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본 연구는 서울, 경기도에 소재한 어린이집에 재원중이거나 다문화가족지원센터를 이용하는 다문화가정 만 3, 4, 5세 유아 260명과 그 유아 아버지 260명을 대상으로 다문화가정의 아버지 정서지능이 유아공감능력에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지를 검증하는데 연구의 주된 목적을 두었다. 이를 위해 수집된 자료는 t검정과 분산분석(one-way ANOVA), 상관분석, 다중회귀분석으로 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 첫째, 다문화가정의 아버지 연령은 낮을수록, 학력은 높을수록 아버지 정서지능은 높은 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 다문화가정의 아버지 정서지능과 유아 공감능력과는 정적 상관관계를 나타냈고 유아 공감능력에 유의한 예측변인으로 아버지의 정서지능을 70%로 설명하는 것으로 나타났다. This study investigates the effects on young children's empathic ability of father's emotional intelligence. participants consisted of 260 3-, 4-, 5- years young children's and father's from multicultural families for the public, in a corporation, at a job, privately, or at child care centers in Seoul or Gyeonggido. The collected data were analyzed using t-test and one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results of this study are as follows. First, the age of fathers was lower; the education of fathers was higher, the young children's empathic ability was higher. Second, father's emotional intelligence had positive effects upon overall young children's empathic ability. In addition, the predictable variables that were significant for the total young children's empathic ability seemed to explain 70% of overall young children's empathic ability.
Objective : Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are known as the neuroimaging markers of risk in stroke and dementia. Many studies on CMBs in elderly patients with hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke have been reported; however, reports on CMBs in young populations with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are lacking. Materials and Methods : A total of 272 patients aged 18-54 years presented to our hospital with ICH between December 2009 and August 2017. Among these, CMB presence, count, and topography with respect to ICH were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient echo images (GREs). We also evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CMBs. Results : Among 272 patients, only 66 underwent GRE T2-weighted MRI. CMBs were detected in 40 patients (61%), with 29 (73%) being of the multifocal type. Among the 219 CMBs, 150 (68.5%) were of the deep type and 69 (31.5%) of the lobar type. CMB prevalence was higher in men. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, history of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.048; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-14.32; p = 0.030), and male sex (aOR, 4.233; 95% CI, 1.09-16.48; p = 0.037) were independently associated with CMBs. Conclusion : In young patients who presented with spontaneous ICH, CMBs were highly prevalent in 61% of patients and strongly associated with history of hypertension and male sex.
