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Shaking table test is an important and useful method to help structural engineers get better knowledge about the seismic performance of the buildings with complex structure, just like Shanghai tower. According to Chinese seismic design guidelines, buildings with a very complex and special structural system, or whose height is far beyond the limitation of interrelated codes, should be firstly studied through the experiment on seismic behavior. To investigate the structural response, the weak storey and crack pattern under earthquakes of different levels, and to help the designers improve the design scheme, the shaking table model tests of a scaled model of Shanghai tower were carried out at the State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. This paper describes briefly the structural system, the design method and manufacture process of the scaled model, and the test results as well.
The Expo Culture Centre is one of the permanent buildings at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China. The main structure has an oval shape and consists of 36 radial cantilever steel trusses with different lengths and inner frames made of concrete-filled rectangular steel tube members. Tuned mass dampers are used to reduce the excessive vibrations of the sixth floor that are caused by humaninduced resonance. A three-dimensional analytical model of the system is developed, and its main characteristics are established. A series of field tests are performed on the structure, and the test results show that the vertical vibration frequencies of most structural cantilevers are between 2.5 Hz and 3.5 Hz, which falls in the range of human-induced vibration. Twelve pairs of tuned mass dampers weighing 115 tons total were installed in the structure to suppress the vibration response of the system. These mass dampers were tuned to the vertical vibration frequency of the structure, which had the highest possibility of excitation. Test data obtained after the installation of the tuned mass dampers are used to evaluate their effectiveness for the reduction of the vibration acceleration. An analytical model of the structure is calibrated according to the measured dynamic characteristics. An analysis of the modified model is performed and the results show that when people walk normally, the structural vibration was low and the tuned mass dampers have no effect, but when people run at the structural vibration frequency, the tuned mass dampers can reduce the floor vibration acceleration by approximately 15%.
A new seismic energy dissipation shear wall structure is proposed in this paper. The new shear wall is one with purposely built-in vertical slits within the wall panel, and various seismic energy dissipation devices are installed in the vertical slits so that the dynamic characteristics of the structure (for instance, lateral stiffness, ductility and fundamental period) can be controlled. In order to verify this concept, shaking table tests of two 10-story shear wall models were carried out, and the seismic behavior of the two models are studied by analyzing the test data and computing the nonlinear seismic response of the models.
Though extensive research has been carried out for the ultimate strength of steel reinforced concrete (SRC) members under static and cyclic load, there was only limited information on the applied analysis models. Modeling of the inelastic response of SRC members can be accomplished by using a microcosmic model. However, generally used microcosmic model, which usually contains a group of parameters, is too complicated to apply in the nonlinear structural computation for large whole buildings. The intent of this paper is to develop an effective modeling approach for the reliable prediction of the inelastic response of SRC columns. Firstly, five SRC columns were tested under cyclic static load and constant axial force. Based on the experimental results, normalized trilinear skeleton curves were then put forward. Theoretical equation of normalizing point (ultimate strength point) was built up according to the load-bearing mechanism of RC columns and verified by the 5 specimens in this test and 14 SRC columns from parallel tests. Since no obvious strength deterioration and pinch effect were observed from the load-displacement curve, hysteresis rule considering only stiffness degradation was proposed through regression analysis. Compared with the experimental results, the applied analysis model is so reasonable to capture the overall cyclic response of SRC columns that it can be easily used in both static and dynamic analysis of the whole SRC structural systems.
The structural behavior of connections between concrete-filled rectangular tubular column (CFRT column) and steel beam has been studied in this paper through sub-assemblage loading tests. It is found that the sub-assemblages exhibit ductile restoring force characteristics under seismic loading. A formula for the prediction of the yield strength of each member in the connection is proposed by using the yield line theory under the assumption of a simple stress transfer mechanism. It is shown that the proposed formula can produce a reasonable prediction while providing a basis for further investigation.
8 steel reinforced concrete (SRC) columns with the encased steel ratio of 13.12% and 15.04% respectively were tested under the test axial load ratio of 0.33-0.80 and the low-frequency cyclic lateral loading. The cross sectional area of composite columns was 500 mm × 500 mm. The mechanical properties, failure modes and deformabilities were studied. All the specimens produced flexure failure subject to combined axial force, bending moment and shear. Force-displacement hysteretic curves, strain curves of encased steels and rebars were obtained. The interaction behavior of encased steel and concrete were verified. The hysteretic curves of columns were plump in shapes. Hysteresis loops were almost coincident under the same levels of lateral loading, and bearing capacities did not change much, which indicated that the columns had good energy-dissipation performance and seismic capacity. Based on the equilibrium equation, the suggested practical calculation method could accurately predict the flexural strength of SRC columns with cross-shaped section encased steel. The obtained M-N curves of SRC columns can be used as references for further studies.
The damping effect of a Concrete-filled Rectangular Steel Tube (CRST) frame structure is studied in this paper. Viscous dampers are employed to insure the function of the building especially subjected to earthquakes, for some of the main vertical elements of the building are not continuous. The shaking table test of a 1:15 scale model was conducted under different earthquake excitations to recognize the seismic behavior of this building. And the vibration damping effect was also investigated by the shaking table test and the simulation analysis. The nonlinear time-history analysis of the shaking table test model was carried out by the finite element analysis program CANNY. The simulation model was constructed in accordance with the tested one and was analyzed under the same loading condition and the simulation effect was then validated by the tested results. Further more, the simulation analysis of the prototype structure was carried out by the same procedure. Both the simulated and tested results indicate that there are no obvious weak stories on the damping equipped structure, and the dampers can provide the probability of an irregular CRST frame structure to meet the requirements of the design code on energy dissipation and deformation limitation.
Nowadays, many engineers believe that hybrid structures with reinforced concrete central core walls and perimeter steel frames offer an economical method to develop the strength and stiffness required for seismic design. As a result, a variety of such structures have recently been applied in actual construction. However, the performance-based seismic design of such structures has not been investigated systematically. In the performance-based seismic design, quantifying the seismic damage of complete structures by damage indices is one of the fundamental issues. Four damage states and the final softening index at each state for high-rise hybrid structures are suggested firstly in this paper. Based on nonlinear dynamic analysis, the relation of the maximum inter-story drift, the main structural characteristics, and the final softening index is obtained. At the same time, the relation between the maximum inter-story drift and the maximum roof displacement over the height is also acquired. A double-variable index accounting for maximum deformation and cumulative energy is put forward based on the pushover analysis. Finally, a case study is conducted on a high-rise hybrid structure model tested on shaking table before to verify the suggested quantities of damage indices.
Photovoltaic (PV) panels are used in high-rise buildings to convert solar energy to electricity. Due to the considerable energy consumption of high-rise buildings, applying PV technology is of great significance to energy saving. In the application of PV panels, one of the most important construction issues is the connection of the PV panel with the main structures. One major difficulty of the connection design is that the PV panel connection consists of two separate components with coupling and indeterminate dimension. In this paper, the gap element is employed in these two separated but coupled components, i.e., hook and catch. Topology optimization is applied to optimize and design the cross-section of the PV panel connection. Pareto optimization is conducted to operate the optimization subject to multiple load scenarios. The initial design for the topology optimization is determined by the common design specified by the Technical Code for Glass Curtain Wall Engineering (JGJ 102-2003). Gravity and wind load scenarios are considered for the optimization and numerical analysis. Post analysis is conducted for the optimal design obtained by the topology optimization due to the manufactory requirements. Generally, compared with the conventional design, the optimized connector reduces material use with improved structural characteristics.