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      • 현산문화제의 문화적 접근고찰

        양언석(Yang On-seok) 아시아강원민속학회 2012 江原民俗學 Vol.26 No.-

        현산문화제는 양양의 대표적인 향토축제이다. 하지만 양양의 역사와 문화를 함축하는 축제명을 부여해야 한다. 현산이라는 축제명은 양양의 역사성와 전통성을 약화시킨다. 문화적 전통과 지역을 대표할만한 특성을 부각시켜야 한다. 오랜 역사와 담론을 갖고 있지만 양양의 문화에는 이야기가 없다. 미래는 이야기의 시대로, 이야기가 산업의 중심으로 자리하고 있다. 한 줄기의 감성적이고, 의미 있는 이야기가 사람의 마음을 움직이는 거대한 힘으로 현산문화제를 이야기가 있는 축제로 강화해야 한다. 신으로 모시는 성황신의 정체와 담론부터 의미를 부여하고, 동해신묘의 위상을 정립해야 한다. 예부터 불교의 성지로 많은 고승과 화랑들의 순례지였고, 풍광이 아름다워 시인묵객들의 담론이 전해오고 있다. 조신과 범일선사의 담론, 의상과 원효의 담론, 도의선사와 일연선사의 담론, 영혈사와 낙산사의 담론, 김시습의 허균의 담론 등 너무나 많은 일화들이 전해오고 있지만 이야기를 부여하여 하지 못하고 있다. 양양에는 풍부하고 다양한 이야기가 전해 오고 있다. 이 담론은 생활 속에서 애정을 갖게 되고 상상력은 미래사회의 원동력이 된다. 축제를 통해 자부심을 가질 수 있도록 해야 한다. The Hyeon-San cultural festival is a regional festival in Yang-Yang. However, the official of Yang-Yang festival should have connotations of Yang-Yang"s history and culture. In this aspect, the name of Hyeon-San might dilute the quality of historicity and traditionality of Yang-Yang, which does not include the historical story on Yang-Yang"s culture even if it has a long history and spoken discourse. The official name of festival should give prominence to the typical of Yang-Yang"s traditional culture. Recently, the story is becoming an industrial hub. Therefore, the Hyeon-San festival has to be touchable festival with meaningful story. First, the Seonghwangshin enshrining a spirit tablet is needed to be identified and a new meaning is also imparted to the relative stories. In addition, the status of Donghaeshinmyo (Tomb) has to be reestablished. From ancient times, this was a scared place of pilgrimage for Buddhists, high priests, and Hwarangdo. These stories date back to ancient times, which has inherited from many writers and artists because of its beautiful scenery, including the stories of Choshin and Beomil, Eyisang and Wonhyo, Doeyisunsa and Ilyeonsunsa, Youngheolsa and Maksansa, Kim Siseub and Hurgeun. There are abundant and various stories in Yang-Yang. Those can be a driving force of our community. Therefore, the festival should serve as a momentum for having the regional pride.

      • KCI등재

        제주방언 ‘양’에 대한 통사·담화론적 고찰

        양창용(Yang Changyong) 한국언어문학회 2009 한국언어문학 Vol.69 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The tremendous amount of work has certainly helped answer many structural understanding of Jeju dialect. Their main research focus goes on the formal analysis of language in the area of lexical, morphological and syntactic levels of Jeju dialect. There are a lot of more questions that can be raised concerning the further understanding and explanation of the grammar of it. Taking the spoken nature of Jeju dialect, it will be obvious that discoursal approaches should provide more insightful analysis for the better understanding of Jeju dialect. The present study is designed to explore the linguistic nature of yang in Jeju dialect, Therefore, the purpose of this studies is twofold: 1) to investigate the distributional aspects of yang in Jeju dialect and 2) to explore the possibility that the use of yang can be best explained from a discourse perspective. First, this study looks over the distributional aspects of yang based on the data which were collected from the Jeju Dialect Speech Contest in the year of 2005 and 2006. The findings indicate that the use of yang is not structurally restricted, appearing everywhere in a sentence. It is also shown that yang does not have to do with the propositional meaning. As a result, the present study shows that functional and pragmatic factors such as topic establishing, agreement, confirmation are not only relevant but also crucial to the determination of the use of yang.

