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        Parliamentary Representation of Women in Indonesia : the Struggle for a Quota

        Wahidah Zein Br. SIREGAR Ewha Womans University Press 2005 Asian Journal of Women's Studies(AJWS) Vol.11 No.3

        The right to vote and stand for parliament has existed since the first Indonesian elections in 1955, but has not resulted in significant numbers of women MPs (members of parliament). This low representation has been challenged by women activists, who have undertaken a long struggle. They were finally able to obtain a 30 percent non-compulsory quota, which was included in the law on general elections (Indonesian Law No. 12 on General Elections, 2003). In the 2004 elections, the success in getting the quota enacted seemed likely to provide momentum for Indonesian women activists to win 30 percent of the parliamentary seats. However, only a small proportion of the seats were won by women in the national, provincial and local parliaments in 2004 (for the 2004-2009 period). Poor participation by women in political parties, which have been dominated by men, and the nature of the electoral system appear to be factors underlying the failure of women in gaining greater representation in the Indonesian parliaments.

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