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The paper considers the Bayesian interval estimation for the common mean of several normal populations. A Bayesian procedure is proposed based on the idea of matching asymptotically the coverage probabilities of Bayesian credible intervals with their frequentist counterparts. Several frequentist procedures based on pivots and P-values are introduced and compared with Bayesian procedure through simulation study. Both simulation results demonstrate that the Bayesian procedure performs as well or better than any available frequentist procedure even from a frequentist perspective.
The paper compares the performance of some widely used Bayesian estimators such as Bayes estimator, empirical Bayes estimator, constrained Bayes estimator and constrained Bayes estimator by means of a new measurement under squared error loss function for the typical normal-normal situation. The proposed measurement is a weighted sum of the precisions of first and second moments. As a result, one can gets the criterion according to the size of prior variance against the population variance.
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The fatigue tension tests were performed by use of the specimens without and with a hole, 1/4 crack and 1/2 crack, made of SS41 and S45C steel round bars. Followings were these results. It was shown that in the base metal and the specimen with a hole the fatigue strength of the high strength steel bars was lower than that of the low strength steel bars under the low stress range. It was shown that the fatigue strength of the specimen with a hole was nearly same as that of the base metal, but the fatigue strength of the specimens with the crack was much lower than that of the base metal. It was shown that the fatigue strength of the specimens with the crack was much lower than that of the other specimens under the high stress range.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how users of different handedness interact with a desktop touchscreen display. Background: Different from mobile hand-held devices, desktop touchscreen displays enable bimanual operation. Users' hand usage pattern (hand preference, area preference) may be influenced by their handedness, and it can influence usability and task performance. Method: Twenty one subjects were recruited and conducted simple web-browsing using a 23” desktop touchscreen display for 30 minutes in a seated posture while their hand movements were videotaped. Subjects were equally distributed into three handedness groups. Preferred hand and preferred area (within the display) for conducting touch gestures were quantified by counting the number of tap and scroll gestures made by each hand and for each of 9 sections of the display. Results: Right-handed subjects used their dominant hand significantly more often than the nondominant compared to the other groups. Ambidextrous subjects showed no bilateral difference in hand preference. Regardless of handedness, all groups preferred the center-mid and center-top areas for tap gestures and the center-bottom area for scroll gestures. Conclusion: Usability of desktop touchscreen interface can be improved if user's handedness is considered in the UI/UX design.
The paper focuses primarily on the standard linear multiple regression model where the parameter of interest is a ratio of two regression coefficients. The general model includes the calibration model, the Fieller-Creasy problem, slope-ratio assays, parallel-line assays, and bioequivalence. We provide an orthogonal transformation (cf. Cox and Reid (1987)) of the original parameter vector. Also, we give some remarks on the difficulties associated with likelihood based confidence interval.
This study was conducted to evaluate the ecological attributes of forest types which were classified by cluster analysis in the natural forest of Mt. Odae on the basis of the vegetation data (232 sampling points) from the point-quarter sampling methods. For the classified types, the species composition was expressed by importance value to describe the stand structure and the species diversity was quantified using the Shannon's diversity index. Recognized forest types were 1) Quercus mongolica–Pinus densiflora–Betula ermanii forest type, 2) Mixed mesophytic forest type, 3) Q. mongolica forest type, 4) B. ermanii forest type. Species diversity indices of total and overstory were highest in the Mixed mesophytic forest type (3.465 and 2.942), and lowest in the B. ermanii forest type (0.118 and 0.832). In addition to that, Q. mongolica–P. densiflora–B. ermanii forest type was calculated as 3.226 and 2.565, and Q. mongolica forest type was calculated as 2.776 and 1.218 in total and overstory, respectively. It was considered that after the P. densiflora and B. ermanii first invaded and site condition became good, Q. mongolica–P. densiflora–B. ermanii forest type was dominated by Q. mongolica. Mixed mesophytic forest type showed the most stable stand structure with various species distributed uniformly. Q. mongolica forest type would preserve the present stand status for a while, and the B. ermanii in B. ermanii forest type would be pressed by other species over time.
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Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity changes over 3 years following surgical reattachment of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) developed in high myopia. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the medical records of patients with highly myopic eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling or the internal limiting membrane flap technique for MHRD. Changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years. Results: Of the 22 eyes analyzed, macular hole was closed in 13 and unclosed in nine. BCVA significantly improved from 1.61 ± 0.39 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline to 1.17 ± 0.43 logMAR at 6 months and 1.33 ± 0.48 logMAR at 2 years after MHRD surgery. At 3 years, BCVA significantly decreased compared with that at 6 months, and visual improvement from baseline was not significant. BCVA and proportion of vision loss ≥0.3 logMAR were not different between the closed and unclosed macular hole groups. Conclusions: Visual improvement after surgical reattachment of MHRD in high myopia was not maintained, and favorable macular hole closure effects were not observed at 3-year follow-up.
This paper investigates the distributed containment control for a class of uncertain multiple Euler- Lagrange systems. A directed graph is used to characterize the interactions among the leaders and followers. The proposed approach is based on an adaptive dynamic surface control, where the system uncertainties are approximately modelled by interval type-2 fuzzy neural networks. The adaptive laws of neuro-fuzzy parameters are derived from the Lyapunov stability analysis. The robust stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed, and then all followers can converge into the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders. In this study, a systematic control scheme is proposed and several indexes are used for performance comparisons. Simulation results are also provided to reveal the superiority of the proposed distributed adaptive containment controller.
This paper presents an adaptive distributed fault-tolerant formation control for multi-robot systems. Both the kinematics and dynamics of differential wheeled mobile robots are considered. In particular, the problem caused by actuator faults is investigated. Based on dynamic surface control techniques, adaptive formation controllers can be obtained under a directed communication network. The closed-loop stability is guaranteed by using Lyapunov stability analysis such that all followers can exponentially converge to a leader-follower formation pattern. Simulation and experimental results illustrate that the desired formation pattern can be preserved for a group of wheeled robots subject to unknown uncertainties and actuator faults.