide output voltage range and high efficiency. The high frequency transformer of the LLC converter of the proposed strategy has an adaptively changed turn ratio through the auxiliary control circuit. As a result, an optimized converter design with high magnetizing inductance is possible, while minimizing conduction and turn-off losses and providing a regulated voltage gain to properly charge the lithium ion battery. For a step-by-step explanation, operational principle and optimal design considerations of the proposed converter are illustrated in detail. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified through various experimental results and efficiency analysis based on prototype 300W Li-ion battery charger and battery pack.
( Yeong-jun Park ), ( Byung Kwon Jung ), ( Sung-jun Hong ), ( Gun-seok Park ), ( Jerald Conrad Ibal ), ( Huy Quang Pham ), ( Jae-ho Shin ) 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 2018 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.28 No.4
The enzyme xylose isomerase (E.C. 18.104.22.168, XI) is responsible for the conversion of an aldose to ketose, especially xylose to xylulose. Owing to the ability of XI to isomerize glucose to fructose, this enzyme is used in the food industry to prepare high-fructose corn syrup. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of XI from Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10, a thermophilic bacterium. First, the gene coding for XI (xylA) was inserted into the pET-21a(+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into the Escherichia coli competent cell BL21 (DE3). The expression of recombinant XI was induced in the absence of isopropyl-thio-β- galactopyranoside and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimum temperature of recombinant XI was 80oC and measurement of the heat stability indicated that 55% of residual activity was maintained after 2 h incubation at 60oC. The optimum pH was found to be 7.5 in sodium phosphate buffer. Magnesium, manganese, and cobalt ions were found to increase the enzyme activity; manganese was the most effective. Additionally, recombinant XI was resistant to the presence of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Zn<sup>2+</sup> ions. The kinetic properties, K<sub>m</sub> and V<sub>max</sub>, were calculated as 81.44 mM and 2.237 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Through redundancy analysis, XI of A. kamchatkensis G10 was classified into a family containing type II XIs produced by the genera Geobacillus, Bacillus, and Thermotoga. These results suggested that the thermostable nature of XI of A. kamchatkensis G10 may be advantageous in industrial applications and food processing.
Background: Dual frequency ultrasound (DFU) emerged as a new treatment modality for improving inflammatory skin disorders; however, there are a limited number of efficacy studies Objectives: This study investigated the effect of DFU on patients with refractory rosacea. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of forty two patients with refractory rosacea (erythematotelangiectatic rosacea [ETR], n = 26; papulopustular rosacea [PPR], n = 14, mixed, n=2). The patients were treated with DFU twice per week for the first week, and then once per week thereafter. Efficacy was assessed by erythema index (EI), transepithelial water loss (TEWL), and patient self-assessment (PSA). Results: Treatment with DFU resulted in significant decrease in EI, TEWL, and PSA. No significant difference was noted between in ETR and PPR. Conclusion: Application of DFU in patients with refractory rosacea resulted in improvement in persistent erythema, barrier dysfunction and patient-reported symptoms. DFU may be an additional treatment option for rosacea which is resistant to other treatments.
A numerical prediction of the transient fuel temperature in an aircraft was made and verified with a flight test. The analysis was studied with the finite difference method. Numerical calculation was performed by an explicit method of the modified Dufort-Frankel scheme. Convective heat transfer coefficients were used in calculating heat transfer between the aircraft surface and the ambient air. For an aircraft on the ground, an empirical equation represented as a function of free-stream air velocity was used. And, the heat transfer coefficient for flat plate turbulent flow suggested by Eckert was employed for in-flight phases. The governing equations used in this analysis are the mass and energy conservation equations on fuel and oils. The analysis was verified with the flight test data of a fuel system with additional fuel supplies and return concept. As a result of the verification, the difference of the fuel temperatures obtained by the analysis from those of the flight test data was relatively small with a tendency to increase in the later phases of the flight.
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OBJECTIVES: The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status. METHODS: Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results. RESULTS: The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.
Background: Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) immunotherapy for viral warts has been used for many years, but no studies have analyzed the treatment effects of DPCP alone, without the use of conventional therapy before immunotherapy. Objectives: We evaluated clinical efficacy of DPCP monotherapy compared to cryotherapy and pulsed dye laser therapy. We also assess the impact of initial sensitization on clinical response. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 250 patients with viral warts between January 2008 and December 2015. Results: DPCP-only group (n=43) showed a lower clinical response (75.6%) than cryotherapy-only (n=171, 89.8%, p<.0.01) and PDL-only group (n=36, 90.3%, p<.0.01). The positive clinical response in the successful sensitization group (n=21) was 76.3% (119/156), while 74.4% in the sensitization fail group (p=0.870). Conclusion: DPCP monotherapy has a lower clinical response than conventional therapy. Initial sensitization to DPCP does not predict a failed response with continued immunotherapy for viral wart.
This study tested eighty children with the tasks of vocabulary and reading skills (word reading and reading comprehension) and their mothers responded to home questionnaires regarding children's use of smart device at home. The purposes of this study were about how 5-year old children used smart devices at home and how their use of smart devices at home was related to children's vocabulary and reading skills. Results were as follows: First, 77.2% of children used smart device at home. Second, the often use of communication applications by children was associated with vocabulary, and vocabulary was related to word reading and reading comprehension. According to mediation analysis, the use of communication applications contributed to word reading and reading comprehension by the mediation of vocabulary among Korean children.