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문무왕릉비에는 신라인이 화관의 후손으로 묘사되어 있고, 김유신비에서는 금관국 출신의 김유신이 황제 헌원의 후예이며 소호 금천씨의 후손으로 신라 왕실과 같은 조상의 후손이라고 했다 한다. 두 비의 내용은 서로 연관되어 있다. 그 목적은 김유신가와 무열왕가를 하나로 통합하기 위한 것이었다. 화관은 화정 또는 축융이라고도 하는데 상고시대에 하늘의 대화성(大火星)에 제사를 지내고 불을 담당하는 관리였다. 그런데 그 화관의 임무를 전욱 고양씨의 후손이 담당했다. 그리고 화관 축융의 후손은 은과 춘추시대에 중국 형초(荊楚) 지역에 나국(羅國)을 건설했던 존재이다. 그런데 신라(新羅)는 글자대로 해석하면 ‘새로운 나국’이 되고, 따라서 신라는 화관의 후예가 세운 나라가 된다. 한편 가야의 금관국은 금관의 나라이다. 가락국은 철로 이름을 널리 알리게 되자 쇠를 다루었던 금관(金官)의 후예를 자처했던 듯하다. 금관 욕수(?收)의 임무는 소호 금천씨의 아들 해(該)가 담당했다. 결국 소호 금천씨 설화는 신라가 아니라 금관국의 것이었다. 신라의 화관은 전욱 고양씨의 후손이고, 가야의 금관은 소호 금천씨의 후손인데 전욱과 소호의 공동 조상이 바로 황제 헌원이다. 화관계 신라의 무열왕과 금관계 가야의 김유신은 황제를 연결고리로 해서 한 핏줄로 묶이게 되었다. 김유신비에서 ‘금(金)’과 아무런 연관이 없는, 사족과 같은 황제 헌원을 언급한 것은 이 때문이다. 그러나 이 내용은 대부분 사실과 거리가 먼 수사적 허구이다. 그러므로 두 가문이 하나로 합쳐져 고착되고 수사적 허구의 목적이 상실된 후로는 시간의 흐름과 함께 잊어져 갔다. The people of Silla was described as the descendants of Hwagwan(official of fire) on the tombstone of King Munmu(文武王), and Gim Yusin(金庾信) was described as the descendants of Shaohao Jintian(少昊 金天) and Huangdi Xuanyuan(黃帝 軒轅) on his tombstone. It says that the royal households of Silla and Gaya had common ancestor. Hwagwan was the official who took charge of fire management and the ritual for Antares(α Sco) in ancient China. Hed founded State Ra(羅國). The name of Silla(新羅) means new State Ra, so he could become the ancestor of the people of Silla. He was the son of Zuanxu Gaoyang(?頊 高陽). State Gaya(加耶), the fatherland of Gim Yusin had been called Geumgwan-gug(金官國) which means the state of official of metal. Geumgwan was the son of Shaohao Jintian. Silla was the state of Hwagwan and the Gaya was the state of Geumgwan. Hwagwan, the founder of the royal household of Silla was the son of Zuanxu and Geumgwan, the founder of the royal household of Gaya was the son of Shaohao. Zuanxu and Shaohao was the descendants of Hwangdi, so Hwangdi was the common ancestor of Silla and Gaya. Finally Hwangdi became the same ancestor of Gim Yusin and King Muyeol(武烈王) who was the father of King Munmu. The tombstone of King Munmu and Gim Yusin manifests the union of the blood of Gim Yusin and King Muyeol. But it was not the fact but the rhetorical fiction.
Kim Rip Shi Jib is the original text of Kim, Byeong-Yeon's(1807∼1863) collected poetry. The research about the original text of Kim Rip Sin Jib is based on Lee, Eungsoo's first, second, and final editions of which the title was changed into Satirist Kim, Satkat. The secondary texts that are used for the comparison with the main text are Kim Rip Sin Jib by Baek, Gilsoon, Park, Oyang and Chinese poetry written by Kim, Byeong-yeon and translated by Heo, Munsub, Keon, Yonghan, Kim, Yonghan, Lee, Myoungwoo which has the same contents as 『Kim Rip Shi Jib』 but only changed its title. Leaving the wrong words as unsolved led to serious mistranslation. Therefore, the wrong words handed down since Lee, Eungsoo should be thoroughly corrected. Questions can be raised about the authenticity of the poems in the collection given the problems mentioned above. Appropriate measures should be taken to solve the problem.