      • 明代의 心學思想

        양방주 東亞大學校 大學院 1990 大學院論文集 Vol.15 No.-

        The thought of Hsin-hsueh in the Ming Dynasty developed through four characteristic stages. In the first stage, the tendency of Hsin-hsueh appeared in the thought of Chu-Tzu scholars and was transmitted by them. Even though the thought of Hsin-hsueh in this stage is composed of its rudimentary contents : the method of learning through perceiving and practicing truth for oneself, and the point that "Li is the substantial body," it had a great influence on the formation of Yang-ming philosophy. The important Hsin-hsueh scholars in this stage are Wu Yu-pi, who opened the gate of Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty and his followers, Ch'en Hsien-chang and Lou Liang, etc. In the second stage, Hsueh was completed into Yang-ming philosophy by Wang Yang-ming. It is also in this stage that the spiritualistic factor of Confucianism, which had been shown clearly from Mencius to Lu Hisang-shan, was embodied in Yang-ming philosophy. Its major contents consist several doctrines : the doctrine that mind itself is principle, the doctrine of the unity of knowledge and action, the doctrine of the extension of good knowledge, and the doctrine of cultivating one's mind in the course of practicing affairs, etc. In the third stage, ---from the viewpoint of period, this stage is partly overlapped with the second stage--- Yang-ming philosophy became more precise and more influencial. Moreover, the appearance of a great many Hsin-hsueh scholars and the advancement of Hsin-hsueh in the third stage formed many philosophic schools and enabled Hsin-hsueh to have a great social influence. On the other hand, the theretical fractionation to excess and the indulgence in the inquiry into precision too far made it all the more difficult to understand Hsin-hsueh. In addition, from the viewpoint of the tradition of Confucianism Hsin-hsueh is thought to incline toward the left owing to the factor of meditation in Hsin-hsueh itself, The important scholars in this stage are Ch'ien Te-hung, Wang Chi, Lo Ju-fang, Lo Hung-hsien, Li Chih, and Nieh Pao, etc. In the fourth stage, Yang-ming philosophy was on the decline and a new change was groped for. The historical period of this stage falls on the late Ming Dynasty era. Theredore, Yang-ming philosophy was criticized to be weakened in relation especially to the political and social situation at that time. The thought of Hsin-hsueh in the fourth stage remainded in existance only throught the activities of the scholars who exposed the problems of Yang-ming philosophy and partially accepted it, and took on a role in influencing the appearance of a new philosophical tendency. The important scholars in this stage are the brothers Ku Hsin-ch'eng. Huang Tao-chou, and Liu Tsung-chou, etc. Liu Tsung-chou was not an orthodox Yang-ming scholar. However, he is called the last Hsin-hsueh scholar of the Ming Dynasty because he accepted the many parts of Hsin-heueh ang-ming and his theory shared its vein.

      • KCI등재후보

        음양오행으로 접근한 무용수의 자아정체성 분석

        양성옥(Yang Sung-Ok) 한국체육과학회 2008 한국체육과학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        This study aimed at analyzing the dancer's self-identity with a focus on the characteristics of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements. For this purpose, a total of 205 Korean dance majors around Seoul and the Metropolitan Area were randomly sampled. As for the measurement tool, Yin-Yan and the Five Elements was composed of open questions based on the study by Kim, Ji-hee(2004), while self-identity consisted of the questions used by Kim, Kyung-ho(1998) and Jung, Kwi-soon(2007) with the contents being revised and complemented. The reliability coefficient of the scale Cronbach's α ranged from .74 to .95. As for the research procedure, a questionnaire survey was conducted by way of direct visit at the appropriate region, in which the data completed by means of a self-administration method was collected and searched for. And the data was analyzed via SPSS 13.0 version program, for example one-way analysis and correspondence analysis. This procedure and method resulted in conclusion as follows. First, the group aged 19 averages high in stability and interpersonal role perception, and the one aged 20 to 22 averages high in self-acceptance. Also, the group with 6 to 7 years' experiences as a dancer averages high in self-existence, and the one with over 10 years' experiences averages higher in self-acceptance. Second, the Korean dancer's interpersonal role perception is derived from the fundamental area(east/blue) which creates and originates all things in the universe in the traditional thoughts of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements and the area which brings out the other colors(black/north), which inclines to the energy of yin. Whereas, the peculiarity of self- existence lies in the area of east(blue) and south(red) of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements, which inclines to the energy of yang. Besides, the target orientation lies in the west(white) area which involves relativity revealed by movements and stillness, that is, ambivalence of the yin and yang, and self-acceptance is placed in the center(orange) of the Yin-Yang and the Five Elements.

