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Chung, Chin Wan. 2000. An optimality-theoretic account of vowel harmony in Korean ideophones. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 6.2, 431-450. This study provides an account of vowel harmony in Korean ideophones within the theoretical framework of Optimality Theory. We show that vowel harmony process is achieved by employing two high ranked alignment constraints. We address the issue of misalignment at the right edge of the harmonic domain arguing that it is the result of the interaction between the featural identity and Align-Right constraints. The harmonizing behavior of the high back round vowel /u/ and its variation in a same morpheme are analyzed by using a conjunctive constraint and reranking relevant constraints repectively. We also argue that we should make a distinction between two /u/s in nonintial syllable positions. (Hannam University)
The penalty of Han Dynasty generally succeeded to the system of Qin(秦) Dynasty until the emperor wen(文帝) reformed the punitive law of his country. After the Emporer Wen changed the punitive law, the physical punishment which took an important situation between punitive systems drew back entirely in the law system, and flogging and labor penalty appeared on the contrary. Although labor penalty appeared, it was nothing but spread the scope of labor penalty, and among labor penalties kun Qian Cheng Dan was not only applied instead of physical punishment, but also applied in place of reducing death sentence. The labor penalty of male prisoners-Kun Qian Cheng Dan( 鉗城旦) Wan Cheng Dan(完城旦), Gui Xin(鬼薪), Si Kon(司寇), Shu Fa Zui(戍罰作), and Li Chen-was different in the term of imprisonment. Kun Qian Cheng Dan was five years, Wan Chen Dan four years, Gui xin three years, Si Kon two years, and Shu Fa Zuo from three months to one year; according to Han Shu(漢書) and Hhu Han Shu(後漢書), howevor, Li Chen (隸臣) only five examples before the days of the Emperor Wu(武帝). So Li Chen, one of labor Penalties, was lighter than Gui Xin and heavier than Si Kon though it is hard to presume. That is to say, I think the penal servitude of Li Chen was over two years or within three years. And by each labor penalty they were forced to do the labor which came under the name of a crime. As stated above, among the whole labor penalty there was the labor of each punishment according to the meanings of penalty in itself. However, the labor given to the accused didn't actually coincide with the meanings of the penalty in itself.
[연구목적] 본 연구는 친환경 제품에 대한 인식에 어떤 요인이 영향을 미치는지 밝히고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 친환경 특성의 중심성에 초점을 맞추고 제품의 전반적인 친환경성 평가에 혜택 유형과 회사 의도의 조절 효과를 검토하였다. [연구방법] 특징 중심성에 따른 소비자의 평가와 관련한 연구가설의 검증을 위하여 총 네 번의 실험이 이루어졌다. 실험1에서는 아기용 샴푸와 자동차용 샴푸를 실험제품으로 선정하여 총 183명의 피 실험자가 실험에 참가하였다. 실험2에서 4까지도 연구목적에 부합하는 적정 실험설계가 이루어졌다. 연구가설의 검증을 위해 t-test와 ANOVA가 적용되었다. [연구결과] 제품의 중심적 특징이 친환경적인 것으로 인지될 때가 주변적 특징이 친환경적인 것으로 인지될 때 보다 제품에 대한 선호도는 낮아졌다. 중심성이 낮아질 경우 제품에 대한 선호도는 높아졌고, 자기 관점보다는 타인관점의 선호도가 더 높았다. 제품의 강함 정보가 없는 경우보다 있는 경우가 제품에 대한 선호도는 더 높았다. 의도된 친환경 향상의 경우 회사가 제품 품질 향상 이외의 다른 요소로 더 많은 자원을 돌린 것으로 추론하는 경향이 있었다. 혜택이 제품과 분리될 때 소비자들은 회사가 제품 품질 이외의 다른 요소로 자원을 돌린 것으로 더 이상 추론하지 않았다. [연구의 시사점] 지금까지 소비자들이 친환경 제품을 평가할 때 특징 중심성(feature centrality)의 영향을 타진한 연구는 거의 없다. 이에 본 연구는 소비자가 인지하는 친환경 제품에 대한 특징 중심성이 제품 평가에 어떻게 영향을 미치는지와 친환경 제품으로부터 소비자가 추구하는 혜택의 유형에 따른 소비자의 평가를 연구하였다. 연구 결과에 의한 이론적․실무적 시사점을 제시하였다. [Purpose] This study aimed to find out what makes a product more or less environmentally friendly. To this end, we focused on the centrality of green characteristics, reviewed the mode of benefit and the moderating effect of firm intention in evaluating the overall greenness of products. [Methodology] A total of four experiments were conducted to verify the established research hypotheses. In Experiment 1, baby shampoo and car shampoo were selected as experimental products, and a total of 183 subjects participated in the experiment. Appropriate experimental designs were done from Experiments 2 to 4. To verify the research hypotheses, t-test and ANOVA were applied. [Findings] The preference for the product was lower when the central feature of the product was perceived as environmentally friendly than when the peripheral one was perceived as so. When the centrality is lowered, the preference for the product increases, and the preference for others is higher than that of the self-perspective. The preference for the product was higher in the case where there was no strong information about it. The intended green improvement tended to deduce that the company turned more resources into factors other than product quality improvement. When benefits were separated from products, consumers no longer reasoned that the company turned resources into factors other than product quality. [Implications] This study investigated how the feature centrality of green products perceived by consumers influences product evaluation and consumers’ evaluation according to the types of benefits consumers seek from green products. Theoretical and practical implications based on the research results were presented.
