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This experiment was carried out to develop a new technique by identifying XX-bearing embryos prior to implantation by immunological method. H-Y antiserum was prepared in inbred Wistar female rats by repeated immunization with spleen cells from males of the same strain. The reactivity of H-Y antibody was confirmed by culturing mouse embryos in the medium containing H-Y antiserum and complement obtained from the guinea pig. The optimal condition for the activity of H-Y antibody was also investigated by culturing embryos under the various conditions of equilibration times, complement concentrations and various media. The results obtained in this experiment are as follows: When the embryos were cultured in the medium of H-Y antiserum and complement which was given the equilibration time of less than 30 minutes in CO₂ incubator, the lysis-rate of embryo was 89.3%. The embryo lysis-rates in the equilibration time of 1-1.5, 3-3.5, or 24-26 hours were 48.1, 47.7 and 48.2%, respectively. When the concentration rate of complement to H-Y antiserum varied from 0.25 - 4.0, the lysis-rate of embryo was 43.2 to 52.7%. The concentration rate of complement did not influence the lysis-rate of embryos. The meda of D-PBS + 0.3% BSA, D-PBS + 20% FCS, Ham's F-10 + 0.3% BSA and Ham's F-10 + 20% FCS showed the embryo lysis-rate of 46.4, 57.4, 49.3 and 49.1%, respectively. The culture media used in this experiment did not show any significant difference in the embryo lysis-rate. After the embryos were cultured to the late blastocyst in the media of D-PBS + NGPS + H-Y antiserum or D-PBS + NGPS + normal female rat serum the normally developed embryos were selected and transferred to the pseudo pregnant recipients. The percentages of their female offspring were 82.3%(14/17) in H-Y antiserum treatment and 53.6%(15/28) in normal serum treatment and showed a significant difference between the two treatments(p $lt;0.001).
This experiment was carried out to develop a new technique by immunological method. H-Y antiserum was prepared in inbred Wistar female rats by repeated immunization with new-born testis supernatant and spleen cells from males of the same strain. The activity of H-Y antibody in antiserum was tested by cytotoxicity and biological tests. The results obtained in this experiment. are as follows: In the sperm cytotoxicity test it was showed about 70% of the sperm were dead in the 1/2 to 1/8 dilution of H-Y antiserum immunized with spleen cells, new-born testis or the compound of both antigens. As the dilution increased, the death rate of sperm decreased markedly. H-Y antibody absorbed with female-rat spleen cells showed higher death-rate of sperm than that with male-rat spleen cells. The normal female-rat serum showed the sperm death-rate of 14.6 to 27.9% irrespective of the dilution rate. The difference between the two sperm death-rates was significant. The embryos cultured in the medium of complement and H-Y antiserum immunized with male-rat spleen, new-born testis or the compound of both antigens showed the lysis-rates of 48.9, 50.0 and 46.3% respectively. There was no significant difference among each lysis-rate. But the lysis-rate of the embryos cultured in the medium of complement and normal female rat serum was 5.1% and it was markedly different from the above lysis rates(p $lt;0.001).
To understand the effect of Y<SUB>2</SUB>BaCuO<SUB>5</SUB> (Y211)/YBa<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7-y</SUB> (Y123) interfaces on the oxygen diffusion in single grain YBa<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7-y</SUB> superconductors, single grain Y123 superconductors with 0.05 and 0.3moles of Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions were fabricated by a top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process. Y123 compacts with Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions were subjected to melt growth heating cycles with a cooling rate of 1<SUP>o</SUP>C/h through a peritectic temperature (1015<SUP>o</SUP>C) and then annealed at 450<SUP>o</SUP>C for 200h in flowing oxygen. The superconducting temperature (T<SUB>c</SUB>) and critical current density (J<SUB>c</SUB>) were estimated for the three different regions (top surface (s), intermediate (i) and center (c)) of samples. The amount of Y211/Y123 interface area in single grain Y123 superconductors was successfully controlled by Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions. The T<SUB>c</SUB> values of s regions were higher than those of i and c regions, which indicates the presence of more oxygen at the sample surfaces. In addition, the T<SUB>c</SUB> values of i and c regions of the Y123 sample with 0.3mole Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition were higher than those of the same regions of the Y123 sample with 0.05mole Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition due to the promoted oxygen diffusion through Y211/Y123 interfaces and other related defects. In spite of the promoted oxygen diffusion by Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition, the large T<SUB>c</SUB> difference among the regions still existed, which suggests sluggish oxygen diffusion into single Y123 grains.
In this study, 363 Korean father-son haplotype transfers in 351 families were analyzed using an in-house multiplex PCR system for 14 Y-STRs (DYS385a/b, DYF387S1, DYS391, DYS449, DYS460, DYS481, DYS518, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627 and DYS643), that included 11 loci newly added to the PowerPlex Y23 system or the Yfiler Plus system. The Y-STRs showed gene diversity values ranging from 0.2499 to 0.9612; the multicopy Y-STR loci DYS385 and DYF387S1 had high gene diversity of 0.9612 and 0.9457, respectively. In addition, DYF387S1, which has two copies, showed three alleles in seven individuals, and micro-variant alleles were observed in 14 individuals at four loci (DYS448, DYS518, DYS570 and DYS627). Among 351 haplotypes for the 11 newly added Y-STRs, 350 different haplotypes were observed, with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.9999 and discrimination capacity of 99.72%. In 363 haplotype transfers from 351 pedigrees, 29 single-step mutations were observed at 11 Y-STRs. Locus-specific mutation rate estimates varied from 0.0 to 1.93x10<SUP>-2</SUP>, with an average estimated mutation rate of 6.66x10<SUP>-3</SUP>. Two father-son pairs had mutations at two different loci in 11 Y-STRs. The number of pairs with mutations at multiple loci increased to five when the mutation event was investigated for haplotype transfer at 28 Y-STRs including 17 Yfiler loci and 11 Y-STRs examined in this study: four father-son pairs had mutations at two loci, and one pair had mutations at three loci. Overall, mutations were frequently observed at DYS449, DYS576 and DYS627 loci, which are known to be rapidly mutating Y-STRs. Mutation rate estimates at most loci were not significantly different from rates in other populations, but estimates for DYF387S1, DYS518 and DYS570 were considerably lower in the Korean population than in other populations.