      • KCI등재

        李建昌의 「李卓吾贊」에 대하여

        김용태(Kim Yang-Tae) 동양한문학회(구 부산한문학회) 2008 동양한문학연구 Vol.26 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고는 이희목 교수에 의해 십수년 전에 보고되었으나, 그 사이 학계에서 ‘잊혀진’ 자료였던 이건창의 「이탁오찬」이란 글의 존재를 학계에 환기하고, 그 내용과 의의를 검토하여 이건창 문학을 새롭게 이해하는 시각을 제시하려는 목적에서 집필되었다. 「이탁오찬」은 陽明左派의 성립에 중요한 역할을 하였던 李贄를 칭송하는 내용을 담은 글이기에, 최근 들어 그 열기가 더해지고 있는 양명좌파와 公安派의 수용에 대한 연구에 있어 매우 중요한 자료가 아닐 수 없다.<BR>  「이탁오찬」은 이건창이 20대에 지은 글인데, 이 당시 내면적으로 울분상태에 있던 이건창은 양명좌파 및 공안파를 접하면서 많은 위안을 받을 수 있었다. 이후 이건창은 양명좌파 및 공안파와 일정한 거리를 두게 되지만, 양명좌파 및 공안파의 사유를 자신의 문학적 목표와 실천의 자양분으로 적절히 활용하였다. 이러한 점은 이건창 문학을 주로 ‘古文’적 관점에서 접근 하였던 기존의 연구에서 주목하지 못했던 부분이라 할 수 있는데, 실상 이건창 문학이 위대한 까닭은 양명좌파, 공안파, 동성파 등등의 외부적 요인을 주체적으로 활용하여 자신만의 독특한 색깔로 재창조했다는 점에서 찾아져야 할 것이다. 그리고 이러한 점은 양명좌파와 공안파의 수용에 있어 ‘주체’의 측면을 제대로 고려하지 않는 최근의 연구경향에 대해서도 시사하는 바가 적지 않다고 할 수 있다.   The material, 「lee tak oh chan(李卓吾贊)」, was reported approximately a dozen years ago by a Professor Lee, Hee-mok. But this material has been "forgotten" in the academic society. This abstract has been created with an aim to propose a new point of view to understand the literature of Lee, Kun-chang(李建昌) by reviewing the 「lee tak oh chan」. 「lee tak oh chan」 contains materials that look up to Li zh? who had played an important role in establishing a Radical Yang-ming school, which cannot be a crucial material in the sense that recently its academic heat has been increasing toward Radical Yang-ming school and Gong-an School.<BR>  「Lee tak oh chan」 was made by Lee, Kun-chang in his twenties. At the time, Lee, Kun-chang who was in depression of his days had been consoled much by Radical Yang-ming school and Gong-an School. Since then, he placed a certain distance to Radical Yang-ming school and Gong-an School, however he applied appropriately Radical Yang-ming school and Gong-an School to sources of nutrition of literary object and performance. These points were something that at-the-time research hardly took notice of having the viewpoint to access to Lee, Kun-chang literature based upon "Guwen(Classical literary Style 古文)". In fact, the reason, we have to understand, that the greatness of Lee, Kun-chang literature is that it recreated outer factors of Radical Yang-ming school, Gong-an School, Dong-sung School, etc subjectively in its unique color.<BR>  And, in this respect, it suggests us a lot in the sense that even recent research trend tends to hardly focus upon "subjectivity" in the absorbtion of Radical Yang-ming school and Gong-an School.

