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The main purpose of this research is for the investigation on the impact of engine oil on particulate matters characteristics by using various physical-chemical PM analysis methods from light-duty diesel engine. Especially, combustion related PM (particulate matter) and PN (particle number) concentrations in the exhaust gases influence the degradation of both the engine oil, engine durability, and vehicle performance. Moreover, new measurement techniques are needed to analyze impact of engine oil on PM emission characteristic, composition, and morphology. In this research, various analytical instruments are applied to verify engine oil effect on particulate matter, with DPF equipped Euro 5 CRDI engine. physical and chemical analysis with SEM, EDS and XPS are accomplished to quantify the engine oil contribution on PM composition that are sampled onto various filters using specially designed PM sampling equipments.
The Light-duty Vehicle at the low ambient temperature can have a many of effect on drivability and fuel economy. Also, it is extremely high compared to ambient temperature in the diesel engine exhaust emission levels. Because of increased oil viscosity, low cylinder wall temperature, low intake air temperature and increased fuel viscosity, exhaust emission level on the light duty vehicle at the low ambient temperature increase NOx emission and particular matter emission level. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is especially effective in reducing the NOx emission. In the research, a EGR system is added to a 1.6L turbocharged VGT diesel engine. This vehicle satisfy the Euro 5 regulation. This paper examines effect of low ambient temperatures on real-time NOx and particle emissions characteristics from a Light-duty Diesel Passenger Vehicle.
Since the signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015, as a result, almost all countries have been tightening their environmental regulations to achieve the net zero goal by 2050. Accordingly, hydrogen energy is in the spotlight to replace carbon-based energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is considered an alternative resource for internal-combustion engines or fossil fuels, due to its high energy efficiency and zero pollutant emission. In this paper, a simulation of a single SOFC stack was developed using Aspen Plus. Performance data including output voltage at a different temperature, pressure, and porosity conditions are provided and analyzed. The results show that the output voltage is proportional to the operating temperature, pressure, and porosity. As operating conditions affect ohmic loss, activation loss, and concentration loss, performance optimizations are necessary for the economic operation of the fuel cell plant.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P><B>Objective</B></P><P>The aim of this study was to evaluate the angiogenicity of a combination of BM‐EPCs and BM‐MSCs in vitro in the presence of SP and its working mechanism.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>BM‐MSCs and BM‐EPCs were cocultured with or without SP. ELISA and RT‐PCR were performed to detect angiogenic factors such as VEGF and PDGF‐BB. N‐cadherin was detected by Western blot analysis. The tubular network‐forming ability was evaluated by a Matrigel tube‐forming assay.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>BM‐EPCs coculture with BM‐MSCs strongly stimulated the recruitment of BM‐MSCs onto the BM‐EPC‐generated endothelial tubular network. Upon SP treatment, endothelial branching point, tubule length, and tubular recruitment of BM‐MSCs were further increased and stabilized. The coculture of BM‐EPCs and BM‐MSCs synergistically stimulated expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor, N‐cadherin, and PDGF‐BB, all of which were further enhanced by SP treatment. Blockade of PDGF‐BB by its functional blocking antibodies markedly reduced the BM‐MSC incorporation into the endothelial tubules. SP‐pretreated BM‐MSCs were preferentially incorporated into the preformed BM‐EPC tubular network.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>BM‐EPCs along with SP promote the pericyte‐like coverage of BM‐MSCs on endothelial tubules possibly through the induction of PDGF‐BB.</P>