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Tengku,Alina,Tengku,Ismail,Rohana,Abdul,Jalil,Wan,Rosli,Wan,Ishak,Noor,Fadzlina,Hamid,Wan,Suriati,Wan,Nik,Hamid,Jan,Jan,Mohamed,Nor,Haslina,Mohd,Wan,Nor,Arifin,Wan,Mohd,Izani,Wan,Mohamed,Mohd,Ismail,I 대한가정의학회 2018 Korean Journal of Family Medicine Vol.39 No.1
Background: A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experi-ences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program.Methods: Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained re-searchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed.Results: The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and ap-pearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of un-pleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors.Conclusion: Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strate-gies during health promotion.
The performance of oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of commercial diesel by alumina supported polymolybdate based catalyst system was studied using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidizing agent. From catalytic testing, MoO3-Al2O3 calcined at 500 oC was the most potential catalyst which gave the highest sulfur removal under mild condition. The sulfur content in commercial diesel was successfully reduced from 440 ppmw to 105 ppmw followed by solvent extraction. Response surface methodology involving Box-Behnken was employed to evaluate and optimize MoO3/Al2O3 preparation parameters (calcination temperatures, molybdenum loading precursor and catalyst loading), and their optimum values were found to be 510 oC, 0.98 g and 11.18 g/L of calcination temperature, molybdenum loading precursor and catalyst loading, respectively. Based on results, the reaction mechanism for oxidation of sulfur compounds to the corresponding sulfones occur in the presence of MoO3 /Al2O3 catalyst was proposed.
Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the most appropriate extraction conditions forsulfur reduction. Initial extraction studies showed that DMF was the most potentially effective solvent. The influence of DMF to diesel ratios, extraction times and temperatures, addition of co-solvent, solventmixtures, double extractions were explored. The use of co-solvent and solvent mixtures showed poorefficiencies of sulfur removal. A two-stage extraction with ratio of 1:1 (DMF/Diesel) was successfullyremoved over 88.0% of sulfur in diesel. Under Box–Behnken design, the model showed that maximumextraction ability was observed at 30 8C, 30 min and 1.0 of DMF/diesel ratio to achieved 67.5%.
Juhari,,Wan,Khairunnisa,Wan,Rahman,,Wan,Faiziah,Wan,Abdul,Sidek,,Ahmad,Shanwani,Mohd,Hassan,,Muhammad,Radzi,Abu,Noordin,,Khairul,Bariah,Ahmad,Amin,Zakaria,,Andee,Dzulkarnaen,Macrae,,Finlay,Zilfalil,,B Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.9
Background: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Results: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively. Conclusions: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.
Objectives: Maternal folic acid supplementation is considered mandatory in almost every country in the world to prevent congenital malformations. However, little is known about the association of maternal folic acid intake with the occurrence of childhood cancer. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of maternal folic acid consumption on the risk of childhood cancer. Methods: A total of 158 related articles were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ProQuest using standardized keywords, of which 17 were included in the final review. Results: Eleven of the 17 articles showed a significant protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood cancer. Using a random-effects model, pooled odds ratios (ORs) showed a protective association between maternal folic acid supplementation and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (OR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86). However, there was no significant association between maternal folic acid supplementation and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.06) or childhood brain tumours (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.19). Conclusions: Maternal folic acid supplementation was found to have a protective effect against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Thus, healthcare professionals are recommended to provide regular health education and health promotion to the community on the benefits of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy.
When Global Positioning Systems are obstructed, standalone pedestrian tracking can be very daunting. Users in such obstructed environments (especially in home environments) will find it difficult to perform on-site navigation. It is important to create a standalone pedestrian tracking system that provides better location determination services with less computational complexity and deployment cost. One promising way to implement this service is through the use of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. This tracking method provides the pinpointing of standalone tracking information but is handicapped by missing stance phase during pedestrian walking activities. A new pedestrian stance detection using simultaneously localization and mapping (SLAM) will be designed in this paper with a focus on robust indoor positioning systems. We will present our preliminary results to illustrate the performance of the system for an indoor environment set-up at the end of this paper.
