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中國地域廣袤,方言種類繁多,但是,信息科技飛速發展的今天,方言正在悄然流逝,人們 對地方方言和傳統文化漸漸漠視和遺忘,方言的喪失必將導致傳統文化的失根,所以對方言的重視 和保護很重要。作為一名語言文化研究愛好者,希望通過研究比較更多的方言來讓人們更了解自己 的語言。方言作為母語,在我們學習第二語言的時候會直接影響到第二語言的習得,不僅存在積極 的促進作用,也存在消極的阻礙作用,這就需要我們對兩種語言進行深刻的了解和多方面的比較研究。蘇州和合肥分別歸屬於吳語區和江淮官話區,雖然是兩種方言,但是從地理位置上看,相互接連,可見兩種方言之間一定存在一些共同特點和差別。筆者就蘇州和合肥的語言上進行比較研究,選擇展現入聲字的中古音在兩地的今讀,分別從方言的聲母和韻母的對比進行分析和解說,以此來 找出兩種方言之間的差異。 However, with the rapid development of information technology, dialects are slipping away. People are gradually ignoring and forgetting local dialects and traditional culture. The loss of dialects will surely lead to the loss of traditional culture. As a language and culture research enthusiast, I hope to make people know more about their own language by studying and comparing more dialects. As the mother tongue, dialect will directly affect the acquisition of the second language when we learn the second language, which not only has a positive role in promoting, but also has a negative role in hindering, which requires us to have a deep understanding of the two languages and a comprehensive comparative study. Suzhou and Hefei belong to the wu-speaking area and the jianghuai guanhua area respectively. Although they are two dialects, they are connected with each other from the geographical position. It can be seen that there must be some common characteristics and differences between the two dialects. Based on a comparative study of the languages of Suzhou and Hefei, the author chooses to present the modern pronunciation of the Chinese ancient pronunciation of rusheng characters in the two places, and analyzes and explains the differences between the initial and final vowels of the dialects respectively, so as to find out the differences between the two dialects.
Guo-Hua Feng,Fu-Sheng Wang,Ji-Yuan Zhang,Qing-Lei Zeng,Lei Jin,Junliang Fu,Bin Yang,Ying Sun,Tianjun Jiang,Xiangsheng Xu,Zheng Zhang,Jinhong Yuan,Liyuan Wu 한국분자세포생물학회 2013 Molecules and cells Vol.36 No.4
Interleukin-21 (IL-21)+CD4+ T cells are involved in the immune response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) by secreting IL-21. However, the role of IL-21+CD4+ T cells in the immune response against chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-21+CD4+ T cells in CHC patients and the potential mechanisms. The study subjects in-cluded nineteen CHC patients who were grouped by viral load (low, < 106 RNA copies/ml, n = 8; high, > 106 RNA copies/ml, n = 11). The peripheral frequency of HCV-specific IL-21+CD4+ T cells was higher in the low viral load group and was negatively correlated with the serum HCV RNA viral load in all CHC patients. Meanwhile, IL-21+ cells accumulated in the liver in the low viral load group. In vitro, IL-21 treatment increased the expression of proliferation markers and cytolytic molecules on HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. In summary, these findings suggest that HCV-specific IL-21+CD4+ T cells might contribute to HCV control by rescuing HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in CHC patients.
