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( Tine Gregersen ), ( Anne Mette Haase ), ( Vincent Schlageter ), ( Henning Gronbaek ), ( Klaus Krogh ) 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회(구 대한소화관운동학회) 2015 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.21 No.3
Background/Aims: The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea restricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients`` regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers and seven patients with neuroendocrine tumor and at least 3 bowel movements per day were investigated with 3D-Transit and standard radiopaque markers. Results: Total GITT assessed with 3D-Transit and radiopaque markers were well correlated (Spearman``s rho = 0.64, P = 0.002). Median total GITT was 12.5 (range: 8.5-47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1-142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4-5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8-7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.044). Median colorectal transit time was 5.2 (range: 2.9-40.1) hours in patients versus 18.1 (range: 5.0-134.0) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.012). Median frequency of pansegmental colonic movements was 0.45 (range: 0.03-1.02) per hour in patients and 0.07 (range: 0-0.61) per hour in healthy subjects (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency of pansegmental colonic movements. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2015;21:423-432)
( Tine Gregersen ), ( Christina Brock ), ( Anne Mette Haase ), ( Søren Laurberg ), ( Asbjørn M Drewes ), ( Henning Grønbæk ), ( Klaus Krogh ) 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회(구 대한소화관운동학회) 2016 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.22 No.2
Background/Aims In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, excessive production of serotonin and other amines may cause the carcinoid syndrome, which is mainly characterized by diarrhea and flushing. Little is known about the pathophysiology of carcinoid diarrhea. In several other groups of patients, diarrhea may be associated with rectal hypersensitivity and increased rectal tone. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare rectal sensitivity and compliance in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and in healthy subjects. Methods Twelve patients (6 males, aged 54-78 years, median 65 years), with carcinoid diarrhea and 19 healthy subjects (7 males, aged 50-78 years, median 61 years) were included. Rectal mechanical and heat stimulation was used for assessment of rectal mechano-sensory properties. Results Overall, 5.3% higher temperatures were needed to elicit sensory responses in patients with carcinoid diarrhea than in healthy subjects (P = 0.015). Posthoc analyses revealed that the sensory threshold to heat was 48.1 ± 3.1oC in patients vs 44.7 ± 4.7oC in healthy subjects (P = 0.041). In contrast, patients and healthy subjects showed no overall differences in rectal sensory response to mechanical distension (P = 0.731) or rectal compliance (P = 0.990). Conclusions Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have higher sensory thresholds to heat stimulation in comparison to healthy subjects, but normal rectal sensation to mechanical distension and normal compliance. Therefore, treatment of carcinoid diarrhea should aim at prolonging gastrointestinal transit and decreasing secretion, rather than modifying rectal mechano-sensory function. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2016;22:264-271)
흔히 덴마크는 다른 노르딕 국가들과 함께 북유럽의 ‘돌봄 국가'로 묘사되며 노인들에게 장기요양 서비스를 제공하기 위한 포괄적인 고예산 공공 돌봄 시스템을 갖추고 있다. 이 글에서는 이 같은 덴마크의 선진 돌봄 시스템에서 공식, 비공식 돌봄 노동이 어떻게 자리 잡고 있는지, 돌봄 정책의 변화가 공식 돌봄과 비공식 돌봄 제공에 어떤 영향을 주는지 살펴본다. 연구 결과, 공식 돌봄 노동은 열악한 근로 환경의 문제와 함께 돌봄 노동에 가해지는 지속적인 압박의 문제가 있으나, 증가하는 돌봄 노동 수요가 공식 돌봄 노동의 가치를 변화시킬 수 있음이 드러났다. 한편, 비공식 돌봄 노동은 지속적으로 도외시되는 경향이 있으나 공식 돌봄의 대상이 점차 가장 허약한(frail) 노인들로 축소됨에 따라 비공식 돌봄의 중요성이 확대될 것으로 보인다.