      • KCI등재

        수대 돈황 막고굴과 장안·낙양 : 통일 그리고 Silk Road Dream

        양은경 ( Yang Eun Gyeng ) 중앙아시아학회 2020 中央아시아硏究 Vol.25 No.2

        This study explores East-West cultural interactions during the Sui dynasty by examining the structures and murals of the Dunhuang Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottos, which so far have received less attention than their importance merits. It focuses on the relationship between Dunhuang and the Changan and Luoyang regions, rather than on the interactive relationship between Dunhuang and the countries to the west of China hitherto emphasized by academic circles. Furthermore, it examines the important role that Dunhuang played during the Sui dynasty and the impact of the revival and subsequent frustration of Sui Emperor Yang's pipedream Silk Road initiative on the Dunhuang Mogao Caves. First of all, in terms of the grottos' structure, the central-pillar grottos, which were prevalent in the Northern and Southern dynasties, continued into the Sui dynasty, but there was a change in both the shape and height of the central pillar and in the Buddha statue enshrined in the central pillar. The overall structure has been confirmed as forming a set relationship with the three-wall structure, each wall having a niche. Investigation of the Mogao Caves has identified not only the popular but short-lived three-wall structure with niches characteristic of the Sui dynasty, but also a cave structure with an altar set into the front wall (正壁設壇窟), which was only built during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui, and a cave structure with three walls, each with an altar (三壁設壇窟). These grotto structures have all been found to share similarities with those in the regions of Hebei, Henan, and Shanxi, which date from the Northern and Southern dynasties to the Sui dynasty. In addition to the different grotto structure, the Sui Mogao Caves contained fewer of the murals of the Buddha's Life Story and the Buddha's Previous Birth Story popular during the Wei-Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties, and instead featured a new style of mural, “Paintings of Sutras”. First, the Murals of the Vimalakirti Sutra in the Sui Mogao Caves depict statues of Vimalakirti and Manjusri sitting inside house-shaped buildings. In fact, this layout differs from that of the Mogao Caves in the Northern and Southern dynasties, and rather seems to be connected with the sculptures inside the grottos, represented by the Liushi Cave of the Longmen Grottos, in the Henan region. A close examination of the painting of the Amitabha Buddha's Pure Land in the Sui Mogao Caves, with the focus on the canvas structure expressing the Western Paradise World and the posture of the Amitabha Triad, revealed many similarities with those of the Nan Xiangtangshan Caves in Northern Qi. The newly discovered details of the structure and murals of the Sui Mogao Caves are different from those of their counterparts in Central Asia, which were strongly reflected in the Dunhuang grottos in the Wei-Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties, and are closely connected with the grottos in the Changan and Luoyang regions of Eastern China in particular. This suggests that, during the Sui dynasty, there was a close interaction between the Dunhuang region and the Changan and Luoyang regions. Among such interactions, human interactions are deemed the most important. First, as regards the movement of people, the examination of history books and cemetery names has made it possible to identify political officials who were appointed to the Dunhuang area from inland China. Second, when the Stupa to Emperor Wen of Sui was erected in 601, it is noted that the monk Jiui, who stayed in the Mogao Caves Jisang monastery-Sunggyo Temple for several years after being sent there, was identified as a monk of Northern Qi lineage. Furthermore, analysis of the Buddhist scriptures discovered in Dunhuang revealed that the monks who lived in Changan moved to the Dunhuang area, suggesting the spread of the Buddhist culture of the Changan and Luoyang regions. Lastly, Emperor Yang's Silk Road initiative was presented as the reason for and background to the massive change that occurred once again in the Mogao Caves during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui. Emperor Yang sent Baegu to Dunhuang on a diplomatic mission with various western countries, and he himself traveled to the Hexi region in 607. This fact is presumed to constitute the background to the major changes that occurred in Dunhuang, a key center of East-West exchange at that time, and in the Mogao Caves. However, Emperor Yang's Silk Road initiative lost its force with the fall of the dynasty, and, as a result, it is presumed that the excavation of Mogao Caves and new elements also lost the light of their glory.

