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Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of a deep learning-based algorithm for automated detection of acute and chronic rib fractures on whole-body trauma CT. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified all whole-body trauma CT scans referred from the emergency department of our hospital from January to December 2018 (n = 511). Scans were categorized as positive (n = 159) or negative (n = 352) for rib fractures according to the clinically approved written CT reports, which served as the index test. The bone kernel series (1.5-mm slice thickness) served as an input for a detection prototype algorithm trained to detect both acute and chronic rib fractures based on a deep convolutional neural network. It had previously been trained on an independent sample from eight other institutions (n = 11455). Results: All CTs except one were successfully processed (510/511). The algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 87.4% and specificity of 91.5% on a per-examination level [per CT scan: rib fracture(s): yes/no]. There were 0.16 false-positives per examination (= 81/510). On a per-finding level, there were 587 true-positive findings (sensitivity: 65.7%) and 307 false-negatives. Furthermore, 97 true rib fractures were detected that were not mentioned in the written CT reports. A major factor associated with correct detection was displacement. Conclusion: We found good performance of a deep learning-based prototype algorithm detecting rib fractures on trauma CT on a per-examination level at a low rate of false-positives per case. A potential area for clinical application is its use as a screening tool to avoid false-negative radiology reports.
Weikert,Thomas,Rapaka,Saikiran,Grbic,Sasa,Re,Thomas,Chaganti,Shikha,Winkel,David,J.,Anastasopoulos,Constantin,Niemann,Tilo,Wiggli,Benedikt,J.,Bremerich,Jens,Twerenbold,Raphael,Sommer,Gregor,Comaniciu 대한영상의학회 2021 Korean Journal of Radiology Vol.22 No.6
Objective: To extract pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics from chest CTs of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using a fully automated deep learning-based approach and assess their potential to predict patient management. Materials and Methods: All initial chest CTs of patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at our emergency department between March 25 and April 25, 2020, were identified (n = 120). Three patient management groups were defined: group 1 (outpatient), group 2 (general ward), and group 3 (intensive care unit [ICU]). Multiple pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics were extracted from the chest CT images using deep learning. Additionally, six laboratory findings indicating inflammation and cellular damage were considered. Differences in CT metrics, laboratory findings, and demographics between the patient management groups were assessed. The potential of these parameters to predict patients' needs for intensive care (yes/no) was analyzed using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves. Internal and external validity were assessed using 109 independent chest CT scans. Results: While demographic parameters alone (sex and age) were not sufficient to predict ICU management status, both CT metrics alone (including both pulmonary and cardiovascular metrics; area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79–0.97) and laboratory findings alone (C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, and albumin; AUC = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.77–0.94) were good classifiers. Excellent performance was achieved by a combination of demographic parameters, CT metrics, and laboratory findings (AUC = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.85–0.98). Application of a model that combined both pulmonary CT metrics and demographic parameters on a dataset from another hospital indicated its external validity (AUC = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66–0.88). Conclusion: Chest CT of patients with COVID-19 contains valuable information that can be accessed using automated image analysis. These metrics are useful for the prediction of patient management.