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[Purpose] Chronic stress affects the neuronal architecture of hippocampal subfields including the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region, which governs long-term memory. Exercise exerts a beneficial effect on memory improvement via hippocampal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. However, the relationship between the two phenomena is poorly understood. This study used animal and cell culture experimental systems to investigate whether chronic stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and maladaptation of the neuronal architecture in the hippocampal CA1 area is prevented by regular exercise through AMPK activation. [Methods] Mice underwent four weeks of treadmill running with or without a 6h/21d-restraint stress regimen, along with treatment with Compound C. Memory consolidation was assessed using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Dendritic rearrangement of hippocampal CA1 neurons was evaluated using the Golgi-Cox stain and Sholl analysis. Additionally, the primary hippocampal culture system was adopted for in vitro experiments. [Results] Chronic stress-induced failure of memory retention and reduction in AMPK activation were ameliorated by the exercise regimen. Chronic stress- or repeated corticosterone (CORT)- provoked malformation of the neuronal architecture was also suppressed by both exercise and treatment with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). [Conclusion] Chronic stress causes dendritic retraction among dorsal hippocampal CA1 neurons via the downregulation of AMPK activation, thereby leading to failure of memory retention. In contrast, regular exercise protects against chronic stress-evoked defects in memory consolidation and changes in neuronal morphology in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area via mild activation of AMPK.
Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in consumer products, which have aroused many concerns and debates regarding their fate in biological systems from a point of their safety/toxicity. Although a number of studies on the biological effects of NPs have been published, these are often complicated by the possible toxicity of conventional NPs, caused by contamination with chemical precursors or additives during their synthesis and/or purification procedures. To explicitly understand the toxicity basis of NPs, it is necessary to directly address a main problem related to their intrinsic/inherent toxicity and/or incompatibility with biological objects. The present study is designed to take advantage of a novel laser-assisted method called laser ablation to generate Ag, Au, Co, and Cu NPs in biocompatible aqueous solution, and to evaluate the toxicity of the resulting ultra-pure NPs. Our results show that the ultra-pure NPs with nascent surfaces possess moderate cytotoxicity to human cells in a cell-dependent manner.
Objectives: By grasping trends in research, technology, and general characteristics of learning support tools, this study was conducted to present a model for research on Korean Medicine (KM) to make use of information technology to support teaching and learning. The purpose is to improve the future clinical competence of medical personnel, which is directly linked to national health. Methods: With papers and patents published up to 2011 as the objects, 438 papers were extracted from "Web of Science" and 313 patents were extracted from the WIPS database (DB). Descriptive analysis and network analysis were conducted on the annual developments, academic journals, and research fields of the papers, patents searched were subjected to quantitative analysis per application year, nation, and technology, and an activity index (AI) was calculated. Results: First, research on medical learning support tools has continued to increase and is active in the fields of computer engineering, education research, and surgery. Second, the largest number of patent applications on medical learning support tools were made in the United States, South Korea, and Japan in this order, and the securement of remediation technology-centered patents, rather than basic/essential patents, seemed possible. Third, when the results of the analysis of research trends were comprehensively analyzed, international research on e-PBL- and medical simulation-centered medical learning support tools was seen to expand continuously to improve the clinical competence of medical personnel, which is directly linked to national health. Conclusions: The KM learning support tool model proposed in the present study is expected to be applicable to computer-based tests at KM schools and to be able to replace certain functions of national KM doctor license examinations once its problem DB, e-PBL, and TKM simulator have been constructed. This learning support tool will undergo a standardization process in the future.
Poster Presentations : P10 ; The Dietary Effect of Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Pre and Post -Menopaused Period on Epidermal Levels of Filaggrin, Free Amino Acids and the Related Enzyme Expression in Rats
Epidermal hydration is mainly maintained by natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). Of various NMFs, free amino acids (AAs) are major constituents that are generated by filaggrin degradation and its reduction is reported in the aged skin induced by menopause. In this study, we examined whether dietary supplementation of royal jelly (RJ) during pre- and post menopausal period alters epidermal levels of filaggrins, free AAs and peptidylarginine deiminase-3 (PAD-3), an enzyme involved in filaggrin degradation processes. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: groups SHAM and OVX (ovariectomy) fed a control diet; groups RJ1 and RJ2 fed a diet with 1% RJ harvested in different area of Korea; group IF fed a diet with isoflavone (80mg/kg), the typical functional food for menopause prevention for 12 weeks. Ovariectomy was performed at 4 weeks and each diet was continued for 8 more weeks. In the epidermis of group OVX, total filaggrin (including profilaggrin and filaggrin) were reduced; these levels in groups RJ1 and IF were similar or less than in group OVX, but total AAs, of which alteration were not apparent between groups SHAM and OVX, were highly increased. Specifically aspartate (Asp) and proline (Pro), the major AAs functioning NMF, were highly increased in group RJ1. Although total filaggrin, profilaggrin, filaggrin and PAD3 were increased, total AAs (including Asp and Pro) in group RJ2 were modestly less than in group RJ1. The PAD3 alteration was not apparent among 4 other groups. The diet supplementation of RJ1 enhanced the filaggrin degradation, but not by increased protein expression of PAD3, along with the increased total AAs, Asp and Pro.