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Chung, Chin Wan. 2001. The behavior of velar nasal and syllabification. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 7.1, 177-189. This study provides a Correspondence- Theoretic analysis for the behavior of velar nasal [?], which normally occurs after the alveolar nasal /n/ is inserted, a variant realization in Korean, with respect to syllabification and related phenomena in Korean and Japanese. Normally syllable internal consonants are syllabified as the onset of the following syllable, but the velar nasal does not follow this normal syllabification. We analyze this peculiar behavior by using Onset Condition constraint plus other relevant constraints. The velar nasal also shows other different acts than the other consonants in that it shows intraspeaker variation and interdialectal variation between SD and KD. These are rather readily analyzed by reranking the constraints offered in this analysis. The analysis of Korean case may be extended to Japanese case where it shows variation between young and old Japanese speakers regarding [g] and [?] variation. This paper illuminates the specific behaviors of the velar nasal in syllabification in general.(Hannam University)
Chae Wan. 2011. Interpretation of TV Commercials from Synthetic Point of View. Korean Semantics, 36. This paper aims to analyze copies of commercial messages from linguistic and non-linguistic points of view. TV commercials examined in this paper were selected out of commercials which have been broadcasted from January to July 2010. Often, the words are not interpreted as basic meaning in commercial messages. Ordinary meaning and newly interpreted meaning of words become homonym or polysemy in the context, so it makes the messages ambiguous and implicative. In that way, short phrases of advertising copies can deliver complicated meaning and intention of the advertiser. In advertising copies, the maxim of conversation seems to be different from that of ordinary language. Sometimes consumers are misled by glowing promises of commercials. From pragmatic point of view, advertising copies include implicature and presupposition, and they conceal contradiction and fallacy. But TV audiences, in other words consumers, tolerate and even enjoy commercials. Because TV commercials are not only composed of advertising copies but also composed of many attractive components such as fantastic images, background music, and celebrities. TV commercials deliver advertising messages by synesthetic way. Image takes the place of language, onomatopoeia represents lexical meaning, and so on. Therefore, the TV audiences must search hidden meanings of non-linguistic factors such as images and background music to catch the intention of the advertiser. Sometimes, consumers may be affected by the atmosphere of the advertisement rather than the message itself.
Background Procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) was induced in hypoxia and participated in cancer development. However, the role of PLOD2 in endometrial carcinoma remains unclear. Objective To explore the influences and regulation mechanism of PLOD2 in endometrial carcinoma under hypoxic condition. Methods The small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting to PLOD2 and pcDNA3.1-PLPD2 were transfected to endometrial carcinoma cells to alter PLOD2 expression. Cell proliferation ability was determined by colony formation assay. Wound healing assay used to detect cell migration ability. Transwell invasion assay was used to detect cell invasion ability. Results PLOD2 and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were induced by hypoxia. Down-regulation of PLOD2 did not affect endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation ability, while inhibited cell migration, invasion under hypoxic condition. Besides, down-regulation of PLOD2 increased the levels of γ-catenin and E-cadherin and decreased levels of Fibronectin and Snail under hypoxic condition. Down-regulation of PLOD2 also inactivated Src and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (Akt) signaling under hypoxic condition. The promoting effects of PLOD2 overexpression on migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial carcinoma cells were reversed by Akt inhibitor (MK2206) under hypoxic condition. Conclusion PLOD2 expression was increased in endometrial carcinoma cells under hypoxic condition. PLOD2 modulated migration, invasion, and EMT of endometrial carcinoma cells via PI3K/Akt signaling. PLOD2 may be a potential therapeutic target for endometrial carcinoma.
