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Tropical plant rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the sole source of commercial natural rubber and low-temperature stress is the most important limiting factor for its cultivation. To characterize the gene expression profiles of H. brasiliensis under the cold stress and discover the key cold stress-induced genes. Three cDNA libraries, CT (control), LT2 (cold treatment at 4 °C for 2 h) and LT24 (cold treatment at 4 °C for 24 h) were constructed for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and gene expression profiling. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to validate the RNA-Seq and gene differentially expression results. A total of 1457 and 2328 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LT2 and LT24 compared with CT were respectively detected. Most significantly enriched KEGG pathways included flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis, Pentose and glucuronate interconversions, phenylalanine metabolism and starch and sucrose metabolism. A total of 239 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed following 2 h or/and 24 h of cold treatment. Cold-response transcription factor families included ARR-B, B3, BES1, bHLH, C2H, CO-like, Dof, ERF, FAR1, G2-like, GRAS, GRF, HD-ZIP, HSF, LBD, MIKC-MADS, M-type MADS, MYB, MYB-related, NAC, RAV, SRS, TALE, TCP, Trihelix, WOX, WRKY, YABBY and ZF-HD. The genome-wide transcriptional response of rubber tree to the cold treatments were determined and a large number of DEGs were characterized including 239 transcription factors, providing important clues for further elucidation of the mechanisms of cold stress responses in rubber tree.
Growth of brown planthopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in rice paddies is mainly driven by meteorological factors under similar management practices. By analyzing field investigation and meteorological data collected from 2008 to 2013 in Nanchang, China, we show that BPH population densities and monthly growth rates (BGR) changed greatly from May to October, and these changes were closely associated with meteorological factors. Stepwise regression and path analysis indicated average speed of winds (AW) in June and lowest temperature (LT) in July were the first factors entering analysis, which interpreted 46.20% and 31.90% of their influences on BGR. While highest temperature (HT) in August and average temperature (AT) in September were the most important factors affecting BGR, but their direct path coefficients were all smaller than their corresponding indirect path coefficients. In October, relative humidity (RH), AW and number of raining days (RD) had significant effects on BGR. According to the sum of each meteorological factor entering stepwise regression analysis sequences, we found AW had the utmost effect on BPH growth, followed by AT and RH, but LT and RD least. The work demonstrate dynamic meteorological factors driving BPH growth and outbreak in rice paddies, which would facilitate the development of durable approaches for forecasting and controlling this destructive rice pest.
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) with a conserved amino acid usage pattern plays an important role in viral replication. The primary objective of this study was to estimate roles of synonymous codon usages of PPRV N gene and tRNA abundances of host in the formation of secondary structure of N protein. The potential effects of synonymous codon usages of N gene and tRNA abundances of host on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in N protein were estimated, based on the information about the modeling secondary structure of PPRV N protein. The synonymous codon usage bias was found in different folding units in PPRV N protein. To better understand the role of translation speed caused by variant tRNA abundances in shaping the specific folding unit in N protein, we modeled the changing trends of tRNA abundance at the transition boundaries from one folding unit to another folding unit (β-strand → coil, coil → β-strand, α-helix → coil, coil → α-helix). The obvious fluctuations of tRNA abundance were identified at the two transition boundaries (β-strand → coil and coil → β-strand) in PPRV N protein. Our findings suggested that viral synonymous codon usage bias and cellular tRNA abundance variation might have potential effects on the formation of secondary structure of PPRV N protein.
The core-shell Pd@Pt nanocubes were successfully designed as concave structure by a galvanic replacement, one-step process. In this study, we chose the ascorbic acid and citric acid as the different strength reduction to facile control the Pd@Pt crystal growth. Firstly, the Pd nanocube formed using ascorbic acid as stronger reducing agent with accuracy control amount. In general, the different intensities reducing agent ascorbic acid and citric acid are the key-points to kinetic control the concave structure formed and the Br<sup>-</sup> play the major role to enhance the galvanic replacement reaction between Pt(II)Cl<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>and Pd. In addition, the concave cubic Pd@Pt nanocrystal exhibited higher electrochemical performance compare to commercial Pt electrocatalyst toward formic acid oxidation reaction.
Novel soluble triazoleimide oligomers terminated with arylacetylene terminated were synthesized by the Cu(I)-catalysed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition polymerization of diazides and imide-containing dialkyne. Several molecular weight triazoleimide oligomers were prepared from diazide and dialkyne monomers with different stoichiometric combinations. The curing behaviors of the oligomers were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal properties of the cured products were evaluated by DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These cured oligomers showed the glass transition temperature of about 225 - 235 oC and the decomposition temperature (at 5% weight loss) of about 385 - 393 oC in nitrogen.