      • KCI등재후보

        Correlations Between Fasciology and Yin Yang Doctrine

        Hui Tao,Mei-chun Yu,Hui-ying Yang,Rong-mei Qu,Chun Yang,Xin Zhou,Yu Bai,Jing-peng Wu,Jun Wang,Ou Sha,Lin Yuan 사단법인약침학회 2011 Journal of Acupuncture & Meridian Studies Vol.4 No.2

        The aim of this study is to explore the correlations between fasciology and yin yang doctrine. Professor Yuan developed fasciology by three-dimensional reconstruction of connective tissue (fascia) in the trunk and limbs of the human body and tracing back to tissue origins in light of biological evolution and developmental biology. Fasciology states that the human body can be divided into two systems: the supporting-storing system and the functional system. This article elaborates on the roles of the two systems and their mutual relationship. The two systems are used to analyze the yin,the yang, and their relationship. The two systems are promoted but also restricted in different contexts. The supporting-storing system is formed by undifferentiated connective tissue and provides undifferentiated cells and nutrients for differentiated cells of the functional system. Thus, the supporting-storing system could be classified as quiet, similar to yin. The functional system continuously maintains the various functional activities of the human body. Thus, the functional system could be classified as active, similar to yang. In interpreting the yin yang doctrine from the point of view of fasciology, yin can be compared with the supporting-storing system and yang can be compared with the functional system.

      • KCI등재

        지성중심의 사고를 넘어선 철학상담의 가능성 모색 - 왕양명과 베르그손 사상의 유사성을 중심으로 -

        양선진 ( Yang Sun-jin ) 한국동서철학회 2017 동서철학연구 Vol.0 No.85

        서양의 철학은 이성이 중심적인 역할을 담당하였다. 특히 근대 철학자인 데카르트와 칸트 철학은 이성 중심 철학의 정점에 위치한다. 하지만 이성중심의 철학이 삶과 괴리되면서 실천성이 약화되었다. 베르그손(Henri Bergson: 1859-1941) 은 근대 서양의 인간 규정인 이성(=지성)이 생명의 실재를 서술할 수 없음을 역설하면서 삶과 분리된 이성을 비판하고 역동적인 생명의 지속성을 이해하기 위해서는 지성중심의 철학의 문제점을 지적하면서 직관의 철학을 주장한다. 동양의 유학자인 왕양명(王陽明: 1472-1528)<sup>1)</sup>은 인간이 천지자연과 근원적인 관계 속에 있으며 인간의 도덕적 근원이 외부에 법칙으로 존재하는 것이 아니라 인간 내부에 존재함을 역설한 철학자이다. 왕수인에 의하면 인간 생명은 결국 물리적 법칙으로 설명 불가능할 뿐만 아니라 인격적 자연인 천지(天地)와 유기적 관계를 맺어야만 한다. 베르그손이나 왕양명은 생명을 정태적인 법칙성 속에서 이해하려는 철학을 거부하고 모두 생명을 그 자체로 이해하려고 노력한 철학자이며 생명존재를 설명하기 위해서 이성적 차원만으로 부족함을 역설한 철학자이다. 베르그손에게 생명의 본질적특성인 생명의 약동은 최초의 근원자가 약동성을 부여하였음을 인정하며 왕양명은 모든 존재는 천지와의 유기적 관계를 가지고 있다고 설명한다. 철학상담은 기본적으로 인간을 생명적이며 인격적인 존재임을 전재한다. 본 논문에서는 베르그손의 이성은 사변적이거나 추상적 이성이 아닌 실제적이며 살아있는 이성임을 규명할 것이다. 그리고 베르그손의 이성과 유사하게 동양철학자인 왕양명의 지성(知)도 삶과 괴리되지 않는 행동(行)과 긴밀한 관련성이 있는 실제적 삶 속에 나타나는 지성이라는 사실이다. 그리고 동양의 인간의 본질을 감성에 기초하고 있다. 따라서 유학은 기본적으로 인간의 감성에 대한 강한 신뢰이며 인간의 존재론적 조건이라고 설명한다. 철학상담에 적용한다면, 상담자는 내담자의 맥락 속에서 실천적 지성을 가지고 문제를 스스로 해결하도록 도와줄 뿐이다. 인간 행동의 대부분은 감성의 작용이며 이성은 극히 제한적으로 작용한다. 왕양명은 맹자처럼 감성을 인정하지만 인간의 인간다움은 바로 영성에 있다고 본다. 인간존재는 근원자(왕양명의 우주자연/베르그손의 생의 약동을 부여한자)로부터 존재근거를 설명한다. 인간이 근원자로부터의 단절은 인간의 실존적 문제 및 철학적 질병과 관계된다. 근원적인 우주자연과의 분리는 철학적 불안으로 나타나며 심리학적 우울증과는 다르다. 베르그손과 왕양명의 철학에 근거한 상담은 내담자에게 심리적 차원에서 치료할 것이 아니라 근원적 인격적 자연과 관계회복을 통해서 치료해야한다. 철학상담자는 근본적 질병이 해결될 수 있도록 내담자가 근원자와 관계를 회복하도록 도와주는 것이 진정한 의미의 본질적 치료이다. Wang Yang-ming is based on the ontology of the characteristic of nature (天地) which has an organic relationship with humanity. According to Wang Yang-ming, human life is ultimately impossible to explain through the laws of physics. Bergson critiqued reason which is separated from the life and the world, because modern Western reason is abstract and speculative. Both philosophers have in common the characteristics which don`t only reject the law of life and understanding of life itself but also emphasized the spiritual dimension. According to Bergson`s essential features of life, life recognizes the initial source of vital explosion. Selon Wang Yang-ming thought that all beings are in an organic relationship with heaven and earth. Philosophical Counseling should recognize the essence of the human condition containing the intellectual, emotional, and spiritual dimension. True Philosophical Counseling should be treated through the fundamental relationships with the God (characteristic nature) rather than the cure recovered from the psychological level to clients.