The study aims to estimate the effect of current ratio (CR), current liability to inventory (CLI), total asset turnover (TAT), net profit margin (NPM), sales growth (SG), and company size (FS) on profit growth (PG). The research population was 18 companies in the Food and Beverage (F&B) sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2014-2018. The data estimation method uses the common effect panel data regression model. The empirical findings show that the CR and CLI ratios have a negative effect on PG, while the TAT, NPM, and SG ratios have a positive effect. Company size is a factor that does not affect the growth of company profits. The results of the study imply that an increase in company profits can be achieved if the company operates efficiently and with low liquidity to encourage higher sales growth. The limitations of the research are as follows: first, this research considers only one type of industry, hence the results of this study would not be the same if applied to another type of industry. Second, the author observes profit growth by using the company's financial ratios and size and ignores other factors that may affect profit growth, for example, the number of employees, total net sales, and market capitalization.
One of the most commonly used techniques to strengthen steel reinforced concrete structures is the application of externally bonded patches in the form of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) or recently, textile reinforced cements (TRC). These external patches undertake the tensile stress of bending constraining concrete cracking. Development of full-field inspection methodologies for fracture monitoring are important since the reinforcing layers are not transparent, hindering visual observation of the material condition underneath. In the present study acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) are applied during four-point bending tests of large beams to follow the damage accumulation. AE helps to determine the onset of fracture as well as the different damage mechanisms through the registered shifts in AE rate, location of active sources and change in waveform parameters. The effect of wave propagation distance, which in large components and in-situ can well mask the original information as emitted by the fracture incidents is also discussed. Simultaneously, crucial information is supplied by DIC concerning the moments of stress release of the patches due to debonding, benchmarking the trends monitored by AE. From the point of view of mechanics, conclusions on the reinforcing contribution of the different repair methodologies are also drawn.
Purpose: Persistent pain is a common side effect of breast cancer treatment. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence, associated treatment-related factors, and the type of pain (neuropathic or nociceptive) in patients who had undergone a unilateral mastectomy. Methods: All women who underwent a unilateral mastectomy at a University Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Women with breast reconstruction or active cancer were excluded. Participants were mailed a questionnaire evaluating the prevalence, location, intensity, and frequency of surgical site pain. Additionally, the painDETECT ®, a validated instrument to evaluate neuropathic pain, was mailed to all participants. Results: A total of 305 women were included, and of them, 261 (85.6%) completed the study questionnaire. After a median follow-up period of 3.0 years, 100 women (38.3%) reported experiencing pain at the surgical site. Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, radiation therapy, and axillary lymph node dissection were significantly associated with persistent pain in univariate models. However, only body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 was independently associated with persistent pain (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.27; p=0.034) in a multivariate analysis. Of the patients reporting pain, 71.0% were unlikely to have a neuropathic pain component. A moderate, but highly significant, positive correlation was observed between the pain intensity and the painDETECT® score (rs=0.47, p<0.001). Conclusion: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment continues to have a high prevalence. Our results indicate that the largest proportion of patients experiencing persistent pain after breast cancer treatment do not have a clear neuropathic pain component.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important food crop in arid and semi-arid tropics where it is grown mainly due to its drought tolerance. In Ethiopia, sorghum is grown in different agro-ecological zones primarily for food. Landraces are widely cultivated in the region due to their adaptation to the growing conditions and other characteristics such as food quality, quantity, and quality of by-products. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic variation in protein, mineral composition, total starch and its components in sorghum landraces collected from the western regions of Ethiopia. Sorghum whole grains were analyzed for crude protein, total starch and its components, and mineral profile (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese,zinc, and sodium). The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the sorghum landraces in nutritional composition. There was highly significant correlation between phosphorus and magnesium, and between zinc and phosphorus and protein which indicated that some interaction existed in absorption and translocation between minerals and protein content. The genetic variation found among the sorghum landrace accessions in chemical composition can be exploited in the breeding program.