Monochamus alternatus is a destructive stem‐boring herbivore of Pinus massoniana, and the principal vector of pine wood nematode. To investigate the impacts of boring by M. alternatus larvae on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from their host trees, the VOCs from uninfested and M. alternatus larvae infested P. massoniana trees were observed using a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer. We detected 12, 9, 18 and 14 volatile organic compounds from infested xylem, infested phloem, uninfested xylem and uninfested phloem, respectively. In P. massoniana xylem, the boring of M. alternatus larvae induced cyclosativene, and inhibited 4‐carene, humulene, styrene, α‐phellandrene, β‐myrcene, β‐phellandrene and γ‐terpinene. The relative amounts of camphene, copacamphene, longicyclene, longifolene, tricyclene and α‐longipinene were significantly increased, and the relative amounts of α‐pinene and β‐pinene were significantly decreased by the boring behaviors of M. alternatus larvae. In P. massoniana phloem, the boring of M. alternatus larvae induced 2‐bornanone, copacamphene, longicyclene and α‐longipinene, and inhibited 2‐carene, 4‐carene, styrene, α‐phellandrene, β‐myrcene, β‐phellandrene, β‐pinene, γ‐terpinene and ο‐cymene. The relative amounts of camphene, caryophyllene and longifolene were significantly increased by the boring behaviors of M. alternatus larvae. The results indicate that the boring behaviors of M. alternatus larvae changed both the sorts and contents of the VOCs from P. massoniana trees.
Identification of differentially expressed immunity‐related genes in Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae parasitized by Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae)
The pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest of several Pinus species, and the ectoparasitoid larvae of Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is an important natural enemy of this pest. The transcriptome of M. alternatus larvae was sequenced using the Illumina platform and immunity‐related genes were specifically analyzed. De novo assembly resulted in the identification of 24 241 unigenes, with a mean length of 1122 bp, in unparasitized M. alternatus larvae and 23 807 unigenes, with a mean length of 1140 bp, for parasitized larvae. Removal of redundant unigenes resulted in 26 095 all‐unigenes, of which 16 959 (64.99%) showed clear homology with some of the known genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nr database. Parasitization had notable effects on the transcriptome profile of M. alternatus larvae. In all, 2702 genes were differentially expressed in M. alternatus larvae after parasitization, with 1491 (55.18%) upregulated and 1211 (44.82%) downregulated. Moreover, expression levels of immunity‐related genes in M. alternatus larvae were markedly altered in response to parasitization by D. helophoroides. In conclusion, the transcriptome profiling data, especially the discovered of immunity‐related genes, help illustrate the molecular mechanisms of parasitism between D. helophoroides and M. alternatus and provide new insights into developing immunity regulation‐mediated control methods of M. alternatus.
To rapidly estimate pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope, population densities in forests, the vertical distributions of M. alternatus oviposition sites and larvae on infested Masson pines (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were studied. Results showed that the number of oviposition sites on sections of trunks between 0 and 2 m above ground was significantly greater than on sections of trunk above 2 m, and the vertical distribution had a significant logarithmic relationship with trunk height. The larval number of M. alternatus on dead infested trees had a significant difference among heights of trunks. Sections on trunks at 2–4 m usually contained the largest number of M. alternatus larvae, while the number of larvae on trunks above 10 m declined significantly, as well as in the 1 m section of trunk at the base. The vertical distribution of M. alternatus larvae on dead infested pines showed a distinct parabolic relationship with trunk height. The number of oviposition sites of M. alternatus on infested Masson pine trunks revealed a significant exponential relationship with the diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees. A significant positive linear relationship also was observed between M. alternatus larval number and DBH on the host pine trees, as well as between the numbers of larvae and oviposition sites on an individual tree. The total number of larvae in an infested tree could be calculated easily using an established equation, through counting the number of oviposition sites at 3–4 m of trunk aboveground. This study developed a practical method for rapid estimation of M. alternatus populations.
The influence of cooling rates on the mechanical properties of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass prepared with high rheologicalrate forming (HRRF) was investigated and compared with traditional suction cast methods. Amorphous samples of Zr57Cu-20Ni8Al10Ag5 were prepared in copper molds with different sizes in order to obtain different cooling rates for both HRRFand traditional cast methods. These specimens were subjected to compression experiments, including microhardness testing,X-ray diffraction testing and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results indicate that the plasticity of the samplesformed by HRRF are higher than that of the as-cast ones at the same cooling rates, while the microhardness manifests theopposite principle. As the cooling rate increases further, the difference in plasticity further increases between two methods,indicating that the plasticity of metallic glasses is more sensitive to cooling rates during the HRRF process. At the core ofthis phenomenon is the fact that HRRF methods can introduce more free volume into glasses than traditional cast methodswith an elevated cooling rate are able to.