The "Annals of the Joseon Dynasty" says that there were nine ponds(九池), nine shrines(九廟) and a Cheomseong-dae tower in Pyeong'yang, and also that nine 'luminaries(九曜)' flew into the aforementioned nine shrines. In ancient myths, water sources such as wells, ponds, fountains or swamps, combined with the essence of the stars or the sun, usually gave birth to greatly heroic figures. Such narrative structure can also be identified from the myths that chronicled the birth of progenitors -the founders- of several ancient political entities like Buyeo, Goguryeo, Silla and Gaya. The wells, ponds, fountains or swamps represented themselves in the form of females. They laid eggs after having a relationship with the sun or the stars, which displayed themselves as a male figure, and then, a great person was either hatched or born. The Na'jeong well, as well as the Cheomseong-dae tower, both in Gyeongju, feature stories that share the same narrative structure. Cheomseong-dae in the Pyeong'yang area seems to have been built in the 7th century, and the owner, or the 'protagonist manager' of the facility so to speak, seems to have been no other than Yeon'gae'so'mun, who was the de-facto ruler of Goguryeo at the time. It must have been built as a symbol -his dignified birth from a water source- that would show off the divinity of his power. In the year 2009, the remains of a heptagonal building were excavated near the site of the An'ag Palace. North Korean archaeologists are claiming it as another Cheomseong-dae tower of Goguryeo, but without further evidence, we cannot be sure.
Background : In recent years, cystatin C (CysC) was proposed as a new marker for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to a constant serum level. The present study analyzes whether creatinine based GFR prediction equations might be replaced by simple prediction equations based on serum concentrations of CysC in healthy young Korean men. Methods : We studied 145 apparently healthy young Korean men aged 19-29 years who visited The Armed Forces Yangju Hospital (Gyeonggi Province, Repulic of Korea) for health check from November 2008 to January 2009. Creatinine-based GFR was estimated by the formula of modified MDRD, Crockcroft Gault (CG). CysC-based GFR was estimated by the formula of Larsson, Hoek, Filler, Grubb, Le Bricon, Orebro-cyst (DAKO), Orebro-cyst (Gentian). Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluated correlations between GFR estimating formulae based upon serum CysC and serum creatinine. Results : Among CysC based GFR, Hoek's GFR is most similar with CG GFR and abbreviated MDRD GFR. Significant correlations were noted between CysC based GFR and creatinine based GFR. Conclusion : Creatinine based GFR prediction equations for healthy young Korean men might be replaced by simple prediction equations based on serum concentrations of CysC (especially Hoek' equation). 배경 : 혈청 cystatin C는 외부 요인에 영향을 받지 않고 일정한 값을 유지하므로 사구체 여과율에 대한 새로운 표지자로 제시되고 있다. 본 연구는 젊은 성인 남성에서 cystatin C에 근거한 사구체 여과율이 혈청 크레아티닌에 의한 사구체 여과율을 대체할 수 있는지 조사하였다. 방법 : 2008년11월부터 2009년1월까지 병원을 방문한 평균 연령 21세의 젊은 성인남성 145명을 대상으로 하였다. Cystatin C에 근거한 사구체 여과율은 Larsson, Hoek, Filler, Grubb, Le Bricon, Orebro-cyst (DAKO), Orebro-cyst (Gentian) 공식을 이용하였고 혈청 크레아티닌에 근거한 사구체 여과율은 변형된 MDRD, Crockcroft Gault 공식을 이용하여 산출하였다. Cystatin C에 근거한 사구체 여과율과 혈청 크레아티닌에 근거한 사구체 여과율은 선형 회귀분석을 통해서 연관 관계를 확인하였다 결과 : Cystatin C에 근거한 사구체 여과율 산출 공식중에서 Hoek 공식에 의한 사구체 여과율이 혈청 크레아티닌에 근거한 사구체 여과율과 의미있는 상관관계를 보였다. 결론 : 젊은 성인 남성에서 Cystatin C에 근거한 사구체 여과율은 혈청 크레아티닌에 의한 사구체 여과율을 대체할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.
The active database system which is added conditional action functionality to the traditional database systems can support various and available functions(e.q. maintenance of integrity and security, access logging, alert, etc.) effectively. This paper presents a concept of rules which are able to support the active mechanism efficiently and designs a rule system for processing of the various rules. The proposed rule system, which is tightly coupled integrated structure, provides the efficient methods for integration and management of rules in database environment. And also, because it allow the effective processing of rules by integrations with transaction manager, data manager, query processor, and other components of database system, it contributes to the design and implementation of active database system.