본 연구는 고지방 (열량의 37%를 지방으로 대체)을 급여한 마우스의 체중과 체내 지질함량에 미치는 보리순의 영향을 규명하고자 하였다. 4주령의 ICR 마우스 (n = 32)를 1주일간 적응시킨 후 정상식이를 급여한 정상군, 고지방을 급여한 고지방대조군, 고지방-보리순분말군과 고지방-보리순열수추출물군으로 나누어 8주간 사육하였다. 보리순은 사람이 하루에 3잔의 차를 마시는 양을 고려하여 보리순 1%수준이 섭취되도록 분말과 열수추출물을 각각 식이에 첨가 · 조제하여 8주간 급여하였다. 식이섭취량은 보리순분말군이 고지방대조군에 비하여 유의적으로 낮았으나 보리순열수추출물은 식이섭취량에 영향을 미치지 않았다. 보리순분말과 보리순열수추출물은 고지방식이로 유도된 비만마우스의 체중을 효과적으로 낮추었으며 특히, 내장지방무게의 대표적 지표인 부고환지방조직 무게를 유적으로 낮추었다. 이는 보리순이 식이섭취 억제에 의존적으로 체중감소 효과를 나타내지 않음을 제시한다. 혈장의 총 콜레스테롤 함량은 보리순분말과 열수추출물 급여시 고지방 대조군에 비해 각각 25%와 20%의 감소효과를 보였으며 중성지질 함량은 보리순분말군과 열수추출물군 모두 28%와 43%의 유의적인 감소를 보였다. 또한 보리순분말과 보리순열수추출물은 혈장 중의 총 콜레스테롤에 대한 HDL-콜레스테롤 비(HTR)를 고지방대조군에 비하여 유의적으로 높였다. 간조직과 지방조직의 트리글리세리드 함량은 정상군에 비해 고지방대조군이 각각 1.3배, 1.2배의 증가를 보였으나 보리순 분말과 열수추출물 급여시 모두 간조직과 지방조직의 트리글리세리드 함량이 정상군과 유사한 수준으로 개선되었다. 신장에서의 트리글리세리드 함량은 고지방식이로 증가하는 경향을 보였고 심장에서는 1.4배의 유의적인 증가를 나타내었으며, 보리순열수추출군에서만 유의적인 개선효과를 볼 수 있었다. 간조직과 신장의 콜레스테롤 함량은 실험군간에 차이가 없었으나, 심장 중의 콜레스테롤 함량은 고지방대조군이 정상군보다 유의적으로 높았다. 보리순열수추출물의 경우 심장의 콜레스테롤 함량을 유의적으로 낮추었다. 변중의 콜레스테롤 함량은 고지방 대조군이 정상군에 비하여 낮은 반면, 트리글리세리드 함량은 약 6배 높았다. 한편, 보리순말과 열수추출물 급여는 고지방 대조군에 비하여 변으로의 트리글리세리드 배설을 유의적으로 증가시켰으나 콜레스테롤 함량에는 영향을 미치지 않았다. 간조직 중 FAS 활성은 정상군에 비해 고지방대조군에서 1.7배 높아진 반면, β-oxidation은 유의적으로 낮았다. 보리순분말과 열수추출물은 지방산 합성효소의 활성을 정상군 수준으로 개선하였으나 지방산 산화에는 영향을 미치지 않았다. 콜레스테롤 합성에 관련하는 HMG-CoA reductase와 ACAT 활성은 각각 정상군보다 고지방대조군에서 각각 2.1배, 1.5배씩 높았으나 보리순분말과 열수추출물 급여시 유의적으로 낮았다. 이와 같이 보리순분말과 열수추출물은 고지방 식이로 비만을 유도한 마우스의 간조직에서 지방산과 콜레스테롤 합성을 저해함으로써 지질개선에 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of powdered young barley leaf and its water extract on body weight and lipid metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Male mice were divided into normal group, high-fat (HF) group, highfat group supplemented with powdered young barley leaf (HF-YBL) and high-fat group supplemented with water extract of the powdered young barley leaf (HF-WYBL). The powdered young barley leaf or its water extract was added to a standard diet based on 1% dried young barley leaf (1 g YBL/100 diet and 0.28 g WYBL/100 g diet) for 8 weeks. Supplementation of YBL and WYBL significantly reduced body weight and epididymal adipose tissue weight in highfat fed mice. Food intake and daily energy intake were significantly lower in the YBL group than in the HF group. After 8 weeks, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the HF group than in the Normal group; however, both YBL and WYBL significantly lowered those of the high-fat fed mice. The ratio of HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol of the YBL and WYBL groups were significantly elevated compared to that of HF group. Both YBL and WYBL significantly increased fecal excretion of triglyceride in high-fat fed mice, whereas they did not affect fecal cholesterol concentration. The triglyceride levels of liver, adipose tissue and heart were significantly lower in the YBL and WYBL groups than in the HF group. Supplementation of WYBL also lowered the kidney triglyceride and heart cholesterol concentrations compared to those of HF group. Hepatic lipid regulating enzyme activities, fatty acid synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase, were significantly lower in the YBL and WYBL groups than in the HF group. Accordingly, these results suggest that YBL and WYBL improve plasma and organ lipid levels partly by increasing fecal lipid excretion and inhibiting fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. (Korean J Nutr 2009; 42(1): 14 ~ 22)
