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Nucleus accumbens septi (NAB), one of mesolimbic system, which anatomically related the limbic system. We an attempted to elucidated emotional changes following bilateral NAB lesions in rats. Caudal, rostral and both areas of NAB were lesioned each in separated animal groups. Furthermore, aggressive behavior induced by NAB rats was investigated in comparison with those induced by olfactory bulbectomized rats and raphe nucleus-lesioned rats. 1) At postoperative day 2, locomotor activity were increased in r-NAB rats but not in c-NAB rats. 2) All rats exhibited hyperirritability and muricide including mouse-eating behavior after NAB lesions. 3) Muricide of NAB rats was significantly supressed by L-DOPA, L-5-HTP and antidepressants, muricide of raphe rats was also significantly inhibited by L-DOPA and L-5-HTP, while that in OB rats was not suppressed. These results suggested that the NAB plays an important role in locomotor activity and aggression. The characteristics of aggressive behavior induced by NAB rats resemble to that of raphe-rats.
<P>It was demonstrated previously that a positive feedback loop, including protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is required for the gradual expression of cerebellar long-term depression (LTD). PKC and MAPK are mutually activated in this loop. MAPK-dependent PKC activation is likely to be mediated by phospholipase A2. On the other hand, it is not clear how PKC activates MAPK. Therefore, the entire picture of this loop was not fully understood. We here test the hypothesis that this loop is completed by the PKC substrate, Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). To test this hypothesis, we used a mutant form of RKIP that is not phosphorylated by PKC and thus constitutively inhibits Raf-1 and MEK, upstream kinases of MAPK. When this RKIP mutant was introduced into Purkinje cells of mouse cerebellar slices through patch-clamp electrodes, LTD was blocked, while wild-type (WT) RKIP had no effect on LTD. Physiological epistasis experiments demonstrated that RKIP works downstream of PKC and upstream of MAPK during LTD induction. Furthermore, biochemical analyses demonstrated that endogenous RKIP dissociates from Raf-1 and MEK during LTD induction in a PKC-dependent manner, suggesting that RKIP binding-dependent inhibition of Raf-1 and MEK is removed upon LTD induction. We therefore conclude that PKC-dependent regulation of RKIP leads to MAPK activation, with RKIP completing the positive feedback loop that is required for LTD.</P>
Yasunori Yamamoto,Shinya Furukawa,Junichi Watanabe,Aki Kato,Katsunori Kusumoto,Teruki Miyake,Eiji Takeshita,Yoshio Ikeda,Naofumi Yamamoto,Katsuhiko Kohara,Syuichi Saheki,Yuka Saeki,Yoichi Hiasa 대한소화기 기능성질환·운동학회 2022 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.28 No.3
Background/AimsFunctional dyspepsia (FD) may be a common digestive disease worldwide and reduces the quality of life of patients. However, only a few studies have investigated the association between eating behavior and FD. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association between eating behavior and prevalence of FD in a young Japanese cohort. MethodsIn this study, we enrolled 8923 Japanese university students. FD is diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Eating habits and frequency of meals were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire. ResultsThe FD subjects had a younger mean age, a lower body mass index, and a lower proportion of men compared to the non-FD subjects. An independent positive association between skipping breakfast and/or lunch and FD was found (adjusted ORs were 1.60 [95% CI, 1.10-2.32] for breakfast and 2.52 [95% CI, 1.04-5.18] for lunch). Skipping dinner, extra meals (snacks) or midnight snacks was not associated with FD. The prevalence of FD in subjects eating 1, 2, and 3 meals per day was 4.8%, 2.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. The frequency of meals was independently inversely associated with prevalence of FD (adjusted ORs were 1 per day: 2.72 [95% CI, 1.19-5.42], and 2 per day: 1.69 [95% CI, 1.16-2.43], P for trend = 0.001). ConclusionsIn the young Japanese people, the frequency of meals may be independently inversely associated with prevalence of FD. In particular, skipping breakfast and/or lunch was associated with the prevalence of FD.
