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      • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof : A Revised American Myth

        Thornton,,Songok,Han,Thornton,,William,H. 충남대학교 미국학연구소 1991 美國學論文集 Vol.11 No.-

        The success of Tennessee Williams as a playwrite came with the postwar era, coinciding exactly with America's full transition to global power and to a social structure based not only on industrial values, but increasingly on suburban, white -collar values. Looking back on this transition, it is hard to recapture the newness of it all, or the guilt in the American mind at having thrown away so much of the Puritan heritage. Events of the McCarthy era illustrate that the Americans of this time were not at ease with themselves. They needed reassurance from their politicians and writers that deep down their success came from their real character, not from greed or graft. They needed, in short, a myth to support their new affluence. At first sight Tennessee Williams would seem a poor candidate for this mythic assignment. His writing was too critical when it came to the materialism of the era. His sympathies were too fixed on the victims of change, such as Blanche Du Bois of A Streetcar Named Desire. In looking at the pain of transition, however, Williams faced what many felt but did not admit. He was conservative in his cultural sympathies, yet he was also a realist. Part of his message was that we cannot turn back the clock, as Brick attempted in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. As this study will show, Williams's social message is much more optimistic than has often been realized. If, for example, we compare the values of Brick with those of Willy Loman in Miller's Death of a Salesman, we see that happiness is impossible for Loman, while for Brick it is simply a matter of overcoming his youthful obstenance. Time is on Brick's side. Meanwhile Big Daddy offers Brick an alternate model of conduct, and even of courage, in his lecture on the manly art of compromise. Brick, if he will take them, has options that are both profitable and socially respectable. Brick's wife, Maggie, unlike Loman's son Biff, is on the side of full compromise. This does not deny her challenge to the ethics of the times, which is part of Williams' most severe social criticism; but the criticism is blunted by the fact that Maggie is attacking the ethics of former times as well. She believes that most "moral" values are a sham in any age. Only the rich, she contends, can afford the luxury of such pretentions. She herself is a social climber, not a social reformer. The one value she stands by is the honesty to see this sham for what it is. Then, like Big Daddy, she compromises herself without shame.

      • KCI등재

        “On or About December 1910,” or When Did the New Stuff Begin?

        William,C.,Pratt 한국예이츠학회 2012 한국예이츠 저널 Vol.37 No.-

        사람들은 모더니즘을 "새로운 것"과 동일시한다. 1910년에, 혹 그보다 10년 전 혹은 후, 시 혹은 다른 문화와 지적 영역에 있어, 전통과 다른 중요한 새로운 것들의 출발이 되는 시점이었다. 미국에서, 에즈라 파운드, 왈러스 스티븐스, 그리고 윌리엄 칼로스 윌리엄스 같은 시인들이 족적을 남기고, 『시』, 『대중』, 그리고 『새로운나라』로 대변하는 작은 문예지의 문화가 등장하고, 그리고 그리니치 빌리지는 문화의 중심지가 된다. 그러나, 미국의 세계1차대전 참전은 이 운동에 제동을 걸고, 전후 시기는 여려 면에서 달라졌다. 반면, 아프리카계 작가와 예술가는 할렘 르네상스의 결과로 그 전보다 1920년대에 더 큰 인정을 받는다. Many people have identified Modernism with "the New."Sometime around 1910, give or take a decade or so, there were important departures from older ways of doing things in one area after another, whether it be in poetry or any number of other cultural and intellectual approaches. In the U.S., poets such as Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens and William Carlos Williams began to make their mark, a small magazine culture represented by publications such as Poetry, The Masses and the New Republic emerged, and Greenwich Village became a major cultural center. U.S. entry into World War I, however, proved disruptive, and the postwar period was different in important ways. On the other hand, African American writers and artists gained greater recognition in the 1920s than previously as a result of the Harlem Renaissance.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재후보

        Prophets without Borders: A Missiological Reading of the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Radical Holiness Movement

