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Lee, chan-kyu, Yi, Yu-mi. 2011. A comparative study on cognition of doublespeak between Korean and American. Korean Semantics 36. The aim of this study is to make comparison the category of doublespeak and to compare the perception of doublespeak between Korean and American. With the aim of comparing the perception of doublespeak between Korean and American, this study used a questionnaire survey, which was conducted targeting a Korean and American twice. The first survey was on awareness of doublespeak, and the second one on perception of doublespeak. The first is preliminary survey for the second survey. The perception aspects of Korean' & American' doublespeak confirmed through the second survey result are as follows. First, Both the Korean and American were found to be influenced much by the interpretation of a person around them in case they didn't accurately grasp the meaning of doublespeak. Second, However in case of a Korean, he/she tended to be influenced much by a person around him/her in case he/she accepted its meaning negatively though he/she knew the meaning of a word clearly. Third, In case of accepting the meaning of doublespeak negatively, the Korean was influenced much by a person around him/her while the American had a high tendency to think that the interpretation of a person around him/her distorted the intention of the first speaker. Fourth, Media had an influence on the interpretation of Korean' & American' doublespeak. Fifth, In case both people perceived the doublespeak positively, both the Korean and American were more influenced by the interpretation exposed through the press than a person around them. Last, In case both perceived the double utterance negatively, the Korean and American were more influenced by the interpretation of a person around them than the interpretation exposed through the press.
이 연구의 목적은 부부간 의사 소통의 유형을 의사 소통 구조를 통해 살펴보는 데 있다. 부부 의사 소통에 관하여 많은 연구가 이루어져 왔으나 부부 갈등에서 의사 소통이 어떠한 자리를 점유하고 있는가를 논해왔을 뿐이다. 이에 대하여 이 논문에서는 포코니에의 정신공간을 이용한 4개의 의사 소통 영역을 설정하고 이를 통해 의사 소통 과정을 보이고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 의사 소통 구조를 먼저 제시하고 이에 따른 부부 갈등 양상을 살펴보고 있다. 여기서 제시한 부부 의사 소통 양식은 협력, 보류, 갈등의 크게 3가지로 이 가운데 보류는 직접적인 보류와 간접적인 보류로 나뉜다. 이러한 의사 소통의 양상은 독립적으로 나타나지 않으며 의사 소통의 과정 속에서 하나의 단계로서 나타나지만 분석의 편의상 독립된 형태로 설명한 것이다. 이러한 연구는 의사 소통의 전과정을 설명하기 위한 단계적 실험이 된다는 점에서 이 논문의 의의를 찾을 수 있다. The purpose of this thesis is to study communication structure between a married couple. The existing communication structure is a 2nd dimension structure, base on communication between Speakers and Hearers, scholars continuously discuss about the relation of Speakers and Hearers or the schema. therefore this thesis show us a 4th dimension structure and study tapes of a couple communication by it. This thesis can break types of couple communication into 3 parts; cooperation, reservation, conflict, those are not independent each other but materiality of types of communication, so only one of those elements can not be made a perfect communication. This study says that the degrees of relations have considerable influence upon not only couple communication but also all of communication.
본 연구의 목적은 glucose leakage test를 이용하여 soft chelating irrigation이 근관 충전의 sealing ability에 미치는 영향을 평가하는 것이다. 발치된 45개의 단근치를 수집하여 치관부를 잘라내 치근이 총 13mm가 되게 하였다. 근관은 K3 NiTi 구동 기구를 사용하여 성형하고 #45/.06 taper까지 확대하였다. 3개의 실험군(n=13)과 2개의 대조군(n=3)으로 나누었다. 실험군은 다음의 세척 방법으로 처리하였다. 1군, 2.5% NaOCl로 세척; 2군, 2.5% NaOCl로 세척 후 17% EDTA로 최종 세척; 3군, 2.5% NaOCl과 15% HEBP 혼합 용액으로 세척, 근관은 gutta-percha와 AH Plus를 사용하여 측방가압으로 충전하였다. , 습도 100%에서 7일 동안 보관하고 glucose leakage model을 이용하여 치관부로부터 치근부 방향의 미세누출을 정량화하였다. 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28일 째 누출된 glucose의 농도를 spectrophotometry로 측정하였다. 분석 결과 모든 실험군에서 실험 기간 동안 누출이 증가하는 경향이 있었다. HEBP처리군은 실험 기간 동안 EDTA처리군과 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. HEBP처리군은 21일 이후부터 도말층으로 덮인 NaOCl처리군에 비해 유의하게 낮은 누출을 보였다. HEBP로 처리된 상아질은 EDTA로 처리된 상아질과 비슷한 양상의 폐쇄를 보였으나 도말층이 남아있는 상아질보다는 우수한 sealing ability를 나타냈다. 