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오늘날 사업지들은 대량거래에서 개별고객과으| 계g떨차를 죠바화하고 그 획일적 처리를위해 ‘약관’을 시용하고 있다 그런데 약관은 사업자가 일방적으로 작성한 정형적인 계약조건이기 때문에 소비자의 권리를 침해할 기능성이 크므로 열악한 지위에 있는 고객을 보호하기 위하여 ζ댁은 이른바 ‘약표법’을 제정하여 시행하고 있으며 우리나라도 1986년 ‘약관규제에 관한 법률을 제정하여 시행해 용H과 약관규제법은 고객의 보호를 위하여 사업자에게 약표때| 대한 명시·설명의무를 부과하고있다. 약곤규제법 제3조는 특히 사업자가 약관의 ‘중요한 내용’을 고객에게 설명해야 효H파고 규정하고 있는데, 이 ‘중요한 내용’으| 기준에 대하여는 구체적으로 언급하고 있지 않다. 사업자으| 설명의무는 고객이 충분히 예상할 수 있는 사흔일 경우 면제될 수 있지만 그 기준은 고객별로 차이가 있으므로 계약의 전반적인 취지와 내용, 고객의 이해싣때 등에 기초하여 종합적으로 판단해야 한다 결국 객관적이고 확실한 사실로서 고객이 알고 있을 것으로 예상되는 경우에 한하여 이를 인정하는 것이 고객보호라는 약표F규제법 취지에 적합할것이다 약관은 오늘날 현대사회의 유용한 거래수묘떼지만 사업자가 일방적g로 작성한 정형적인 거래조건이므로 고객을 보호하기 우|하여 표뻐가 설시해온 여러 기준을 법률규정에 구체화시킬 필요가 있으며, 이러한 작업을 통하여 약관이 고객을 충실히 보호할 수 있는 유용한 제도가 될 수 있을 것이다 이 글에서는 약관의 명시·설명의무에 대하여 외국의 입법려|와 우리나라 표뻐|등을 검토하고 아울러 명시 설명의무규정의 유효성에 대하여도 검토해 보기로 한다. Nowadays, standardized contract clauses are so effective in the large transactions. However, clauses in standardized agreements may irnfrirnge ∞nsumer rights because they were written by one p았ty. So, General Standard Clause Act was enacted to protect customers in almost countries. This Act includes the duty of explning the clauses so that consumers may have a chance to listen to the full description from contract parties. But the problem is that laws don’t have concrete provisions that say what important information is. lis paper is focused on not only the duty of explanation of the c1auses but also the problem of the application. The contents of this per are as follows. Chap l . Introduction Chap2. αncept of the Duty of Explanation of Clauses Chap3. Cases Trend about the Duty of Explanation of Clauses Chap4. Comparative Study of the Duty of Explan때on of Clauses Chap5. Review of Effectiveness of the Duty of Explanation of Clauses Chap6. Conclusion
본 연구는 국민연금의 수탁책임에 따른 주주행동주의가 최고경영자의 경영권집중에 따른 이익조정에 미치는 영향을 분석하고자 하였다. 국민연금이 기업의사결정에 바람직하게 주주권을 행사한다면 경영권집중에 따른 이익조정에 대한 통제력을 행사하고 있다고 추정할 수 있다. 주요변수 중에서 종속변수인 발생액의 질(Dechow and Dichev, 2002;Francis et al., 2005)이 높을수록(잔차의 표준편차가 클수록, 이익조정이 많을수록) 이익조정을 하는 것으로 추정할 수 있고 국민연금과 음(-) 상관관계가 예측된다. 이 경우 국민연금은 이익조정에 대한 통제력을 가진다고 해석한다. 그리고 최고경영자의 경영권집중도가 높을수록 이익조정이 쉽기 때문에 경영권집중과 발생액의 질(이익조정)은 양(+)의 관계가 예상된다. 또한 국민연금과 경영권집중을 결합하였을 때 이익조정에 미치는 영향이 음(-)의 관계를 나타냈을 때 국민연금의 이익조정 통제효과는 더욱 분명하게 확인할 수 있다. 분석결과, 최고경영자 경영권집중과 이익조정(발생액의질)검증에서 경영권집중도가 높을수록 이익조정의 유의적인 양(+)에 영향이 나타났으며, 단순한 국민연금과 이익조정간의 분석에서는 통계적 유의성이 나타나지 않았다. 반면, 국민연금의 이익조정 통제효과를 명확히 확인하기 위해 국민연금이 5% 이상 지분참여하는 기업일수록 경영권집중도에 따른 이익조정을 감소시키는 것으로 분석되었다. 본 연구는 최고경영자의 경영권집중도가 높을수록 재량권이 많이 부여되므로 정보비대칭은 심화되고, 이익조정의 가능성도 높을 것이다. 따라서 본 연구는 이런 기업들에 대해 국민연금이 적극적으로 바람직한 주주권 행사에 참여하는 것이 경영자의 기회주의적 이익조정을 통제할 수 있다는 것을 제시하였다는 점에서 연구의 의의가 있다. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of shareholder activism on the earnings management caused by the concentration of the CEO’s managerial centrality. Based on the study by Bebchuk et al. (2011), it tried to verify that the shareholder action of the national pension fund controls the profit adjustment of the CEO’s managerial centrality. If the National Pension Service exercises shareholder rights in favor of corporate decisions, it can be assumed that it is exercising control over earnings management based on CEO’s managerial centrality. Among the major variables, the quality of accruals was measured using the Dechow and Dichev (2002) model (DD model) and the modified Jones model (1991). The larger the measure of quality of the accrual, the more an