      • KCI등재

        인간의 경제적, 도덕적 그리고 종교적 차원 - 애덤 스미스의 경제학과 윤리학을 넘어 왕양명과 키에르케고어의 종교적 존재로 -

        양선진 ( Yang¸ Sun-jin ) 사단법인 퇴계학부산연구원 2020 退溪學論叢 Vol.0 No.36

        인간은 영혼과 함께 육체를 지닌 존재이기 때문에 인간의 육체적 욕망인 이기심을 극대화하려는 욕망과 욕구를 실현하려고 한다. 애덤 스미스((Smith, A., 1723 ~ 1790))는 인간이 이익을 추구하는 것은 자연스런 인간의 욕망이며 이러한 욕망이 결과적으로 타인에게도 이익을 제공한다면 전혀 문제될 것이 없다고 보았으며 이러한 상호이익의 관점이 타인의 자비심에 의존하는 것보다 더욱 효율적인 사회라고 간주하였다. 왕양명(王陽明: 1472-1528)은 인간이 육체적 욕망과 영혼의 복합체인 형기(形氣)를 지녔기 때문에 자연스럽게 사욕(私慾)을 극대화하려는 방향으로 흐르게 된다는 점을 인정한다. 이런 차원에서 현실적 차원에서 접근하는 주류 경제학은 인간을 기본적으로 이기적인 존재로 본다. 인간이 인간다움을 지닐 수 있는 근거는 바로 현실에 매몰되지 않고 삶의 가치와 의미를 추구하는 존재라는 사실이다. 이런 점에서 인간은 경제적 모습을 지니면서도 동시에 도덕적 삶을 추구하는 존재라는 사실이다. 애덤 스미스는 인간이 자신의 이웃에게 또는 자기 자신에게 자산의 성품과 행위가 드러날 때 마음속에서 일어나는 도덕법칙, 즉 도덕감(moral sentiments)이 존재함을 인정한다. 왕양명의 심즉리는 인간의 마음이 자신의 비도덕적인 이기적 격정과 욕망을 제거하고 인간 내부의 양지(良知)의 목소리에 따라서 행동한다면 인간의 마음이 곧 도덕적 원리와 이치에 부합한다는 관점(心卽理)이다. 왕양명의 도덕적 원리는 사적인 욕망을 제거하고 다른 사람의 입장에서 유익이 되는 행동을 촉구하는 인간의 도덕적 감정(良知)을 의미한다. 키에로케고어(Søren Kierkegaard: 1813-1855)는 심미적, 윤리적 그리고 종교적 단계로 나눈다. 그는 인간의 정신 또는 인간의 영혼의 기원을 이해하기 위해서는 인간 영혼의 근원자인 절대자로 나아가야 한다고 주장한다. 인간 영혼의 기원자에 접근하는 방법은 이성이나 감성이 아닌 인간이 지닌 신앙(영성)을 통해서 가능하다고 보았다. 그리고 그는 인간의 본래적 본성을 회복하는 길은 바로 인간의 종교적 단계인 신앙 속에서 신과의 만남을 통해서 가능하다고 보았다. 왕양명은 인간이 지닌 생리적 욕구 또는 이기적 욕망이 인간 안에 자리 잡은 하늘의 이치와 원리를 제압하지 못하도록 통제하고 다스릴 것을 강조한다. 인간의 본성이 참다운 본성인 자연의 지배를 받는다면 인간이 인간다운 선한 도덕성을 발현할 수 있지만 인간과 자연이 하나라는 본성을 인지하지 못한다면 인간이 자연의 본성에 거역하는 행동을 하게 되기 때문에 비도덕적 행동을 할 수 있다. 본 논문은 두 철학자를 이러한 3 단계로 나눠서 인간의 복잡하고 다양한 층위를 고찰하고자 한다. 특히 오늘날의 인간의 모습을 이해하기 위해서는 경제적 차원을 고려하지 않을 수 없다는 차원에서 가장 낮은 단계인 감각적(심리적)단계 및 사욕의 단계를 경제적 차원에서 살펴보고자 한다. 그리고 경제적 차원 이외에 인간의 도덕적 차원이 우리 사회에 어떠한 문화적 위상을 가지게 되었는지를 고찰할 것이며 마지막으로 인간의 도덕적 문화를 바르게 정착하기 위해서 종교적 차원이 왜 중요한지도 살펴볼 것이다. Adam Smith (1723-1790) found it efficient to pursue one's own interests within the scope of satisfying others' interests, and to rely more on mutual interests than to expect of others' benevolence. As such, human beings are physical beings with their souls, so they try to realize the desire and desire to maximize their selfishness, the physical desire of human beings. If understood from the philosophical point of view of Wang Yang-Ming (1472-1528), the human term means a complex of physical desires and souls, and the human term naturally flows in the direction of maximizing one's self-interest. In this regard, mainstream economics, which approaches at a realistic level, sees