본 연구는 탁구경기 내용분석기법을 적용하여 활용방안을 탐색하는데 목적을 두고 2009년에서 2011년까지 여자 대학탁구선수의 59경기를 분석한 것이다. 분석은 현장에서 기록한 내용과 비디오카메라로 녹화한 분석대상 선수의 영상을 이용하여 실시하였으며, 분석도구는 강우용(2009)이 개발한 탁구경기 내용분석 기록지를 사용하였다. 분석대상 경기를 승리한 경기, 패배한 경기, 연도별로 경기내용을 분류하여 득점과 실점의 세부기술별로 분석하였다. 분석결과 K선수의 공격성공율은 83%로 가장 높은 득점요인으로 나타났고, 반면 실점요인에서는 공격실패가 63%로 가장 높은 요인으로 나타났다. 그 다음으로 높은 실점요인은 범실로 23%인 것으로 나타났다. 범실은 공격수비 범실과 서비스 범실 그리고 리시브 범실로 구성되어 있다. 분석결과 K선수는 공격을 많이 시도하는 반면 실패율이 높으며, 특히 리시브 요인에서 10%이상의 범실율을 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 K선수는 다른 어떤 요인보다도 공격실패율을 최소 50%이하로 줄이고 리시브를 강화시켜 자신의 범실과 실패율을 최소화 한다면 경기력 향상을 도모할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study was to study plans to utilize methods to analyze contents of table tennis games by applying them and it analyzed 59 games of female players in the universities from 2009 to 2011. The analysis was carried out using the images of the players which were recorded by the video camera. And for the analysis tool, the recording paper to analyze the contents of table tennis that Wu-yong Kang (2009) developed. The analyzed games were classified into the winning games, the defeated games, and the games by year and they were analyzed by technical details of scoring and losing points. The analytical result has found that the successful offense rate of the player K is the highest factor to score points as 83% but the failure of offense is the highest factor in the losing point factor as 63%. The second highest losing point factor has found to be unforced errors as 23%. The unforced errors consist of offense and defense, service, and receive. The anlaytical result has found that the player K tried offense very much but recorded the higher failure rate and especially, the unforced error rate of more than 10% is shown in the receive factor. Therefore, the player K can improve athletic performance if she will minimize her unforced errors and failure rate by decreasing the failure of offense by more than 13% at least rathe than any other factors and reinforcing receive.
The efficiency of the static electricity elimination from charged materials was investigated with various types of corona gaps. It was found that the needle-line-gap was the most effective type. To prevent high voltage hazard, we can use a capacitance coupled needle-line-gap, which proved still effective. The single-lined needle gap was more effective than the double-lined needle gap. The plastic gap holder is better than the metal gap holder which some what shields the electric field due to the charged body.
The fluctuation of current pulse delay time in the onset of the avalanche breakdown of p-n junctions after the application of a step voltage has been investigated. The pulse counting rate R for the delay time t is expressed in terms of the trapped carrier density, the detrapping time, the activation energy of the trap, temperature, and illumination. The theory predicts the linearity between In R and t provided that the temperature and illumination of the junction are kept constant. The prediction was in good agreement with experimental results.
Pull-in behavior of second order phase locked loop(PLL) with a sinusoidal comparator has been investigated in the absence of noise. The approach is based on the fact that the unlocked behavior of first order PLL can be applied to the transient analysis of second order PLL. With this method, closed form expressions for the pull-in behavior and pull-in time of second order PLL have been obtained.
멀티캐스트 및 실시간 오디오/비디오 스트리밍 어플리케이션과 같은 새로운 커뮤니케이션 트렌드로 인하여 인터넷상에서 non-TCP 트래픽이 증가하는 추세에 있다. 이러한 어플리케이션은 TCP-friendly기준에 따르는 혼잡 제어를 거의 수행하고 있지도 않으며, 유효 대역폭을 웹 브라우저, FTP, 이메일 클라이언트 등과 같이 TCP를 기반으로 하는 어플리케이션과 공평하게 공유하지도 않는다. 그러므로 지금과 같은 추세로 나아간다면 인터넷은 TCP 트래픽의 Starvation과 Congestion Collapse를 발생시킬 가능성이 높다. 이를 위해 TCP 플로우와의 공존을 지원하는 TCP-friendly프로토콜이 개발되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 TCP friendliness를 위한 현재의 접근 방법을 살펴보고, 각각의 특징을 알아보기로 한다. 그리고 유니캐스트 및 멀티캐스트에 관한 여러 혼잡 제어 프로토콜을 상세히 살펴보기로 한다. Non-TCP traffic on the Internet is on an increasing trend due to new communication patterns such as multicast and real-time audio/video streaming applications. These applications inherently do not perform congestion control in accordance with TCP-friendly standard criteria, nor share valid bandwidth with TCP-based applications like Web Browsers, FTP. E-mail Clients, etc. This means that current drift on the Internet may produce a high possibility of starvation and congestion collapse of TCP traffic. To deal with the unwanted situation such as congestion collapse and starvation, many TCP-friendly protocols supporting non-TCP flows in keeping pace with TCP ones are proposed and still being developed. This paper comprehensively surveys current approaches to TCP-friendliness and their properties in detail in order to systematically aid researches in TCP congestion controls that are the subject of wide attention.