그러므로 약한 킬레이트제인 HEBP는 EDTA의 대안이 될 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soft chelating irrigant on the sealing ability of root fillings by using a glucose leakage test. A total of 45 single-rooted teeth were selected for the study. The teeth were decoronated leaving a total length of 13mm. The root canals prepared using K3 NiTi rotary instruments to an apical dimension of size 45(0.06 taper). The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups of 13 roots each and 2 control groups of 3 roots each. Specimen in each group were prepared with different irrigation protocols : group 1, 2.5% NaOCl; group 2, 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA: group 3, 2.5% NaOCl and 15% HEBP. The root canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using lateral condensation. After 7 days in , 100% humidity, the coronal-to-apical microleakage was evaluated quantitatively using a glucose leakage model. The leaked glucose concentration was measured with spectrophotometry at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. There was a tendency of increase in leakage in all experimental groups during experimental period. HEBP-treated dentin showed no significant difference with EDTA-treated dentin during experimental period. From the 21th day onward, HEBP-treated dentin showed significantly lower leakage than smear-covered dentin. HEBP-treated dentin displayed a similar sealing pattern to EDTA-treated dentin and a better sealing ability than smear-covered dentin. Consequently, a soft chelator(HEBP) could be considered as the possible alternative to EDTA.
A plot of 《SeoanHacba(서안화차)》 is that a man looks back into his past going towards a site of Tomb of Qin Shihuangdi on the Seoan bound train. I studied the plot of the play with the change of stage by the position of a hero and the change of time. With that I researched various meanings which are created inside and outside of the play. Time and space recreating on the stage flowed away inconsecutively, discontinuously and in a moment. And the place of the stage presented with space of memory of a history and a person that left relics and wounds, of suppression and desire which appear with universality of human relation, of the self produced with chinin(眞人) and Tojung(土停) and or a memory of a director and experiences of theater audiences. By this, you can know the play 《SeoanHacba(서안화차)》 attaches importance to a performance of a stage and that presented with artistic wrpresentations of a combination lightings. sounds. motions of dancing. And This announce previously that a new age in which not perfrmance starts with the written text but the recorded text as a result of a performance is complete work will come.
I studied Jung Yak-yong's <a married woman into a blind person resides in the country of the Do Kang Sa(道康瞽家婦詞)> for an interest to the voices of various(복수발화) in forms of narration a poem written in classical Chinese(서사한시) developing as that center is the life of women. I could listen to the true voices of heroines with analyzing the voices of various persons and the discords because of the circumstances at that time. And I could deepen my understanding with searching how the writer formed persons in the works with the certain gaze. In the meantime the studies of Chinese classical literature(한문학) didn't focus on the voices of the circumstances at that time but attach weight to the analysis narrater focusing on a text, so I supplemented that. With the these results of studies, I sublated the analysis that solved all problems with only the faith and th passion of women in the attention to a series of the situation Chosen in the 19th century.
열처리는 규소 박막의 구조적, 광학적 성질뿐만 아니라 반송자 이동도 특성을 변화시킨다. 반송자 이동도는 주파수 응답 또는 시간 응답을 통해 소자의 동작에 영향을 끼친다. 본 논문은 수소화된 비정질 실리콘(a-Si:H)의 이동도 변화를 열처리 온도의 함수로써 살펴보았다. 이동도 측정에서 사용된 방법들에 대한 장단점들에 대해 검토하였다. 홀 효과와 Haynes-Shockley 방법은 a-Si:H 박막의 이동도 결정에 대한 오류를 나타내었다. TOF법은 a-Si:H에는 적용 가능하지만 높은 암전류때문에 다결정 실리콘(poly -Si)에는 적용할 수가 없다. 전도를 제한하는 공간전하, 박막 트랜지스터, 과도 전류 관찰방법등은 a-Si:H와 poly-Si의 이동도를 결정할 수 있었다. 규소 박막의 전계효과 이동도는 700℃이상의 고온처리와 RF 플라즈마 재수소화후에 20∼67㎠로 상승된 값을 얻었다. 우리는 박막 트랜지스터(TFT)와 과도 전류 관찰방법은 박막 실리콘 분석에 적당하다는 결론을 얻었다. The carrier mobility influences the device behavior through its frequency response or time response. This paper summarizes the mobility changes of the a-Si:H as a function of anneal temperature. The anneal treatment changes the carrier mobilities of thin film Si as well as optical and structural properties. The advantages and disadvantages were discussed for the employed methods in mobility measurement. Hall effect and Haynes-Shockley (HS) method exhibited some errors for a-Si:H mobility determination. A time of flight (TOF) method was attractive for the a-Si:H but not applicable for the poly-Si films because of high dark current. Space charge limited conduction (SCLC), thin film transistor (TFT), and transient current observation methods were able to determine the mobilities of a-Si:H and poly-Si films. A very high field effect mobility of 20-67㎠/V.s was observed after the high temperature anneal above 700℃, and grain boundary passivation using a RF plasma rehydrogenation. We learned that thin film transistor and transient current observation methods are suitable for the analysis of thin film Si.
