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<P>In forensic science and human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have been used as very useful markers. Recently, more Y-STR markers have been analyzed to enhance the resolution power in haplotype analysis, and 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs have been suggested as revolutionary tools that can widen Y-chromosomal application from paternal lineage differentiation to male individualization. We have constructed two multiplex PCR sets for the amplification of 13 RM Y-STRs, which yield small-sized amplicons (<400 bp) and a more balanced PCR efficiency with minimum PCR cycling. In particular, with the developed multiplex PCR system, we could separate three copies of DYF403S1a into two copies of DYF403S1a and one of DYF403S1b1. This is because DYF403S1b1 possesses distinguishable sequences from DYF403S1a at both the front and rear flanking regions of the repeat motif; therefore, the locus could be separately amplified using sequence-specific primers. In addition, the other copy, defined as DYF403S1b by Ballantyne et al., was renamed DYF403S1b2 because of its similar flanking region sequence to DYF403S1b1. By redefining DYF403S1 with the developed multiplex system, all genotypes of four copies could be successfully typed and more diverse haplotypes were obtained. We analyzed haplotype distributions in 705 Korean males based on four different Y-STR subsets: Yfiler, PowerPlex Y23, Yfiler Plus, and RM Y-STRs. All haplotypes obtained from RM Y-STRs were the most diverse and showed strong discriminatory power in Korean population. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</P>
모노레일은 그동안 과좌식과 현수식으로 분류 되어 왔으나 세계 최초로 도입한 중앙 안내 방식의 인천 월미은하레일은 신개념의 Y Beam을 가이드 레일로 사용한 새로운 형식의 모노레일이라 할 수 있다. Y Beam 은 안내륜을 통해 모노레일의 수평 하중을 전달하는 역할을 담당하고 있기 때문에 수직 하중을 타이어를 통해 전달 받는 콘크리트 바닥 및 강재 Beam과 함께 모노레일의 주행 안전에 없어서는 안 될 가장 중요한 구조물이다. 본 연구에서는 수평 하중을 감당하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 모노레일의 안정과 안내를 함께 보장 하면서 급전선을 지지하는 역할도 동시에 담당하고 있는 Y Beam과 Y Beam을 고정하는 클램프의 특성과 안전성에 대해 고찰하였다. Monorail has been classified as straddled type and suspended type. However, Inchon Wolmi Eunha rail, a center guide type first ever introduced in the world, uses a new concept Y-Beam as guide rail. Since Y-Beam takes horizontal loads of monorail through guide wheels, it is an essential structure for the safe operation along with concrete surface and steel beam which take vertical loads through main tires. This study presents the characteristic and reliability of Y-Beam and Y-Beam fixture, clamp, which are not only taking horizontal loads but also guarantying both guiding and stability of monorail and holding power supply line.
In this study, a method for fatigue performance estimation of deepwater steel catenary riser (SCR) under short-term vortex-induced vibration was investigated for selected S-N curves. General tendency between S-N curve capacity and fatigue performance was analysed. SCRs are generally used to transport produced oil and gas or to export separated oil and gas, and are exposed to various environmental loads in terms of current, wave, wind and others. Current is closely related with VIV and it affects fatigue life of riser structures significantly. In this regards, the process of appropriate S-N curve selection was performed in the initial design stage based on the scale of fabrication-related initial imperfections such as welding, hot spot, crack, stress concentration factor, and others. To draw the general tendency, the effects of stress concentration factor (SCF), S-N curve type, current profile, and three different sizes of SCRs were considered, and the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of SCR was derived. In case of S-N curve selection, DNV (2012) guideline was adopted and four different current profiles of the Gulf of Mexico (normal condition and Hurricane condition) and Brazil (Amazon basin and Campos basin) were considered. The obtained results will be useful to select the S-N curve for deepwater SCRs and also to understand the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of deepwater SCRs.