A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03) and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03) and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings’ feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.
<P>A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of 1-15 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (Glade 188.8.131.52) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 184.108.40.206). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues. Viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected ducks than in H5N1-infected ducks. Recovery of all viruses from control duck in contact with infected ducks indicated that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses spread horizontally through contact. Taken together, these results suggest that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks. Further studies of pathogenicity in wild birds are required to examine possible long-distance dissemination via migration routes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of taurine on sperm characteristics for in vitro storage of boar semen. Semen was randomly divided into 10 groups in conical tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM) with or without 250 ???H2O2. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 6 and 9 h were significantly higher at >94% and 87%, respectively, compared to the control group (85.1??.5 and 72.4??.3, p<0.05). The sperm motility in taurine with H2O2 after 6 h incubation was slightly decreased compared to the taurine alone treatment, but after 9 and 12 h incubation % sperm motility dropped sharply in taurine with H2O2 (75.3??.3 and 69.6??.9, p<0.05). For 3, 9 and 12 h incubation, sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups, irrespective of taurine concentration. In eosin Y and nigrosin staining (ENS), the sperm survival rates (%) for 6 h incubation were significantly higher in 25 mM (76.0??.6) and 50 mM taurine groups (78.0??.7), respectively. Sperm survival rates for 9 and 12 h incubation were higher in taurine groups (??8% in 9 h and ??2% in 12 h) compared to controls (43.0??.1 and 31.0??.6, respectively). In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane integrity was similar to the results of sperm survival. These experiments indicate that supplementation of taurine to the semen extender can increase the sperm characteristics (motility, viability, survival and membrane integrity).
Human 90K (h90K; Mac-2-binding protein) glycoprotein is a potential pharmaceutical due to its inhibitory activity against cancer metastasis and expansion. Here, h90K glycoprotein was produced in insect Drosophila S2 cell system, and its N-glycan pattern was analyzed. A plasmid encoding h90K gene, fused with a hexahistidine tag under the control of Drosophila metallotionein promoter, was stably transfected into S2 cells. After copper sulfate induction, transfected S2 cells secreted recombinant h90K at a good expression level of 28mg/L in a 150-mL spinner flask culture. The purified recombinant h90K showed an apparent molecular weight of ~78kDa which was much smaller than that (~97kDa) of the natural h90K. Because de-N-glycosylated h90K appeared at ~60kDa protein band, it was suggested that the recombinant h90K from S2 cells has small N-glycans with about half the molecular weight (~18kDa) of N-glycans of the natural h90K. Through detail analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the S2-derived recombinant h90K was confirmed that it has simple paucimannosidic structures containing two or three mannose residues with core fucose as the major (~79%) N-glycans.
Testis supernatant, a source of H-Y, obtained from BALB/c mice was used to immunize females of same strain. B lymphocytes of mouse producing antibodies to H-Y were fused with SP2/0-Ag 14 myeloma cells and distributed to 384 wells of 96-well microtiter plates. Eighty hybridoma colonies were formed, resulting in 20.8 percent of fusion efficiency. Three strong positive wells from hybridoma colonies were selected for cloning by ELISA and two of them were also found to be positive by indirect immunofluorescence test. Twelve wells of ELISA-positive were selected after cloning and 2D45D4 clones from them were confirmed to produce monoclonal antibodies to H-Y by indirect immunofluorescence test.
모노레일은 그동안 과좌식과 현수식으로 분류 되어 왔으나 세계 최초로 도입한 중앙 안내 방식의 인천 월미은하레일은 신개념의 Y Beam을 가이드 레일로 사용한 새로운 형식의 모노레일이라 할 수 있다. Y Beam 은 안내륜을 통해 모노레일의 수평 하중을 전달하는 역할을 담당하고 있기 때문에 수직 하중을 타이어를 통해 전달 받는 콘크리트 바닥 및 강재 Beam과 함께 모노레일의 주행 안전에 없어서는 안 될 가장 중요한 구조물이다. 본 연구에서는 수평 하중을 감당하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 모노레일의 안정과 안내를 함께 보장 하면서 급전선을 지지하는 역할도 동시에 담당하고 있는 Y Beam과 Y Beam을 고정하는 클램프의 특성과 안전성에 대해 고찰하였다. Monorail has been classified as straddled type and suspended type. However, Inchon Wolmi Eunha rail, a center guide type first ever introduced in the world, uses a new concept Y-Beam as guide rail. Since Y-Beam takes horizontal loads of monorail through guide wheels, it is an essential structure for the safe operation along with concrete surface and steel beam which take vertical loads through main tires. This study presents the characteristic and reliability of Y-Beam and Y-Beam fixture, clamp, which are not only taking horizontal loads but also guarantying both guiding and stability of monorail and holding power supply line.