humans as basically selfish beings. The reason why human beings can be human is that they are not buried in reality but rather seek the values and meanings that life pursues. In this regard, human beings are both economically-looking and at the same time seeking moral life. Adam Smith explored the moral laws, or moral sensibilities, that occur in the mind when a human being enters into the nature and act of an asset to his neighbor or himself. Wang Yang-Ming's point of view is that if the human mind removes its immoral selfish passion and desire and acts according to the voice of the sheep within the human body, the human mind corresponds to the moral principle and reason. Wang Yang-Ming's moral principle refers to the moral feelings of humans that urge individuals to take actions that are beneficial to others' positions and remove desires for their own sake. Kierkegaard(1813-1855) argues that in order to understand the origin of the human mind or of the human soul, one must move on to the absolute, the source of the human soul. The originator of the human soul was not accessible by reason or sensibility, but only through the faith of man. Kierkegaard is divided into aesthetic, ethical and religious levels. And he saw that the path to restoring the fundamental nature of man becomes human through meeting with God in faith, which is the religious stage of man. Wang Yang-Ming stresses that men's physiological or selfish desires should be controlled and governed to prevent them from subdueing the reason and principle of heaven, where they are located in humans. If human nature is governed by nature, which is a true nature, human beings can express good morality like human beings, but if human beings do not recognize the nature of being one of nature, they can act against nature and act immorally. This paper tries to examine the complex and diverse strata of human beings by dividing the two philosophers into these three stages. In particular, we want to look at the lowest level of sensory (psychological) and self-interest at an economic level in order to understand the human nature of today. And besides the economic dimension, we will look at what cultural status human moral dimension has become in our society, and finally, why religious dimension is important in order to properly establish human moral culture.

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