<P>S.-H. Kim, S.-O. Lee, I.-A. Park, S.J. Park, S.-H. Choi, Y.S. Kim, J.H. Woo, S.-K. Park, J.S. Park, S.C. Kim, D.J. Han. Diagnostic usefulness of a T cell-based assay for latent tuberculosis infection in kidney transplant candidates before transplantation.Transpl Infect Dis 2010: <B>12:</B> 113–119. All rights reserved</P><P>Background</P><P>The presence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) should be evaluated before kidney transplantation. Although a new T cell-based assay for diagnosing LTBI gave promising results, this assay has not yet been compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing LTBI in renal transplant candidates before transplantation.</P><P>Patients and methods</P><P>All adult patients admitted to a single institute for renal transplantation over a 1-year period were prospectively enrolled. A clinically predictive risk of LTBI was defined as: (i) recent close contact with a person with pulmonary TB; (ii) abnormal chest radiography; (iii) a history of untreated or inadequately treated TB; or (iv) a new infection (i.e., a recent conversion of TST).</P><P>Results</P><P>Of 209 renal recipients, 47 (22%) had a positive TST≥5 mm, 21 (10%) had a positive TST≥10 mm, 65 (30%) had a positive T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test, and 25 (12%) had an indeterminate T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test. The induration size of TST was significantly associated with a high positivity rate on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> (<I>P</I><0.001). Agreement between T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test and TST≥10 mm was fair (<I>k</I>=0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.36). However, neither univariate nor multivariate analysis showed any association between the clinical risk for LTBI and positivity on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> or TST.</P><P>Conclusion</P><P>T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test was more frequently positive than TST in renal transplant candidates. However, further longitudinal studies are awaited to determine whether the ability of T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> assay to detect LTBI in renal transplant recipients can better predict the development of TB than can TST after transplantation.</P>
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can produce massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data for many targeted regions with a high depth of coverage, suggesting its successful application to the amplicons of forensic genetic markers. In the present study, we evaluated the practical utility of MPS in Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) analysis using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. The multiplex PCR system simultaneously amplified 24 Y-chromosomal markers, including the PowerPlex<SUP>®</SUP> Y23 loci (DYS19, DYS385ab, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, and YGATAH4) and the M175 marker with the small-sized amplicons ranging from 85 to 253bp. The barcoded libraries for the amplicons of the 24 Y-chromosomal markers were produced using a simplified PCR-based library preparation method and successfully sequenced using MPS on a MiSeq<SUP>®</SUP> System with samples from 250 unrelated Korean males. The genotyping concordance between MPS and the capillary electrophoresis (CE) method, as well as the sequence structure of the 23 Y-STRs, were investigated. Three samples exhibited discordance between the MPS and CE results at DYS385, DYS439, and DYS576. There were 12 Y-STR loci that showed sequence variations in the alleles by a fragment size determination, and the most varied alleles occurred in DYS389II with a different sequence structure in the repeat region. The largest increase in gene diversity between the CE and MPS results was in DYS437 at +34.41%. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions (indels) were observed in the flanking regions of DYS481, DYS576, and DYS385, respectively. Stutter and noise ratios of the 23 Y-STRs using the developed MPS system were also investigated. Based on these results, the MPS analysis system used in this study could facilitate the investigation into the sequences of the 23 Y-STRs in forensic genetics laboratories.