유아가 사회적 관계 속에서 적절한 사회적 지식과 기술을 배우고 적용하는 것은 이후에 사회인으로서 성장하는데 기초가 될 수 있으며, 사회적 기술은 사회화를 실천하는 방법적인 역할을 함으로써 유아들에게 의미있는 매개와 도구가 되어 준다. 이에 본 연구는 유아의 감수성을 자극할 수 있는 매체로 명화감상을 활용하여 사회적 기술을 향상시키기 위한 프로그램을 개발하고 그 효과를 밝히고자 하는데 연구의 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 국내,외 관련 선행연구 및 문헌자료를 토대로 명화감상을 활용한 유아의 사회적 기술 프로그램을 개발하였으며, 개발된 프로그램이 유아의 사회적 능력과 그림 표현력에 미치는 효과를 검증하였다. 결론적으로 본 연구에서 개발한 명화감상을 활용한 유아의 사회적 기술 프로그램은 유아의 사회적 능력과 그림 표현력 증진에 효과적임을 알 수 있었으며, 명화감상을 활용하여 유아의 심미적 감수성을 풍부하게 향상시켜 유아의 사회적 기술 증진을 도모할 수 있는 프로그램으로서의 현장적용 가능성을 시사하고 있다. Young children`s learning and application of appropriate social knowledge and skills in social relationships may be a prime stepping stone in the growth of a society. Social skills have become an important tool for young children to actively practice socialization. The purpose of this study is to develop a program for developing social skills through an appreciation of famous paintings which serve as a medium to stimulate children`s sensitivity to many life styles in different times and cultures and to the multiple ways of representing reality. The effects of actively learning to appreciate paintings are far reaching, extending into various cognitive, emotional and social realms. After reviewing and analyzing social skills-related literature, we developed and implemented this social skills development through famous paintings appreciation program and tested its affects on the social ability and drawing expression of young children. The educational contents are included in five areas such as aesthetic sensitivity, communication, self-expression, others-acceptance, and cooperation. Instruction-learning methods consisted of the stimulation of aesthetic sensitivity (motivation and introduction), connection of social skills (exploration and analysis), extension of social skills (appreciation expression and internalization), and the conclusion (arrangement and assessment). In both of these areas, the children made significant gains, clearly demonstrating the applicability of developing social skills through an art appreciation program in the field of early childhood education.
[Purpose] This preliminary study aimed to develop a regression model to estimate the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of young and middle-aged Koreans using various easy-to-measure dependent variables. [Methods] The RMR and the dependent variables for its estimation (e.g. age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass; FFM, fat mass, % body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, and resting heart rate) were measured in 53 young (male n = 18, female n = 16) and middle-aged (male n = 5, female n = 14) healthy adults. Statistical analysis was performed to develop an RMR estimation regression model using the stepwise regression method. [Results] We confirmed that FFM and age were important variables in both the regression models based on the regression coefficients. Mean explanatory power of RMR1 regression models estimated only by FFM was 66.7% (R<sup>2</sup>) and 66.0% (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>), while mean standard errors of estimates (SEE) was 219.85 kcal/ day. Additionally, mean explanatory power of RMR2 regression models developed by FFM and age were 70.0% (R<sup>2</sup>) and 68.8% (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>), while the mean SEE was 210.64 kcal/day. There was no significant difference between the measured RMR by the canopy method using a metabolic gas analyzer and the predicted RMR by RMR1 and RMR2 equations. [Conclusion] This preliminary study developed a regression model to estimate the RMR of young and middle-age healthy Koreans. The regression model was as follows: RMR1 = 24.383 × FFM + 634.310, RMR2 = 23.691 × FFM - 5.745 × age + 852.341.