( Sayuri Yamamoto ),( Yurika Kawamura ),( Kazuhiro Yamamoto ),( Yoshiharu Yamaguchi ),( Yasuhiro Tamura ),( Shinya Izawa ),( Hiroaki Nakagawa ),( Yoshinori Wakita ),( Yasutaka Hijikata ),( Masahide Eb 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 2021 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.27 No.4
Background/Aims Chronic constipation and lifestyle factors can affect sleep quality. We evaluated the relationship between chronic constipation and sleep in the Japanese population. Methods This cross-sectional internet-based survey included 3000 subjects with constipation, classified according to sleep status (good/poor). Primary endpoints were Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) score and correlations between sleep disorder criteria of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep status (good/poor sleep). Secondary endpoints included correlations between quality of life (QOL) and mood, medical, lifestyle, and sleep factors. Results The proportion of participants with BSFS category 4 (normal stool) was significantly higher in the good sleep group (P < 0.001). Sleep disturbance (P < 0.05), sleep quality, and duration, use of hypnotic medication, and daytime dysfunction of PSQI (all P < 0.001) significantly correlated with poor sleep. In the poor sleep group, QOL was significantly worse and anxiety and depression levels were significantly higher (all P < 0.001) compared with the good sleep group. Anemia and smoking (both P < 0.05), recent body weight increases, and poor eating habits (all P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the poor sleep group. Male sex, onset associated with change in frequency of stools, sensation of incomplete evacuation for at least 25% of defecations, and manual maneuvers to facilitate at least 25% of defecations correlated with poor sleep. Conclusions Subjects with constipation and poor sleep experienced severe symptoms and had poor QOL. These data support the need for a multifocal treatment approach, including lifestyle advice and pharmacotherapy. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:602-611)
Yasunori Yamamoto,Shinya Furukawa,Junichi Watanabe,Aki Kato,Katsunori Kusumoto,Eiji Takeshita,Yoshio Ikeda,Naofumi Yamamoto,Katsuhiko Kohara,Yuka Saeki,Yoichi Hiasa 대한소화기 기능성질환∙운동학회 2022 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.28 No.2
Background/AimsEvidence regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and functional dyspepsia (FD) in the Asian population is limited. Further, no study has evaluated this issue in young people in Asian and Western populations. Thus, we aim to investigate this issue among young Japanese people. MethodsThe study subjects comprised of 8923 Japanese university students. BMI was divided into 4 categories (quartiles) on the basis of the study subjects’ distribution (lowest, low, moderate, and high [reference]). The definition of lean, normal, overweight, and obese was BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2 (reference), 25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2, and 30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI, respectively. The definition of FD was based on the Rome III criteria. ResultsThe prevalence of FD was 1.9% in this cohort. The lowest BMI was independently associated with FD after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-3.67); P for trend = 0.001). The lowest BMI was independently associated with FD in women but not in men (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.59-5.77; P for trend = 0.001). Leanness was independently associated with FD in total and in women but not in men (total: adjusted OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.40-2.86) and women (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45). However, interaction analysis showed no significant difference for sex. ConclusionsAmong young Japanese people, BMI may be independently inversely associated with FD. Leanness may be an independent associated factor for FD in the young Japanese women.
<P>We report the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study Sox2–Pax6 complex formation on the regulatory DNA element at a single molecule level. Using an origami DNA scaffold containing two DNA strands with different levels of tensile force, we confirmed that DNA bending is necessary for Sox2 binding. We also demonstrated that two transcription factors bind cooperatively by observing the increased occupancy of Sox2–Pax6 on the DNA element compared to that of Sox2 alone.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/nalefd/2014/nalefd.2014.14.issue-5/nl4044949/production/images/medium/nl-2013-044949_0007.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/nl4044949'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
Among political scientists, Japan's free trade agreements (FTA) with member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been considered to be a political tool that can compete against China for regional leadership in East Asia. However, this paper demonstrates that Japan's so-called FTA diplomacy towards ASEAN nations serves the broad interests of Japanese actors in both the political and economic sectors. Given the attention to Japanese domestic political issues, it is argued that diplomacy primarily facilitates a need for free trade with ASEAN and ASEAN markets for Japanese corporations to compete in the global economy and for the government to nurture Japan's stagnant economy by assisting these corporations. This work also contends that the unclear function of FTA as an economic good is due to the lack of the government capacity to effectively manage FTA diplomacy. This partly results from the conventional view with regard to Sino-Japanese rivalry.