목적 : 본 연구는 체외 수정 시술시 난자 채취 전후에 시행하는 프로게스테론 근주가 자궁의 착상에 대한 수용성을 증진시켜 착상율과 임신율을 향상시키는지의 여부에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 방법 : 1996년 8월부터 2001년 7월까지 전남대학교병원 체외수정 클리닉에서 전통적인 방식으로 시험관 아기 시술을 받은 환자에게 hCG를 투여한 날로부터 배아이식일까지 4-5일간 매일 100 mg의 고용량 프로게스테론을 근육주사한 환자 57명 (치료군)과 투여받지 않은 환자 60명 (대조군)을 대상으로 하였다. 양군에서 연령분포, 불임의 원인, 호르몬의 혈중농도, 채취한 난자의 수, 수정된 난자의 수, 난할된 배아의 수, 이식한 배아의 수, 배아의 성숙도, 누적배아지수, 화학적 및 임상적 임신율 등을 비교조사 하였다. 결과 : 두 군간의 난자 채취 주기는 치료군이 87주기, 대조군이 82주기였다. 치료군과 대조군에서 환자들의 평균 연령과 불임의 원인별 분포는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 두군의 채취된 난자의 수, 난할된 배아의 수, 다핵 수정란의 수도 양군간의 유의한 차이는 없었다. 치료군에서는 87주기 중 76주기에서, 대조군에서는 82주기 중 64주기에서 배아이식을 시행하였으며 자궁강내로 이식된 배아의 수는 치료군이 평균 2.72±1.64개, 대조군이 2.39±2.03개로 차이가 없었다. 화학적 임신율은 치료군에서 6.9%, 대조군에서 6.25%로 차이가 없었고, 임상적 임신율은 치료군이 12.64%, 대조군은 18.75%로 대조군에서 약간 높은 경향을 보였으나 그러나 수정된 난자의 수와 누적배아지수는 프로게스테론 치료군에서 유의하게 높았다. 결론 : 체외수정 시술시 배란 전후에 고용량의 프로게스테론을 투여하는 치료군의 임신율이 프로게스테론을 투여받지 않은 대조군에 비해 오히려 낮게 나타나서 고용량의 프로게스테론이 자궁 내막의 수용성을 증진시켜 착상율과 임신율을 개선시킨다고 생각할 수 없었다. 그러나, 수정된 난자의 수와 누적배아지수의 증가로 수정율과 배아 발달율을 향상시킬 수 있고, 체외수정시 배란전후 프로게스테론을 투여하는 방법이나 용량 및 경로 등에 있어서 일치된 효과적인 방법이 아직 확실히 정해지지 않은 상태이기 때문에 이에 대한 추가적인 연구와 여타의 착상율을 높이기 위한 적극적인 노력이 필요할 것으로 사료된다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high does progesterone intramuscular injections before oocyte retrieval and thereafter increase the implantation and pregnancy rates through improvement of uterine receptivity in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods : The retrospective randomized analysis was performed in whom undergoing conventional IVF-ET at Chonnam National University Hospital Infertility Clinic from August, 1996 to July, 2001. The study group consisted of 57 patients having intramuscular progesterone injections for 4-5 days from the day of hCG injection to the day of embryo transfer and 60 patients without progesterone supplement (control group). We compared between two groups with respect to age distribution, cause of infertility, blood levels of hormone, number of aspirated ovum, number of fertilized egg, number of cleaved embryo, number of transfered embryo, embryo transplatation, cumulative embryo score, chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Results : The oocytes retrievals were done at 87 cycles in study group and 82 cycles in control group. There were no significant differences in the average age and distribution of causes of infertility. Tubal factor was the dominant cause of infertility in both groups. There were no significant differences in the number of aspirated eggs, number of fertilized eggs, cleavage rates and number of multinuclear fertilized eggs. The embryo transfer were performed 76 out of 87 cycles in study group, and 64 out of 82 cycles in control group. The average number of transferred embryos to the uterine cavity was not different, in the study and control group (2.72±1.64 and 2.39±2.03 respectively). The chemical pregnancy rate did not differ significantly (7.89% in study group, and 6.25% in control group). The clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the control group (18.75%) than in the study group (12.84%), but the result was not statistically significant. However, the number of fertilized eggs and cumulative embryo score were significantly higher in study group. Conclusion : High dose of progesterone supplementation before and after oocyte retrieval in IVF-ET cycles did not improve pregnancy outcome, instead showed lower pregnancy rate than no supplement group, thus we cannot consider progesterone supplementation improve endometrial receptivity and increase implantation and pregnancy rate. But, since we could improve the fertilization rate and embryo development rate through increase of the number of fertilized eggs and cumulative embryo score, further evaluation is needed in this field and we have to make vigorous efforts to increase implantation rate in IVF-ET cycles.