In this study the effect of temporal patterns of design rainfall on characteristics or runoff is examined using the correlation analysis between the rates of variation of hydrograph and rainfall charateristics. Peak discharge, time to peak, and peak rainfall intensity which are hydrograph and rainfall charateristics are obtained by applying four methods of temporal patterns of design rainfall to the analysis of rainfall-runoff through RRL model. The result of this study are as follows : 1) The rate of variation of peak rainfall intensity is affected by the duration of design rainfall, and the Keifer and Chu method among four methods of temporal patterns has the greatest effect on the rate of variation of those. 2) It is shown that maximum peak discharge is obtained at forward type in longer duration of design rainfall and centered type in shorter duration of design rainfall. 3) Generally time to peak delays with the progress from forward to backward type in the rate of variation of time to peak.
Background: The toxicity of paraquat has been known to be caused by oxygen free radicals which leads to the lipid peroxidation and multiple organ failure. Although vitamin C has been known to be a potent antioxidant, recently there are numerous data which have shown that a low dose of vitamin C may act as a prooxidant due to the stimulation of the Fenton reaction with metal ions, which produces hydroxyl radicals. It has been reported that a deferoxamine in paraquat intoxication could reduce the production of the hydroxyl radicals by the inhibition of the Fenton reaction through the reduction of iron ion in tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the high and low dose of vitamin C and deferoxamine on lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α in paraquat intoxication. Methods: Female Sprague -Dawley rats were divided into seven groups: control group which was not given paraquat(20 mg/kg), P group which was given paraquat only, PVH group given paraquat and high dose of vitamin C(100 mg/kg), PVL group given paraquat and low dose of vitamin C(10 mg/kg), PVHD given paraquat, high dose of vitamine C and deferoxamine(100 mg/kg), PVLD given paraquat, low dose of vitamin C and deferoxamine, and PD given paraquat and deferoxamine. Animals were killed at 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione(GSH) contents, catalase activity, plasma TNF-α, and histologic changes in the lung and liver tissue were measured. Results: The lung histology in the PVH and PD or PVHD groups showed the significant decreases in the alveolar edema and interstitial thickness compared to the P group. The liver histololgy in the PVH and PVHD groups demonstrated marked differences in the central venous and sinusoidal dilatation compared to that of the P group. While the MDA levels of the lung and liver in the PVH and PD groups showed the significant reduction compared to that of the P group at 6 hours after treatment, all groups showed the significant changes compared to the P group at 24 hours. There was no significant change of the SOD levels of the lung and liver at 6 hours among all groups. At 24 hours, the SOD levels of the lung in PVH, PVL, and PVHD groups showed the significant increases compared to the P group. The increase of the SOD level in groups combined with deferoxamine, however, revealed a little reduction. The SOD level of the liver in PVH group only significantly increased compared to the P group at 24 hours. There was no significant change of the GSH level of the lung and liver among all groups at 6 hours. At 24 hours, the GSH level of the lung and liver were significantly increased in both PVH and PD group and PVH group, respectively, compared to the P group. Although the catalase activity of the lung was not significantly increased, that of liver was signiflcantly increased in both PVHD and PD groups compared to the P group at 6 hours. The catalase activities of the lung and liver were significantly increased in PVH, PD, and PVHD at 24 hours. The concentrations of the plasma TNF-α were slightly decreased at 6 hours and slightly increased at 24 hours compared to that of the P group, but they were not significant. Conclusion: This study showed that although the low dose of vitamin C had no effect, the high dose of vitamin C revealed a decrease of the MDA level and an increase of SOD, GSH, and catalase activity in the lung and liver tissues, and the effect of the high dose of vitamin C increased with time. The administration of the deferoxamine with or without high dose of vitamin C, however, significantly showed the inhibition of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant effect and low dose vitamin C decreased the effect of deferoxamine. The effects of the vitamin C and deferoxamine on plasma TNP-α were not clearly shown.
In modern literature, the reason why many poets in Korea are concerned with the question of image is that the prengent age is that of image. In 1939, Kwang Kyun Kim had A Signal Lamp (a collection of his poems) published. This consists of poems related to the theory of imagism proposed by T.E. Hulme and Ezra Pound. After studying the work, I have reached the following conclusion: Firstly, that his poems are a work that has much in Common with Hulme's and Pound's poetics. Secondly, that in terms of structure, the intellectal and the emotional are all but fused and unified, and that the poems are excellent as Imagist Poetry. Thirdly, that, set against the social background of that time, the poems in A Signal Lamp are considered to be Imagist Poetry. Thus in consequence of my analysis of A Signal Lamp, I have determined that Kwang Kyun Kim is an excellent Korean imagist poet.