        William,Terry,Purinton 서울신학대학교 기독교신학연구소 2013 神學과 宣敎 Vol.43 No.-

        The Radical Holiness Movement of the late nineteenth century evolved into the Holiness-Pentecostal movement of the early twentieth century. Religious changes were being made that challenged the status-quo of mainstream Protestantism, especially Methodism. Four theological areas were marked with borders to be crossed. They were ecclesiology, religious experience, eschatology, and personal ethics. One pioneer of “border crossing” was Benjamin Hardin Irwin and the Fire-baptized Holiness Association. Although Irwin was noted for his new language and experience of multiple baptisms, Charles Fox Parham and William Joseph Seymour, both of the Apostolic Faith, would go farther by teaching that missionary tongues was the “Bible evidence” of Spirit baptism. This teaching became a divisive issue within the Holiness movement, some accepted it and others rejected it. Speaking in tongues has been and remains the dividing line between the Radical Holiness churches and Pentecostalism in North America.

      • THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF DOWNSIZING : PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS AND OUTCOMES

        William McKinley(William McKinley) 한국전략경영학회 1998 한국전략경영학회 학술대회발표논문집 Vol.- No.-

        Organizational downsizing is becoming pervasive in the United States and other post-industrial societies of the 1990s, including South Korea. To better understand this phenomenon, this presentation compares three theoretical perspectives on downsizing -- the economic perspective, the institutional perspective, and the sociocognitive perspective. The perspectives serve as the foundation for a brief review of the empirical literature on downsizing. The sociocognitive perspective, which has received the least theoretical and empirical attention, is then used to explore the psychological foundations of institutionalized downsizing. The sociocognitive model argues that downsizing into an external inevitability. The assumption underlying the sociocognitive model is that cognitive order and reduction of complexity are as important an incentive for convergence on a managerial practice as the financial performance of the practice. These theoretical arguments provide a basis for understanding the role of the International Monetary Fund in Korean restructuring. The conclusion is that the JMF, perhaps unintentionally, is playing an important part in the institutionalization of downsizing in Korean society.

      • AHCISCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재후보

        역사신학 : 국경 없는 예언자-19세기 후반과 20세기 초반의 급진적인 성결 운동의 선교 읽기

        윌리엄퓨링턴 ( William T. Purinton ) 서울신학대학교 기독교신학연구소 2013 神學과 宣敎 Vol.43 No.-

        19세기 후반의 급진적 성결운동은 20세기 초 성결 - 오순절 운동으로 발전되어 나갔다. 이러한 종교적 변동은 주류 개신교, 특히 감리교의 현상 유지 상태에 도전했다. 4개의 신학적 영역에서 경계를 넘어서는 현상이 나타났는데, 교회론, 종교적 체험, 종말론, 그리고 개인 윤리가 그것이다. 경계를 넘어선 선구자 중 하나는 어윈(B. H. Irwin)과 ‘불세례 성령 연합' (Fire-baptized Holiness Association)이었다. 어윈이 그의 새로운 언어와 다양한 세례의 경험으로 유명했던 반면, ‘사도적 신앙'(Apostolic Faith)에 속했던 퍼햄(C. F. Parham)과 시무어(W. J. Seymour)는 한 발 더 나아가 선교적 방언은 성령 세례의 ‘성서적 증거'라고 가르쳤다. 이 가르침은 일부에 의해서는 수용되고, 일부에 의해서는 거부되며 성결운동의 분열적 주제가 되었다. 방언은 이후로도 북미에 있어서의 급진적 성결교회와 오순절 운동을 나누는 경계선이 되었다. The Radical Holiness Movement of the late nineteenth century evolved into the Holiness-Pentecostal movement of the early twentieth century. Religious changes were being made that challenged the status-quo of mainstream Protestantism, especially Methodism. Four theological areas were marked with borders to be crossed. They were ecclesiology, religious experience, eschatology, and personal ethics. One pioneer of “border crossing” was Benjamin Hardin Irwin and the Fire-baptized Holiness Association. Although Irwin was noted for his new language and experience of multiple baptisms, Charles Fox Parham and William Joseph Seymour, both of the Apostolic Faith, would go farther by teaching that missionary tongues was the “Bible evidence” of Spirit baptism. This teaching became a divisive issue within the Holiness movement, some accepted it and others rejected it. Speaking in tongues has been and remains the dividing line between the Radical Holiness churches and Pentecostalism in North America.

      • KCI등재
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