<P>Conventional methods for quantification of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting and real-time PCR analysis have technical limitations in terms of their sensitivity and recyclability. Herein, we designed a real-time in situ label-free monitoring system on the basis of a specific electrochemical signature of human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. The intensity of the signal of hPSCs highly corresponded to the cell number and remained consistent in a mixed population with differentiated cells. The electrical charge used for monitoring did not markedly affect the proliferation rate or molecular characteristics of differentiated human aortic smooth muscle cells. After YM155 treatment to ablate undifferentiated hPSCs, their specific signal was significantly reduced. This suggests that detection of the specific electrochemical signature of hPSCs would be a valid approach to monitor potential contamination of undifferentiated hPSCs, which can assess the risk of teratoma formation efficiently and economically. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</P>
Yea,,K.,Kim,,J.,Yoon,,J.H.,Kwon,,T.,Kim,,J.H.,Lee,,B.D.,Lee,,H.-J.,Lee,,S.J.,Kim,,J.-I.,Lee,,T.G. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecula 2009 The Journal of biological chemistry Vol.284 No.49
[Purpose] Chronic stress is a risk factor for behavioral deficits, including impaired memory processing and depression. Exercise is well known to have beneficial impacts on brain health. [Methods] Mice were forced to treadmill running (4-week) during chronic restraint stress (6h/21d), and then behavioral tests were conducted by Novel object recognition, forced swimming test: FST, sociality test: SI. Dissected brain was stained with anti-calbindin-d28k and anti-Arc antibodies. Also, mice were treated with CX546 intraperitoneally during chronic restraint stress, and behavioral tests were assessed using Morris water maze, FST, and SI. Dissected brain was stained with anti-Arc antibody. [Results] The current study demonstrated that chronic stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and depression-like behaviors, along with the changes in calbindin-d28k and Arc protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 area, were attenuated by regular treadmill running. Further, prolonged ampakine treatment prevented chronic stress-evoked behavioral abnormalities and nuclear Arc levels in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nuclear localization of Arc protein in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not total levels, was correlated with behavioral outcome in chronically stressed mice in response to a regular exercise regimen. [Conclusion] These results suggest that nuclear levels of Arc are strongly associated with behavioral changes, and highlight the role of exercise acting through an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR)-mediated mechanisms in a chronic stress-induced maladaptive condition.
Nevus lipomatosus superficialis is a hamartoma characterized by ectopic mature adipose tissue in the papillary dermis. The condition was first described by Hoffman and Zurhelle in 1921. Two types of nevus lipomatosus superficialis are recognized, namely, the classical multiple type (also known as the Hoffman-Zurhelle type) and the solitary type. A 6-year-old girl presented with skin-colored, 1.7x1.3cm sized, well-defined, dome-shaped nodule on the left palm for several years. Histologic findings showed mature adipocytes between collagen fibers in both the papillary and deep dermis. These findings were consistent with the nevus lipomatosus superficialis. The large lesion was totally excised by fillet flap. At follow-up, the excision region healed with a cosmetically acceptable appearance. Although the solitary type of nevus can develop anywhere on the body, the occurrence on the hand has never been reported. Herein, we report the first case of a child with nevus lipomatosus superficialis on the left palm with fillet flap.
Fucoidan, a natural component of brown seaweed, has various biological activities such as anticancer activity, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory against various cancer cells. However, the fucoidan has been implicated in melanoma cells via apoptosis signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated apoptosis with fucoidan in A2058 human melanoma cells with dose- and time-dependent manners. In our results, A2058 cells viability decreased at relatively short-time and low-concentration through fucoidan. This effects of fucoidan on A2058 cells appeared to be mediated by the induction of apoptosis, as manifested by morphological changes through DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 staining. When a dose of 80 μg/mL fucoidan was treated, the cells were observed: crescent or ring-like structure, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. With the increase at 100 μg/mL fucoidan, the cell membrane is intact throughout the total process, including membrane blebbing and loss of membrane integrity as well as increase of sub-G1 DNA. Furthermore, to understand the exact mechanism of fucoidan-treated in A2058 cells, western blotting was performed to detect apoptosis-related protein expression. In this study, Bcl-2 family proteins can be regulated by fucoidan, suggesting that fucoidaninduced apoptosis is modulated by intrinsic pathway. Therefore, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax may result in altered permeability, activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. And the cleaved form of poly ADP-ribose polymerase was detected in fucoidan-treated A2058 cells. These results suggest that A2058 cells are highly sensitive to growth inhibition by fucoidan via apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases/ p38/Bcl-2 family signaling, as well as alteration in caspase-9 and caspase-3.
Macrophages play an indispensable role in the host immune defense. Macrophages can undergo polarization into classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages. M1 macrophages activate immune and inflammatory response, while M2 macrophages are involved in tissue remodeling. Mahonia oiwakensis (Mo) is a herbal medicine in Asia used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties; however, the mechanism is unclear. This study analyzed the effect of Mo extracts and its effects on the polarization of both macrophage RAW264.7 cells and mouse splenic macrophages. Water (Mo-W) and EtOH extracts (Mo-E) did not change the viability of RAW264.7 cells, whereas Mo-E inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production. The major compounds, berberine and palmatine, decreased the viability and NO levels of cells. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines CXCL16, IL-6, L-selectin, MCP1, RANTES, and sTNF-R1 was downregulated, whereas the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was upregulated by Mo-E, berberine, and palmatine treatments. Mo-E, berberine, and palmatine stimulated the expression of macrophage CD68 and M2-type CD204 markers, decreased M1-mediated p-STAT1 and NF-κB, and increased M2-mediated p-STAT6 expression. Similar effects on M2 polarization were also observed in splenic macrophages from mice. In conclusion, Mo-E, berberine, and palmatine modulated macrophages through the suppression of M1-mediated inflammation and the recruitment of M2-mediated VEGF secretion and STAT6 expression.