In order to observe hydrological characteristics in the Gulf of Yoeng-il, measurements of water temperature have been carried out from February to August 1983, and from August 1985 to December 1986. Surface water temperatures are closely linked to air temperature and solar-radiation for all littoral stations. Seasonal and annual variations of all horizontal stations are very similar to one another. Vertical variations of water temperatures for the stations located along the central-line of the Gulf are characteristic (and observed) as thermoclines and thermal stratification in the hottest summer-time (August). It is interesting to note that water column temperature of July and September are rather warmer than August, on account of a cold water mass coming from NE direction. For example, surface temperature in June 1982 was above 19℃, but the water below a depth of about 30m drastically drops to 4℃. It is indicative of invasion of water mass from cold current or deep sea.
The results of this Study are as follows:33.6% of all participants have insomnia; 22.5% of those who have insomnia are DIS(difficulty in initiating sleep), 17.3% are DMS(difficulty returning to sleep once awakened) and 7.0% awakened too early. 3 4.8% experience sleepiness during daytime. Type 1, experiencing insomnia and sleepi ness during daytime together, is 12.0%, Type 2, with insomnia only, is 21.6%, Type 3, with sleepiness during daytime only, is 22.8% and 43.5% experience no sleeping disturbances. After studying only those with 3 types of sleeping disturbances, it is found that the most common cause of such disturbance is stress 88.4%, anxiety 56.0%, no apparent reason 33.8%, anxiety/fear/terror 29.3%, hurry 23.6%, alcohol/caffeine 16.9%, bedroom tem perature 11.1%, urination during nighttime and persons living together 10.7%, noise from inside 8.9%, illumination 8.0%, and pain/itch 5.8%. The one group revealed significant differences in residential environment(p=0.003). Sex, age, education level, medicine, monthly earning revealed no meaningful differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), whether taking enough sleep(p=0.029), whether taking regular sleep(p=0.005) showed significant differences depending on whether or not having insomnia, and mean duration of sleep time, time to sleep, time of rising, whether taking naps did not reveal significant differences. Of sleep behavior, time to sleep(p=0.000), whether taking naps(p=0.000), indicated significant differences. Of sleeping behavior, mean duration of sleep latency(p=0.000), whether or not feeling freshness(p=0.000), and whether taking enough sleep(p=0.000), time of going to bed (p=0.002), whether or not taking nap(p=0.000), whether or not taking regular sleep(p=0.010) indicated significant differences among the sleeping disturbance types.
Background: The management of vertiginous patients is a great challenge to emergency physicians. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a diffusion-weighted image(DWI) in differentiating central vertigo from the peripheral vertigo in patients who presented no neurological symptoms other than risk factors for stroke. Methods: From March 2000 to February 2001, we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 68 patients who visited the emergency department with symptoms of isolated vertigo and who had risk factors for stroke. DWIs, computed tomograms(CT), and medical records were reviewed, and the final diagnose, the DWIs and the CT readings, the risk factors for stroke, and the time it took waiting for a DWI or CT scan were analyzed. Results: Of the 68 patients, 21(30.8%) had central vertigo: 15 vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks(VB-TIA), 4 brain stem infarctions, 1 cerebellar infarction, and 1 cerebellopeduncular infarction. The DWI showed a 28.6% sensitivity, a 97.9% specificity, and an 85.7% positive predictive value in diagnosing central vertigo. It also had a 100% sensitivity in detecting infarctions. Conclusion: A DWI had a comparable sensitivity to MRI in detecting central vertigo and small, but potentially, lethal infarctions in our patient population. We recommend clinical application of DWI in the emergency department evaluation of isolated vertigo patients with risk factors for stroke.