The present study aimed to examine thechemical compositions of the essential oils of Beilschmiediamadang and their antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal,anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities. The majorconstituents of the essential oils of leaf and bark of B. madang were d-cadinene (17.0 and 20.5 %), b-caryophyllene(10.3 and 6.7 %), a-cubebene (11.3 and 15.6 %), anda-cadinol (5.8 and 10.6 %). The essential oils werescreened for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, b-carotene/linoleic acidbleaching, and total phenolic content. The bark oil showedthe highest b-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching(90.3 % ± 0.2) and DPPH radical scavenging (IC50212.0 lg/mL), while the highest phenolic content wasexhibited by the leaf oil (94.5 % ± 0.3 mg GA/g). Theantibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated bythe disc diffusion and micro dilution method. The leaf andbark oils showed moderate activity towards Bacillus subtilisand Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitoryconcentration (MIC) value 125 lg/mL. For antifungalassay, the bark oil showed strong activity towards Aspergillusniger and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC value62.5 lg/mL. Anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activitieswere evaluated against Ellman method and mushroomtyrosinase, respectively. The results showed that leaf oilgave significant percentage inhibition (I%: acetylcholinesterase55.2 %, butyrylcholinesterase 60.4 %, tyrosinase53.1 %).
국익은 국가의 생존 전략을 설명하는 가장 주요한 개념으로 다양하게 규정 될 수 있지만, 많은 학자들은 경제적·정치적·인도주의적·사회적 혹은 환경적 이익이라고 한다. 또한 국익은 국가안보와도 밀접하게 연관되는데 국가안보와 생존을 보장하는 가장 확고한 것이라고 할 수 있겠다. 본 연구는 국익과 관련된 말레이시아의 대외정책을 중심으로 서술하였고 역사적 발전에 따라 말레이시아의 대외정책이 어떻게 바뀌었는지를 보여준다. 1957년 말레이시아 연방 성립 이후의 대외정책을 경제, 영토 그리고 종교적인 부문으로 나누어서 연구를 진행 하였다. 말레이시아의 대외정책은 국익의 달성과 보호를 그 기반으로 하고 있음을 밝혀내었고 제2장에서 이론적 논의로서 국익과 관련된 역사적 논의를 살펴보았다. 제3장에서는 말레이시아의 대외정책을 경제, 영토문제, 그리고 종교로 나누어 고찰하였고, 제4장에서 연구의 결론과 미래 정책 방향을 언급하였다. For the Realist, national interest is a crucial concept for explaining states`survival strategy. As national interest of a state is often multifarious in nature, many scholars conclude that national interest could be economic, political, humanitarian, social or environmental interest. National interest is also associated with a security of a state. It is paramount for a state to safeguard their national interest as an iron law of necessity to ensure their security and survival. In this paper, the writers argue that the formulation of Malaysia`s foreign policies is very much determined by what a nation in this case Malaysia, perceive as national interest. Based on historical development, the interplay relation between national interest and foreign policies is discussed in great detail to illustrate that the nature of Malaysia`s foreign policies is primarily geared towards achieving and protecting the national interest at the international level. This article concludes that national interest and foreign policies are intertwined tools vital for enhancing a nation`s well being and survival.
When an emergency occurs in a building, congestion avoidance becomes a very serious localisation issue, which is often ignored. If the emergency involves the outbreak of fire, the rescue team must establish the easiest and quickest exit route from the building. Any delay could be very dangerous, potentially even resulting in fatalities. To avoid congestion, an effective Emergency Rescue Localisation (ERL) system is essential to help rescue teams determine the easiest exit route from the building. This paper proposes an ERL methodology, based on the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).In this system, the IMU helps to determine and obtain positioning data from a building's interior. This study describes the application of the ERL system for an indoor situation in detail.