entity’s earnings management can be expected. The analysis was made to see if the National Pension Service controlled earnings management based on concentration of managerial control in companies with investment of 5% or more. In the preceding studies, the higher the CEO’s managerial centrality, the more likely it was to be exposed to earnings management, so it is expected that a positive relationship will emerge. As a result of the analysis, it was found that CEO’s managerial centrality had a positive effect on the quality of the accruals (DD model), so the higher CEO’s managerial centrality, the easier it was to be exposed to an entity’s earnings management. However, seen from the perspective of the modified Jones model, it was positive but not statistically significant. Next, it was confirmed that shareholder activism of the NPS has been shown to control earnings management by the CEO’s managerial centrality. Analysis of the combination variables of the national pension and the concentration of managerial control revealed a significant negative effect on profit adjustment. This study can be said to be significant in that the shareholder activism of the National Pension Service can have control over earnings management for companies with a high CEO’s managerial centrality.
The purpose of this study is to theoretically and empirically examine whether public spending in education, health care, and welfare service operates as a fruitful investment in welfare states, which has been implied in the literature of social investment arguments. Based on comprehensive review of existing literature, this study suggested a tripartite mechanism of social investment effect of such spending, that is “enhancement of human capital,” “support for labor force participation,” and “job creation.” To find the empirical evidence, a pooled time‐series cross‐section analysis was conducted with the data of 15 advanced welfare states from 1980 to 2015 using estimation technique of fixed‐effect model. The results confirmed that public spending in education, health care, and welfare service had a positive medium‐term as well as long‐term effect on economic performance, while cash‐type welfare spending had an obscure or no visible effect on economy. Government consumption that is a proxy and control variable of size of the welfare state showed a positive effect on real GDP in the medium term but a negative effect in the long run. In conclusion, this study suggests that reinforcing social services should be recognized and dealt with as essence of social investment strategy.
At the end of the Joseon Dynasty, Danyang was the important area for the movement of army that fought against the Japanese police and army. During the early movement, Jang Choong-sik and Jang Choong-sik who were father and son, Lee Wan-ha and others played major roles in the leadership of Hojwaeuijin. Especially, it could be seen in the area that Danyang militiaman troop turned into a combat troop. In late movement, Danyang became an important combat area where Lee Gangnyun, Kim Sang-tae, Lee Myung-sang who was the general of the army in Danyang, and Min Byung-pal who rose in rebellion with Lee Myung-sang were remarkable members. However, except some research about Lee Gang-nyun, even basic research has not been done yet because there has been no specific historical materials about others. Therefore, there is some necessity to push ahead the research based on Danyang area.