Y. J. KIM, J. G. JI, J. T. KIM, J. H. HONG, J. S. LEE, H. S. LEE, S. B. PARK. A comparison study for mask plantar pressure measures to the difference of shoes in 20 female. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 83-98, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest of plantar pressures using the F-Scan system over speeds and plantar regions. 6 healthy female subjects in 20's were recruited for the study. Plantar pressure measurements during locomotor activities can provide information concerning foot function, particularly if the timing and magnitude of the loading profile can be related to the location of specific foot structures such as the metatarsal heads. The Tekscan F-Scan system consists of a flexible, 0.18mm thick sole-shape having 1260 pressure sensors, the sensor insole was trimmed to fit the subjects' right. left shoes - sneakers shoes & dress shoes. It was calibrated by the known weight of the test subject standing on one foot. The Tekscan measurements show the insole pressure distribution as a function of the time. This finding has important implications for the development of plantar pressure test protocols where the function of the forefoot is important. According to the result of analysis it is as follows : 1) Center of force trajectory in women's dress shoes display direct movement, compare with center of force trajectory in Sneaker shoes displays a little bit curved slow pronation movement. Sneaker shoes in forefoot part display very quick supination movement, therefore, this shoes effects negative effectiveness for ankle's stability. Considering center of force trajectory analyzing, the more center of force close straight line, the more movement can be quick movement for locomotion. For foot pressure distribution, center of force trajectory in locomotion is better to curved trajectory with pronation movement. So sneaker shoes style is good shoes considering center of pressure distribution trajectory compare with women's dress shoes. 2) Women's dress shoes increased peak pressure in medial, this is effected by high hill's height. The more increased women's dress shoes's height, the more women's peak pressure will increase, pronation can increase compare with before. Supination movement increase, this focused pressure in lateral, also, supination increased more. If the supination movement increased, foot pressure focused in lateral, therefore, it is appeared force distribution in gait direction. This is bad movement in foot's stability. 3) Women's dress shoes in landing phase displayed a long time, this is when women's dress shoes wear, gait movement is unbalance, so, landing phase displayed a long time. For compensation in gait, swing phase quick movement. 4) Women's dress shoes displayed peak pressure distribution in lateral of rearfoot part, Sneakers shoes displayed peak pressure distribution in medial of forefoot part. Its results has good impact absorption compare with women's dress shoes. In forefoot part, sneakers shoes has good propulsive force compare with women's dress shoes.
Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are useful markers for reconstructing male lineages through hierarchically arranged allelic sets known as haplogroups, and are thereby widely used in the fields such as human evolution, anthropology and forensic genetics. The Y haplogroup tree was recently revised with newly suggested Y-SNP markers for designation of several subgroups of haplogroups C2, O2b and O3a, which are predominant in Koreans. Therefore, herein we analyzed these newly suggested Y-SNPs in 545 unrelated Korean males who belong to the haplogroups C2, O2b or O3a, and investigated the reconstructed topology of the Y haplogroup tree. We were able to confirm that markers L1373, Z1338/JST002613-27, Z1300, CTS2657, Z8440 and F845 define the C2 subhaplogroups, C2b, C2e, C2e1, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2, respectively, and that markers F3356, L682, F11, F238/F449 and F444 define the O subhaplogroups O2b1, O2b1b, O3a1c1, O3a1c2 and O3a2c1c, respectively. Among six C2 subhaplogroups (C2b, C2e, C2e1*, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2), the C2e haplogroup and its subhaplogroups were found to be predominant, and among the four O2b subhaplogroups (O2b*, O2b1*, O2b1a and O2b1b), O2b1b was most frequently observed. Among the O3a subhaplogroups, O3a2c1 was predominant and it was further divided into the subhaplogroups O3a2c1a and O3a2c1c with a newly suggested marker. However, the JST002613-27 marker, which had been known to define the haplogroup C2f, was found to be an ancestral marker of the C2e haplogroup, as is the Z1338 marker. Also, the M312 marker for the O2b1 haplogroup designation was replaced by F3356, because all of the O2b1 haplotypes showed a nucleotide change at F3356, but not at M312. In addition, the F238 marker was always observed to be phylogenetically equivalent to F449, while both of the markers were assigned to the O3a1c2 haplogroup. The confirmed phylogenetic tree of this study with the newly suggested Y-SNPs could be valuable for anthropological and forensic investigations of East Asians including Koreans.
(S)-3-Hydroxybutyrate (S-3HB) can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoate and stereo-specific fine chemicals such as antibiotics, pheromones, and drugs. For the production of S-3HB in yeast, the biosynthetic pathway of S-3HB from acetyl-CoA, consisting of the three enzymes, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (ACCT), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (ACR), and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA thioesterase (HBT), was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An engineered yeast strain overexpressing ERG10, hbd, and tesB genes not only exhibited enzyme activities of AACT, ACR, and HBT, but also produced S-3HB from ethanol. In order to increase the titer of S-3HB, a fed-batch fermentation based on pulse feeding of ethanol as a carbon source was performed, and a final S-3HB titer of 12.0g/L was achieved. This is the first report on the production of 3HB by engineered yeast, utilizing ethanol as the carbon source, suggesting that the industrially preferred S. cerevisiae can be a promising host for producing S-3HB.