고전적인 직교 유도체제를 이용하여 고해상 신호가산 심전도의 95% 신뢰구간을 구하고 His 분절 활성을 잘 기록할 수 있는 피라미드 유도체제와 비교함으로써 피라미드 유도체제가 미연전이를 발견할 수 있는데 사용될 수 있는지를 알아 보고자 영남대학 의과대학에 재학중인 젊은 정상 지원자 31명을 대상으로 고해상 신호가산 평균심전도를 측정하였다. 젊은 성인에 있어 직교 유도체제를 이용한 고해상 신호가산 심정도의 여과된 총 QRS 지속시간과 고빈도 저전위 신호 지속시간은 각각 25-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서는 129.6과 22.5 msec, 40-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서는 114.4와 31.9 msec, 80-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서는 110.4와 38.4 msec 이상을 비정상 범위로 잡을 수 있고, QRS 말기 40 msec의 평균전위와 RMS 전위는 각각 25-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서는 49와 68.6 uV, 40-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서는 10.6와 16.3 uV이하를 비정상 범위로 잡을 수 있었다. 피라미드 유도체제로 미연전위를 기록하는데 유용하리라 사료되지만 40-250 Hz 주파수 여과에서 고빈도 저전위 신호 지속시간과 RMS 전위는 직교 유도체제와 달라 이에 대한 더 많은 연구가 필요하리라 사료된다. It has recently become possible to record electrical activity originating from abnormally conducting myocardium from the body surface with high-gain amplification and averaging technique. These signals, which result from delayed ventricular activation (late potentials), have been recorded in patients with documented ventricular tachyarrythmia. Several electrode lead system for detecting ventricular late potential were introduced. Pyramidal electrode lead system(PLS) is useful. Also interpretation of SAECG in the young could be of value in detecting those at risk for episodic ventricular tachycardia, but suffer from a lack of data in normal young people. Selection of subjects : For this study, normal healthy young adult volunteers (age : mean 24 years) were recruited from the medical students at Yeungnam University Hospital, Internal Medicine. Twenty fourths male and seventeenths female subjects were selected. All subjects had normal resting ECGs as judged from both the standard 12 channel lead and echocardiography, and none had a history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects were considered to be in good general physical condition. Signal-averaged electrocardiography : In order to obtain low noise recordings with a small number of averaging cycles, all subject were asked to relax completely in the supine position. Silver/silver chloride electrodes were attached after the skin was cleaned with alcohol, to constitute classic flank lead system(FLS) and pyramidal lead system(PLS). Signals were recorded and processed using a commercially available microprocessor-augmented ECG cart(Marquette Electronics, USA) suitable for portable bedside recording. There was no difference between normal values, determined by FLS and PLS at high pass filtering of 25 Hz and 80 Hz, but significant, difference was found in HFLAD and RMS-40 of 40 Hz (P<0.05). These results will provide a basis for interpretations of SAECG, determined by FLS and PLS in healthy young adults with normal QRS duration.
No philosopher has been more influential than Marx, and no one has been more misunderstood, distorted and transformed. There are also many reasons why philosophical thought of Marx has remained hidden, even up to our day, at least in a partial obscurity. Important reasons can be as follows 1) Marx tried to link Praxis and concepts of Praxis. So unlike other philosophers Marx tried to build his theory on Praxis (Feuerbach These 11) 2) Marx uses the terms and words that appears like a bat. And so it is not easy to translate his true meaning into general theory 3) Although springing from Marx, Marxists often followed its own course independent of Marxist original thought. At any rate, in order to understand today's Marxism (Co-operative work of Marx and Marxists), it is indispensable to investigate the original intuitions of Marx. Essential problems are Marx's philosophical orientations i.e. the thoughts of young Marx. Roughly speaking, Marx's general thought comes from his original thought evident in his early writings. He places a stress on the role of ideas in history in his works from 1818∼1845, quite contrary to the work of maturity. In contrast with later writings, Marx develops his positive view on importance of ideas, especially, alienation in capitalist society. Many questions arise. Is there a continuity between young Marx and mature Marx? If not so, which is 'true' Marx? Is young Marx is related to older Marx? Is young Marx meaningless? Are a still idealistic Marx and views which his will soon slough off appeared in young Marx? Though most Marxists interpret these problems in wide variety, it is desirable to investigate young Marx and older Marx consistently. To conclude, this phenomenon suggests indirectly that Marx's theory is a good deal more emotive than a scientic treatise. 'Scientific' socialism, as Marx ardenty advoated, is dead, but Marx's feeling of social responsibility and his love for freedom and human beings must survive.
