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<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Nickel-rich metal oxides have been widely pursued as promising cathode materials for high energy-density lithium-ion batteries. Nickel-rich lithium transition metal oxides can deliver a high specific capacity during cycling, but can react with non-aqueous electrolytes. In this work, we have employed a full concentration gradient (FCG) design to provide a nickel-rich core to deliver high capacity and a manganese-rich outer layer to provide enhanced stability and cycle life. <I>In situ</I> high-energy X-ray diffraction was utilized to study the structural evolution of oxides during the solid-state synthesis of FCG lithium transition metal oxide with a nominal composition of LiNi<SUB>0.6</SUB>Mn<SUB>0.2</SUB>Co<SUB>0.2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>. We found that both the pre-heating step and the sintering temperature were critical in controlling phase separation of the transition metal oxides and minimizing the content of Li<SUB>2</SUB>CO<SUB>3</SUB> and NiO, both of which deteriorate the electrochemical performance of the final material. The insights revealed in this work can also be utilized for the design of other nickel-rich high energy-density cathode materials.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Solid-state synthesis of FCG cathode is investigated by <I>in situ</I> XRD. </LI> <LI> Covariance analysis and Rietveld refinement are used to analyze the HEXRD data. </LI> <LI> Synthetic optimization of FCG cathode with excellent electrochemical performance. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>Benefit from the covariance analysis and Rietveld refinement of <I>in situ</I> HEXRD data during the solid state synthesis, we can optimized the solid state synthesis conditions in a short time. And the full concentration gradient cathode composites (nickel-rich core and manganese-rich outer layer) with excellent electrochemical performance are obtained.</P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
Background: The overexpression of TSLP and DNA methylation in asthma were both risk factors the relationship was not clear. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between methylation status of TSLP promoter and mRNA/protein expression in asthmatic airway epithelial cells. Methods: Human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in vitro and divided into: Control group, treated with PBS, model group, sensitized with LPS (10 μg/mL) for 12 h (37 °C, 5% CO2). Other groups were cultured with the pCMV3 plasmid (M + NC/pCMV), pGPH1 plasmid (M + NC/pGPH), DNMT1/pCMV3 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pCMV), and DNMT1/pGPH1 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pGPH) for 48 h. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and TSLP were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting. Results: Compared with the control group, TSLP mRNA (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1, P < 0.001) and protein (1.07 ± 0.04 vs. 1.46 ± 0.11, P < 0.01) were significantly greater, and the methylation of promoter was lower (92.75 ± 1.26 vs. 58.57 ± 3.34, P < 0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, TSLP mRNA (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1.17 ± 0.10, P < 0.001) decreased, but TSLP promoter methylation increased (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 92.58 ± 7.30, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pCMV. TSLP mRNA and protein were higher (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 5.32 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 1.46 ± 0.11 vs. 1.94 ± 0.11, respectively, P < 0.01), TSLP promoter methylation was lower (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 33.57 ± 4.29, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pGPH. Conclusions: Overexpression of TSLP in asthmatic airway epithelial cells may be regulated by DNA demethylation.
<P>The decomposition pathway is crucial for the applicability of LiBH<SUB>4</SUB> as a hydrogen storage material. We discuss and compare the different decomposition pathways of LiBH<SUB>4</SUB> according to the thermodynamic parameters and show the experimental ways to realize them. Two pathways, <I>i.e.</I> the direct decomposition into boron and the decomposition <I>via</I> Li<SUB>2</SUB>B<SUB>12</SUB>H<SUB>12</SUB>, were realized under appropriate conditions, respectively. By applying a H<SUB>2</SUB> pressure of 50 bar at 873 K or 10 bar at 700 K, LiBH<SUB>4</SUB> is forced to decompose into Li<SUB>2</SUB>B<SUB>12</SUB>H<SUB>12</SUB>. In a lower pressure range of 0.1 to 10 bar at 873 K and 800 K, the concurrence of both decomposition pathways is observed. Raman spectroscopy and <SUP>11</SUP>B MAS NMR measurements confirm the formation of an intermediate Li<SUB>2</SUB>B<SUB>12</SUB>H<SUB>12</SUB> phase (mostly Li<SUB>2</SUB>B<SUB>12</SUB>H<SUB>12</SUB> adducts, such as dimers or trimers) and amorphous boron.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>The thermodynamic properties of LiBH<SUB>4</SUB> and its possible decomposition products and intermediates allow flexibility in selection of the decomposition pathway by tuning the external parameters such as pressure and temperature. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c2cp40131b'> </P>
Recently, three dimensional graphene aerogel (3DGA) supported sulfur microparticles was used as a cathode material for lithium?sulfur batteries, which was considered as one of the most promising next generation rechargeable batteries due to its ultra?high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mAh/g). However, the mechanical strength of 3DGA remains an issue for further application. Herein, a strengthened 3DGA (S3DGA) was achieved by soaking in a low concentration ammonia solution at a relative low temperature. Then the S3DGA loaded sulfur (S3DGA?S) was cut into a round piece and directly used as a cathode without additional binders or conductive additives in Li?S batteries. The mechanical strength, microstructure, and electrochemical properties were investigated by compare with a 3DGA prepared without strengthen. The S3DGA?S presented good mechanical strength, excellent capacity retention, and lower electrochemical impedance.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to be induced in response to various stress factors. Although HSPs have been studied in a number of insects, not much is known about HSPs in the natural enemies of insects, especially parasitoids. In this study, we identified and characterized five full‐length HSP genes (Cchsp40, Cchsp60, Cchsp70, Cchsp83, and Cchsp90) from an endoparasitic chalcid wasp, Chouioia cunea, which parasitizes the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea pupae, a worldwide pest. The expression of Cchsps in response to temperature, pesticide stresses and UV radiation were also investigated by quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐qPCR). The results showed that all five Cchsps were induced in response to hot and cold temperatures. Four pesticides induced the abundant expression of Cchsp70, Cchsp83 and Cchsp90 while ultraviolet radiation up‐regulated Cchsp40, Cchsp70, Cchsp83 and Cchsp90. These results indicate the different transcriptional profiles of the five different Cchsps in response to various abiotic stresses. The findings of this study provide insights into the response of C. cunea to abiotic stresses and insight into the use of this parasitoid in biological control strategies.
