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Jiang, Wenzhu,Jin, Yong-Mei,Lee, Joohyun,Lee, Kang-Ie,Piao, Rihua,Han, Longzhi,Shin, Jin-Chul,Jin, Rong-De,Cao, Tiehua,Pan, Hong-Yu,Du, Xinglin,Koh, Hee-Jong Springer-Verlag 2011 Molecules and cells Vol.32 No.6
Jiang, Wenzhu,Lee, Joohyun,Jin, Yong-Mei,Qiao, Yongli,Piao, Rihua,Jang, Sun Mi,Woo, Mi-Ok,Kwon, Soon-Wook,Liu, Xianhu,Pan, Hong-Yu,Du, Xinglin,Koh, Hee-Jong Springer-Verlag 2011 Molecules and cells Vol.31 No.4
Low temperature is one of the major environmental stress-es in rice cultivation in high-altitude and high-latitude regions. In this study, we cultivated a set of re-combinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Dasanbyeo (indica) / TR22183 (japonica) crosses in Yanji (high-latitude area), Kunming (high-altitude area), Chuncheon (cold water irrigation) and Suwon (normal) to evaluate the main effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL (E-QTL) with regard to their interactions with environments for cold-related traits. Six QTLs for spikelet fertility (SF) were identified in three cold treatment locations. Among them, four QTLs on chromosomes 2, 7, 8, and 10 were validated by several near isogenic lines (NILs) under cold treatment in Chuncheon. A total of 57 QTLs and 76 E-QTLs for nine cold-related traits were identified as distributing on all 12 chromosomes; among them, 19 QTLs and E-QTLs showed significant interactions of QTLs and envi-ronments (QEIs). The total phenotypic variation explained by each trait ranged from 13.2 to 29.1% in QTLs, 10.6 to 29.0% in E-QTLs, 2.2 to 8.8% in QEIs and 1.0% to 7.7% in E-QTL environment interactions (E-QEIs). These results demonstrate that epistatic effects and QEIs are important properties of QTL parameters for cold tolerance at the reproductive stage. In order to develop cold tolerant varieties adaptable to wide-ranges of cold stress, a strategy facilitating marker-assisted selection (MAS) is being adopted to accumulate QTLs identified from different environments.
Seed germination capability of rice is one of the impor-tant traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chro-mosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.
Heterosis describes the increased performance of F1 hybrid plants in terms of increased biomass, yield, vegetative growth rate, and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses as compared with their inbred parents. Two sets of rice materials, 166 RILs derived from a cross between Milyang 23 (Korean indica-type rice) and Tong 88-7 (japonica Rice), and BC1F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the RILs and the female parent, Milyang 23, were produced to identify QTLs for heterosis of yield and yield-related traits. The QTLs were detected from three different phenotype data sets including the RILs, BC1F1 hybrids, and mid-parental heterosis data set. A total of 57 QTLs were identified for nine traits. Of eight QTLs detected for yield heterosis, five overlapped with other heterosis QTLs for yield-related traits such as spikelet number per panicle, days to heading, and spikelet fertility. Four QTLs for yield heterosis, gy1.1, py6, gy10, and py11, were newly identified in this study. We identified a total of 17 EpQTLs for yield heterosis that explain 21.4 ~ 59.0 % of total phenotypic variation, indicating that epistatic interactions may play an important role in heterosis.
Two sets of rice materials, 166 RILs derived from a cross between Milyang 23 (Korean indica-type rice) and Tong 88-7(japonica Rice), and BC1F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the RILs and the female parent, Milyang 23, were produced to identify QTLs for heterosis of yield and yield-related traits. The QTLs were detected from three different phenotype data sets including the RILs, BC1F1 hybrids, and mid-parental heterosis data set acquired from the definition of mid-parental heterosis. A total of 57 QTLs were identified for nine traits. Of eight QTLs detected for yield heterosis, five overlapped with other heterosis QTLs for yield-related traits such as spikelet number per panicle, days to heading, and spikelet fertility. Four QTLs for yield heterosis, gy1.1, py6, gy10, and py11,were newly identified in this study. We identified a total of 17 EpQTLs for yield heterosis that explain 21.4 ~ 59.0 %of total phenotypic variation, indicating that epistatic interactions may play an important role in heterosis.
Comparison of maps and QTLs between populations may provide us with a better understanding of molecular maps and the inheritance of traits. We developed and used two reciprocal BC1F1 populations, IP/DS//IP and IP/DS//DS, for QTL analysis. DS (Dasanbyeo) is a Korean tongil-type cultivar (derived from an indica x japonica cross and similar to indica in its genetic makeup) and IP (Ilpumbyeo) is a Korean japonica cultivar. We constructed two molecular linkage maps corresponding to each backcross population using 196 markers for each map. The length of each chromosome was longer in the IP/DS//IP population than in the IP/DS//DS population, indicating that more recombinants were produced in the IP/DS//IP population. Distorted segregation was observed for 44 and 19 marker loci for the IP/DS//IP and IP/DS//DS populations, respectively; these were mostly skewed in favor of the indica alleles. A total of 36 main effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and 15 digenic epistatic interactions (E-QTLs) were detected for the seven traits investigated. The phenotypic variation explained (PVE) by M-QTLs ranged from 3.4% to 88.2%. Total PVE of the M-QTLs for each trait was significantly higher than that of the E-QTLs. The total number of M-QTLs identified in the IP/DS//IP population was higher than in the IP/DS//DS population. However, the total PVE by the M-QTLs and E-QTLs together for each trait was similar in the two populations, suggesting that the two BC1F1 populations are equally useful for QTL analysis. Maps and QTLs in the two populations were compared. Eleven new QTLs were identified for SN, SF, GL, and GW in this study, and they will be valuable in marker-assisted selection, particularly for improving grain traits in tongil-type varieties.
Two subspecies in rice, japonica and indica, have their own ecotypic traits. However, reproductive barriers such as spikelet sterility in hybrid progenies between subspecies have been an obstacle in breeding programs for combining desirable traits from both subspecies through inter-subspecific hybridization. The 166 F_9 RILs and two BC_1F_(1s)’ were analyzed for spikelet and pollen fertility with the parents and F_1 between Dasanbyeo (DS, indica) / TR22183 (TR, japonica). A frame map was constructed using a total of 218 polymorphic STS and SSR markers. In both BC1F1s’ of DS//DS/TR and TR//DS/TR, clusters of significant QTLs for spikelet and pollen fertility were identified on the short arm of chromosome 5 and chromosome 8. Nine and ten digenic epistatic interactions for DS//DS/TR and TR//DS//TR were identified,respectively. HF-QTLs were detected at the similar position with subspecies-specific markers and segregation distortion loci, implying that HF-QTLs might be associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica. Hybrid fertility/sterility and its relationship with other traits are discussed in relation to the reproductive barriers between subspecies of rice.