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Objective: To investigate the effect of performing three different bridge exercise conditions on the activities of four different muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) in healthy young adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 20 healthy young adults (10 males, 10 females) voluntarily participated in this study. All subjects randomly performed three different bridge conditions as follows: general bridge exercise, isometric hip abduction (IHAB) with a blue Theraband (Hygenic Corp., USA), and isometric hip adduction (IHAD) with a Swiss ball (Hygenic Corp.). The muscle activities of bilateral erector spinae (ES), gluteus maximus (GM), biceps femoris (BF), and external oblique (EO) muscles during the bridge exercises were measured using sEMG. Subjects performed each of the three bridge conditions three times in random order and mean values were obtained. Results: For bilateral ES and BF, there was a significant increase in muscle activity in the IHAD condition compared to the general bridge and IHAB condition (p<0.05). For bilateral GM, there was a significant increase in muscle activity in the IHAB condition compared to the general bridge condition (p<0.05) and there was a significant increase in muscle activity in the IHAB condition compared to IHAD condition (p<0.05). For left EO, a significant increase was observed in the IHAD condition compared to the general bridge condition (p<0.05). Conclusions: ES and BF muscle activity increases were observed with hip adduction and increased GM activity was observed with hip abduction. These findings may be applicable within the clinical field for selective trunk and lower extremity muscle activation and advanced rehabilitation purposes.
Backgrognd: Bronchial hbyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a key feature of asthma, and may precede the development of asthma. Genetically determined and acquired factors may contribute to development of BHR. Objective: To evaluate expression of bronchial responsiveness to methacholine according to age, sex, smoking habit, and atopy in general population without bronchial asthma, a cross sectional study was performed. Method: A total of 1,190 general population who composed of 408 subjects with age less than 19 years (young age group), 621 subjects with age from 20 to 40 years (middle age group), and 161 subjects with age more than 41 years (old age group) were enrolled. Evaluations were made by a questionnaire, serum IgE level and skin prick test to common inhalant allergens, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT). Bronchial responsiveness were evaluated by positive rate of MBPT (PC,p-methacholine 4 25mg/ml), and slope of doseresponse curve (slope, %fall of FEV₁/log[last concentration of methacholine, mg/ml]). Result: Positive rate of MBPT was 11.0%, and slope (mean+SE) was 10.6 ±0.2 %/mg/ml. Postive rate of MBPT was more prevalent in the young age group than in middle and old age groups (19.6% vs. 6.6% vs. 6.2%, p$lt;0.05), and slope was higher in young age group than in other groups (14.4 ±0.4 vs. 8.6 ±0.3 vs. 8.9 ±0.5 %/mg/ml, p$lt;0.05). No significant differences in positive rate of MBPT and slope were noted according to sex in young and old age groups. However, in the middle age group, slope was higher in females than in males (9.5+0.4 vs. 7.9+ 0.3 %/mg/ml, p$lt;0.05). No significant differences of slope was observed according to smoking habit in males of middle age group, but in males of old age group, the slope was higher in subjects with smoking habit than those without it (9.6 ±0.8 vs. 6.5 ±0.9 %/mg/ml, p$lt;0.05). Sig- nificant relationship was observed between geometric value of serum IgE level and slope(r=0.152, p=0.009). The postive rate of MBPT and slope were significantly higher in subjects with positive skin rea,ctivity to common inhalant allergens than those without it (14.3% vs. 8.6%, p ( 0.05; 11.8 ±0.4 vs. 9.8+0.3 %/mg/ml, p$lt;0.05). The difference of bronchial responsiveness according to skin reactivity was observed in young and middle age groups, but not in old age group. Conclusion: Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine is significantly higher in children than in adults, in middle-aged females than in middle-aged males. Atopy and smoking may have a dif ferent role to determine the bronchial responsiveness depending upon age and sex.