Symbiotic nitrogen fxation is beneft to sustainable agriculture and global nitrogen cycle. Many small peptides were identifed as regulators involving in the interaction between rhizobia and legume. Here we reported Nodule Rich Protein 2 (MtNRP2) encoding a small peptide in Medicago truncatula, belonged to a group of nodule rich protein restricted in legume species. MtNRP2 expressed highly in root nodule and its promoter was active during the initiation and development of root nodule and lateral root. To investigate the function of MtNRP2 in nodulation, we generated MtNRP2-overexpression and MtNRP2- knockdown transgenic Medicago. MtNRP2-overexpression transgenic lines performed normal nodulation phenotype compared with vector control. However, in the MtNRP2-RNAi transgenic plants, the decrease of MtNRP2 expression lead to the increase of infection threads number (7 day post inoculation) and nodules number (3 week post inoculation); meanwhile, the expression of MtRGF3 and MtPUB1 was inhibited. These results suggested that MtNRP2 negatively regulated nodulation in Medicago truncatula.
To improve the specific capacitance and energy density of electrochemical capacitor, nanostructured NiO was prepared by high temperature solid-state method as electrode material. The crystal structure and morphology of as-parepared NiO samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement was applied to investigate the specific capacitance of the NiO electrode. Furthermore,a novel mixed electrolyte consisting of NaOH, KOH, LiOH and Li_2CO_3 was prepared for the NiO capacitor,and the component and concentration of the four different electrolytes was examined by orthogonal test. The results showed that the NiO sample has cubic structure with nano-size particles, and the optimal composition of the electrolyte was: NaOH 2 mol L^(−1), KOH 3 mol L^(−1), LiOH 0.05 mol L^(−1), and Li_2CO_3 0.05 mol L^−1. At a scan rate of 10 mV s^(−1), the fabricated capacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical capacitive performance, while the specific capacitance and the energy density were 239 F g^(−1) and 85 Wh kg^(−1), which was higher than one-component electrolyte.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Protein-surfactant interactions have been explored for decades owing to their widespread application in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries and their importance to biochemical systems. However, they require further study owing to their compositional complexity and the innate limitations of current analytical approaches. In this review, we briefly introduce a series of individual approaches used for the qualitative and quantitative investigation of protein-surfactant interactions, including absorbance- or emission-based spectroscopy, scattering-based spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, calorimetry, computation and microscopy. More importantly, we then compare and evaluate various combinations of these approaches and provide comprehensive critical assessments and comments regarding their application to the advanced study of protein-surfactant interactions at the molecular level.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Investigation of protein-surfactant interactions are important in chemistry. </LI> <LI> Individual analytical approaches have limitations. </LI> <LI> Overview of individual analytical approaches: cons and pros. </LI> <LI> Combinations of current individual approaches to overcome their limitations. </LI> <LI> Assessment of the efficiency and validity of combinations of analytical approaches. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive brain tumor. The current standard therapy, which includes radiation and chemotherapy, is frequently ineffective partially because of drug resistance and poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier. Reducing resistance and increasing sensitivity to chemotherapy may improve outcomes. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a source of relapse and chemoresistance in GBM; sensitization of GSCs to temozoliomide (TMZ), the primary chemotherapeutic agent used to treat GBM, is therefore integral for therapeutic efficacy. We previously discovered a unique tumor-specific target, cell surface vimentin (CSV), on patient-derived GSCs. In this study, we found that the anti-CSV monoclonal antibody 86C efficiently increased GSC sensitivity to TMZ. The combination TMZ+86C induced significantly greater antitumor effects than TMZ alone in eight of 12 GSC lines. TMZ+86C–sensitive GSCs had higher CSV expression overall and faster CSV resurfacing among CSV<SUP>−</SUP> GSCs compared with TMZ+86C–resistant GSCs. Finally, TMZ+86C increased apoptosis of tumor cells and prolonged survival compared with either drug alone in GBM mouse models. The combination of TMZ+86C represents a promising strategy to reverse GSC chemoresistance.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Anti-CSV monoclonal antibody 86C sensitize GSCs to TMZ treatment. </LI> <LI> GSCs with higher CSV expression are more sensitive to TMZ+86C. </LI> <LI> GSCs with higher CSV resurfacing rate among CSV<SUP>−</SUP> cells are more sensitive to TMZ+86C. </LI> <LI> TMZ+86C increased apoptosis and prolonged survival in GBM models. </LI> <LI> Tumor-specific CSV antibody 86C can efficiently target human GSCs to increase their sensitivity to TMZ. </LI> </UL> </P>