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In this study, a series of experiments was conducted on the relative degradation of commonly known endocrine-disrupting compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (Ee₂) in a single-component aqueous solution using 28 and 580 kHz ultrasonic reactors. The experiments were conducted with three different types of model water: deionized water (DI), synthetic brackish water (SBW), and synthetic seawater (SSW) at pH 4, 7.5, and 11 in the presence of inert glass beads and humic acids. Significantly higher sonochemical degradation (93-97% for BPA) occurred at 580 kHz than at 28 kHz (43-61% for BPA), regardless of water type. A slightly higher degradation was observed for Ee₂ compared to that of BPA. The degradation rate of BPA and Ee₂ in DI water, SBW, and SSW after 30 min of ultrasound irradiation at 580 kHz increased slightly with the increase in pH from 4 (0.073-0.091 min-1 for BPA and 0.081-0.094 min-1 for Ee₂) to 7.5 (0.087-0.114 min-1 for BPA and 0.092?0.124 min-1 for Ee₂). In contrast, significant degradation was observed at pH 11 (0.149-0.221 min-1 for BPA and 0.147-0.228 min-1 for Ee₂). For the given frequencies of 28 and 580 kHz, the degradation rate increased in the presence of glass beads (0.1 mm and 25 g) for both BPA and Ee₂: 0.018-0.107 min-1 without beads and 0.052-0.142 min-1 with beads for BPA; 0.021-0.111 min-1 without beads and 0.054-0.136 min-1 with beads for Ee₂. A slight increase in degradation of both BPA and Ee₂ was found as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, humic acids) increased in both SBW and SSW: 0.107-0.115 min-1 in SBW and 0.087-0.101 min-1 in SSW for BPA; 0.111-0.111 min-1 in SWB and 0.092-0.105 min-1 in SSW for Ee₂. After 30 min of sonicating the humic acid solution, DOC removal varied depending on the water type: 27% (3 mg L-1) and 7% (10 mg L-1) in SBW and 7% (3 mg L-1) and 4% (10 mg L-1) in SSW.
Effects of N-acetylcysteine and Selenium against Doxorubicin Toxicity in RatsEun-sung Park, Sun-don Kim1, Min-hye Lee, Heung-shik S. Lee, In-se Lee, Je-kyung Sung and Yeo-sung Yoon*
In this paper, we propose a exploratory data analysis system on the World Wide Web, and can offer dynamic graphics. Graphics play an important role of any statistical analysis system. They provide the double role of visual display and diagnostic tool. To serve as a useful diagnostic tool, this system offers many kinds of exploratory data analysis. In order to explore these statistical graphics efficiently, this system might be divided into six windows, i.e. File, Exploratory Data Analysis. Statistic. Correlation, Distribution, Help. This system using JAVA programming language is composed with an easy-to-use environment even for novices in exploratory data analysis.
Mucoepidermoid carcinomas, first reported by Volkman(1895), form 6% to 9% of all salivary tumors. Two thirds affecting the parotid gland and the remaining third, the minor glands. As we could know from its name, mucoepidermoid carcinomas originate from ductal epithelium including squamous, mucous-secreting, and undifferentiated intermediate cells. Histologically, it is classified as well-differentiated (low grade), moderately-differentiated(intermediate grade), and poorly-differentiated (high grade) types and the treatment method and prognosis are influenced from its histological grade. We have experienced two cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma treated surgically with good results and now would like to report these with review of literatures.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate literature study of the effect of antioxidant during exercise. The study material were five journal of exercise science, master and doctoral theses, and antioxidants. Total thirty-five articles were selected this study. This study demonstrated that the mechanism of free radical and antioxidant did not find out during exercise and recovery. High intensity exercise or training produced on excess of free radical, but low-intensity exercise and antioxidant supplement were not. These results suggest that don’t forget Cooper’s advices: “Exercise must be at the center of any effective antioxidant action plan.” The reason; without regular exercise, your body’s internal defense against free radicals including natural endogenous antioxidants like SOD, GSH, Catalase may become too fragile for supplement to have their full effect.
The equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of arsenic on six different adsorbents were investigated with one synthetic and four natural types (two surface and two ground) of water. The adsorbents tested included magnetic ion exchange resins (MIEX), hydrous ion oxide particles (HIOPs), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), activated alumina (AA), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide-coated microsand (IOC-M), which have different physicochemical properties (shape, charge, surface area, size, and metal content). The results showed that adsorption equilibriums were achieved within a contact period of 20 min. The optimal doses of adsorbents determined for a given equilibrium concentration of Ceq = 10 μg/L were 500 mg/L for AA and GFH, 520-1,300 mg/L for MIEX, 1,200 mg/L for HIOPs, 2,500 mg/L for SMI, and 7,500 mg/L for IOC-M at a contact time of 60 min. At these optimal doses, the rate constants of the adsorbents were 3.9, 2.6, 2.5, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 1/hr for HIOPs, AA, GFH, MIEX, SMI, and IOC-M, respectively. The presence of silicate significantly reduced the arsenic removal efficiency of HIOPs, AA, and GFH, presumably due to the decrease in chemical binding affinity of arsenic in the presence of silicate. Additional experiments with natural types of water showed that, with the exception of IOC-M, the adsorbents had lower adsorption capacities in ground water than with surface and deionized water, in which the adsorption capacities decreased by approximately 60-95%.
액체섬광계수기(LSC)를 이용한 극미량의 14C-NDMA의 측정과 이를 이용해 활성탄 흡착 처리 가능성을 알아보았다. 14C-NDMA를 측정하기 위한 시료와 섬광용액은 10:10의 혼합비율로 10분의 측정 시간으로 99.9%의 상관성과 재현성을 보이며 1 ng/L까지의 측정이 가능하였으며, S-A(Sigma-Aldrich co.)와 Dj(Daejung co.)의 분말활성탄을 이용하여 흡착 처리한 결과, 50∼10,000 mg/L의 분말활성탄을 주입하여 90% 이상의 흡착처리가 가능함을 보였다. 또한 S-A가 Dj보다 흡착능이 약 2배 높게 나타났지만, NDMA의 흡착력이 다른 아민 계열의 물질보다 현저하게 낮아 요구되는 분말활성탄의 농도가 높게 요구되었다. Since the difficulty of analysis at low concentration and the uncertainty of the removal mechanism for Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) have been reported, this study has detected extremely low concentration 14C-NDMA using the LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter) and tested NDMA removal by Powdered Activated Carbon(PAC). The results showed the highest correlation over 99% when samples were measured with the mixture ratio of sample to scintillation liquid of 10:10 and at the detection time of 10 min. For 14C-NDMA removal by the PACs(S-A(Sigma-Aldrich co.) and Dj(Daejung co.)) raging from 50∼10,000 mg/L, 14C-NDMA was removed over 90% by adsorption treatment. In addition, S-A showed twice greater adsorption capacity than that of Dj. However, the required PAC amount for 14C-NDMA removal was higher than that of other amine compounds.