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This article draws on solicited diary entries detailing the lives and loves of eight young undergraduate women at an elite institution of higher education in South Africa. The research participants are occupants of a privileged place in society with access to education, and a middle-class lifestyle, have control over their reproductive functioning, are not wives, mothers or homemakers, and potentially have access to fulfilling, status-rich and materially rewarding occupations which make independence both of their parental families and of male partners a real possibility. Theirs then, is a world of information, choice and opportunity and if of anyone at all in society we would predict the emergence of a critical gender consciousness, it might be of these woman. One way of gauging the extent of the emergence of a critical consciousness among women is to examine the extent to which, in the stories they tell about their intimate relationships, they depart from, or conform to both the content and structure of the traditional romance genre and in particular, to the positioning of themselves in their stories as passive, submissive, dependent subjects while their partners are dominant and active. The present article argues that far from the democratisation of intimacy, the young, seemingly privileged and empowered women in the study remain locked into romantic narratives of love with their concomitant passive construction of femininity. In a social context characterised by putative sexual emancipation, these young women find themselves in the unenviable position of having to play a game of liberated sexual and gender politics while at the same time living a reality of feminine oppression.
Barrouallie, a fishing community on the Caribbean islandof St. Vincent, has a unique cultural heritage associatedwith its history as a whaling centre. As a way to alerttownspeople of a successful catch, Barrouallie whalerssang occupational songs known as ‘shanties’ while rowingtheir whaleboats to shore. A product of diverse culturalinfluences, the shanties of Barrouallie may be viewed as asub-genre, distinct from the more general body of seachanteys, the work songs of international 19th centurymerchant seamen. As a mode of expression - not merelya work song -a shanty could function variously asentertainment, satire, and advertisement. While economicand cultural changes in this developing island nation didnot favour the continuance of shanty singing, a revival ofinterest in Barrouallie’s whaling traditions began in 2001,with particular attention to shanties and the generation ofmen who recall the role and significance of these songs inthe local whaling enterprise. This 21st century renaissance of a maritime musictradition among living practitioners represents aremarkable survival that deserves greater recognition. Through the performance and recording of shanties, TheBarrouallie Whalers have been interpreting andpublicising Barrouallie’s whaling heritage for aninternational audience since 2001.
플루트 독주 특유의 즉흥적 음악언어를 추구하면서, 전통적이고 현대적인 연주기법의 범위를 넘어 컴퓨터를 이용한 악기의 확장이라는 영역으로 넘어가야 할 필요성을 종종 느낄 때가 있다. 이러한 이유로 알리스 베넷Alice Bennett의 창작 작품은 실용적인 사운드 팔레트를 확장시키는 새로운 전자음향적 기술을 탐색케 한다. 이 글은 빈센트 길레스Vincent Giles가 실시간으로 분광 영역 마이크로사운드 증폭 소프트웨어SDMAS(Spectral Domain Microsound Amplification Software)를 사용한 플루트 연주에 관하여 기술한다. 분광 영역 마이크로사운드 증폭 소프트웨어SDMAS는 실시간으로 입력된 소리가 특정 음량 기준점 주변 배음들의 음량을 변화시켜, 작은 소리를 상대적으로 큰 음량으로 증폭시킨다. 그 결과 들을 수 없었을 [작은] 배음들이 큰 음량의 배음들과 같이 커져, 기존의 악기 혹은 변형된 악기 음색과도 확연히 다른 음색을 얻게 된다. 이는 연주자/작곡가가 순전히 어쿠스틱 악기에서 얻을 수 있는 것과 다른 음색을 보여줄 뿐 아니라 보다 넓은 영역의 음색을 활용할 수 있게 해준다. 이는 초월적 악기의 확장형태instrument configuration에 기반한, 음향적으로 풍부하고 독특한 즉흥적 음악언어를 이끌어 낼 것이다. In the search for an idiosyncratic improvisatory language of solo flute performance, it is sometimes necessary to move beyond the scope of traditional and extended techniques into the world of instrument-extension through computers. To this end, Alice Bennett’s creative work leads to the exploration of new electroacoustic techniques, searching for ways to expand the available sonic palette. This paper documents an electronically-extended flute performance utilising Vincent Giles’ Spectral Domain Microsound Amplification Software (SDMAS) in real-time. The SDMAS amplifies soft sounds relative to loud, by real-time input, shifting the partials by amplitude around an amplitude-based pivot point. The result is that these otherwise-inaudible partials increased to audibility alongside the higher amplitude partials, drastically altering the perceived timbre of the instrument or instruments being treated. This allows the performer/composer to not only discover, but to exploit a greater range of timbres than are available to a purely acoustic instrument. These explorations lead to a sonically enriched and idiosyncratic improvisatory language based on this hyper-instrument configuration.
The desire to reduce the mass of the spacecraft is driving the development of low-thrust micro propulsion systems. In order to obtain insight into the physics of micro-nozzle flows, numerical simulations of rarefied flows in a micro-nozzle is investigated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. For micronozzle with smaller divergent angle, the effect of boundary layer thickness can be significant. A thick boundary layer present at the exit of the micronozzle can affect the choking. The choking in normal nozzles is essentially under very thin boundary layer. Whereas for micronozzles due to the presence of a thick boundary layer the possibility of compound choking exists. In order to quantify the influence of viscous forces on flow choking and nozzle performance, the boundary layer parameters are investigated in much detail and detailed comparisons with normal nozzles under favorable and adverse pressure gradients are provided. Comparisons are made with the available experimental data, and the factors, which affect the solutions, are discussed. This study revealed that in micro-nozzles surface effects play the main role on the flow structure.
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This paper discusses designing a course for undergraduate English interpretation and Translation students focused on teaching the elements of story structure using elements of the novel Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien and the film trilogy of the same name directed by Peter Jackson. Story structure will be taught using the theory of the monomyth by Joseph Campbell and drawing from other concepts such as archetypes and shadow as developed by Carl G. Jung and Maria von Franz. Additional relevant aspects of cultural literacy will be introduced using various materials related to the story, its creators, scholars and its context within contemporary culture. Following discussion of story structure and cultural context, course design will be considered and examples of assignments and class content will be provided including film and reading discussion questions.
We report the case of a man who presented with acute anterior myocardial infarction and in whom the coronary angiogram showed tight stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery and the right coronary artery associated with substantial coronary-pulmonary fistulas involving all three major coronary arteries. We discuss the possible links between coronary artery fistulas and myocardial infarction.