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Kim, Sun Young,Jung, Young Jun,Shin, Mi Rim,Park, Jung Hoon,Nawkar, Ganesh M.,Maibam, Punyakishore,Lee, Eun Seon,Kim, Kang-San,Paeng, Seol Ki,Kim, Woe Yeon,Lee, Kyun Oh,Yun, Dae-Jin,Kang, Chang Ho,Lee Springer-Verlag 2012 Molecules and cells Vol.33 No.1
Kim, Kee-Hong,Bae, Dong-Soon,Kim, Woe-Yeon,Kim, Jae-Won,Shin, Yong-Chul,Cho, Moo-Je,Lee, Sang-Yeol Gyeongsang National University Chinju, Korea 1992 Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research Vol.1992 No.
Kim, Woe-Yeon,Cheong, Na-Eun,Lee, Hoon-Sil,Lee, Dong-Chul,Je, Dae-Teop,Bahk, Jeong-Dong,Lee, Sang-Yeol Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Research C 1994 Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research Vol.1994 No.
A cDNA clone encoding an α subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), SGA1, was isolated from a soybean cDNA library and its nucleotide sequence was analyzed. The cDNA encodes a distinct protein which shows considerable amino acid sequence identity to the plant G protein α subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana (82.1%) and tomato(81.3%). However, it shares low sequence homology between 30% and 40% with the yeast and mammalian G protein α subunits. SGA1, a 1,624bp long, encodes a 44.2kD protein which has several conservative peptide domains appeared in all eucaryotic G protein α subunits. Even though the expression level of SGA1 gene is relatively low, it is predominantly transcribed in the actively proliferating elongation region of soybean seedlings. Southern blot analysis using the cDNA insert of SGA1 as a probe suggested that the α subunits of soybean G protein consisted a multigene family in soybean genome.
Kim, Woe-Yeon,Cheong, Na-Eun,Lee, Dong-Chul,Bahk, Jeong-Dong,Cho, Moo-Je,Lee, Sang-Yeol Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Research C 1995 Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research Vol.1995 No.
The circadian clock is essential for coordinating the proper phasing of many important cellular processes. Robust cycling of key clock elements is required to maintain strong circadian oscillations of these clock-controlled outputs. Rhythmic expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is necessary to sustain a normal circadian period by controlling the proteasome-dependent degradation of a central clock protein, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1). ZTL messenger RNA is constitutively expressed, but ZTL protein levels oscillate with a threefold change in amplitude through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that GIGANTEA (GI) is essential to establish and sustain oscillations of ZTL by a direct protein–protein interaction. GI, a large plant-specific protein with a previously undefined molecular role, stabilizes ZTL in vivo. Furthermore, the ZTL–GI interaction is strongly and specifically enhanced by blue light, through the amino-terminal flavin-binding LIGHT, OXYGEN OR VOLTAGE (LOV) domain of ZTL. Mutations within this domain greatly diminish ZTL–GI interactions, leading to strongly reduced ZTL levels. Notably, a C82A mutation in the LOV domain, implicated in the flavin-dependent photochemistry, eliminates blue-light-enhanced binding of GI to ZTL. These data establish ZTL as a blue-light photoreceptor, which facilitates its own stability through a blue-light-enhanced GI interaction. Because the regulation of GI transcription is clock-controlled, consequent GI protein cycling confers a post-translational rhythm on ZTL protein. This mechanism of establishing and sustaining robust oscillations of ZTL results in the high-amplitude TOC1 rhythms necessary for proper clock function.
Plants are continually exposed to a variety of potentially pathogenic microbes, and the interactions between plants and pathogenic invaders determine the outcome, disease or disease resistance. To defend themselves, plants have developed a sophisticated immune system. Unlike animals, however, they do not have specialized immune cells and, thus all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. Using genetic, genomic and biochemical methods, tremendous advances have been made in understanding how plants recognize pathogens and mount effective defenses. The primary immune response is induced by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). MAMP receptors recognize the presence of probable pathogens and evoke defense. In the co-evolution of plant-microbe interactions, pathogens gained the ability to make and deliver effector proteins to suppress MAMP-induced defense responses. In response to effector proteins, plants acquired R-proteins to directly or indirectly monitor the presence of effector proteins and activate an effective defense response. In this review we will describe and discuss the plant immune responses induced by two types of elicitors, PAMPs and effector proteins.