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응오 티념(吳時任)은 시대성을 지니며 많은 분야에서 다양한 사상을 제시한 인물이다. 그는 큰 변동의 시대를 겪었으며, 세간에서 그에 대한 다양한 평가가 있었음에도 불구하고 18세기를 언급할 때는 언제나 응오 티 념이 빠질 수 없다. 그는 레-찐(黎-鄭)왕조에서 중요한 역할을 담당하며 이후 새롭게 일어선 떠이 썬(西山王朝, 레-찐 왕조를 무너뜨렸다)에서 중요한 관리가 된다. 그래서 그의 사상 속에는 그의 이런 복잡한 정치적 인생이 반영이 되어 있다. 18세기 베트남의 유명한 사상가인 응오 티 념은 국가의 여러 분야에 참여한 유학자였고 관직에서 물러난 후에는 유명한 선사(禪師)가 되었다. 이런 이유로 변화가 심한 특수한 상황 속에서 그의 사회적인 책임에 대한 생각은 과연 일관된 의미를 가진 것인가? 아니면 신하로서의 이익을 위해 역사적 흐름을 따르는 자의적(恣意的)인 것인 가? 이 글에서는 응오 티 념의 생각에서 서로 모순되고 충돌되는 양상과 함께 이 속에서 일관성과 변증적 원칙들을 살펴 사회적 책임에 대한 사상의 개념을 분석할 것이다. 또, 사회적 책임에 대한 사상은 본래 서양 경제학의 개념이지만 동양철학의 학설 중에 유교에서도 일찍부터 주목하며 관심을 가졌다는 것을 살펴볼 것이다. 사회적 변화의 환경 속에서 가장 뛰어난 사회적 책임을 실현하기 위한 철학을 선택하는 것은 시대의 움직임과 사상가들의 도전이다. 응오 티 념은 자신의 어려운 삶과 더불어 인민에 대한 사회적 책임의 정신으로서 시대의 난해한 물음에 대답을 하게 되었다. Ngo Thi Nham (1746 - 1803) was an epochal character whose thoughts are considered multi-faceted, multi-dimensional. He participated in the large fluctuations of the times; whether people liked him or not, judging him affirmatively or negatively, Ngo Thi Nham was always mentioned when issues related to the eighteenth century were under discussion. He made an important role to the Le-Trinh dynasty and after that, became a senior for Tay Son reign (which destroyed the Le-Trinh). That complicated political life was also reflected in his ideas. As one of the most known thinkers in Vietnam in the 18thcentury, he was a Confucian whom engaged in every change of the nation, and also a retreat Zen monk in the end of his life. Thus, does his social responsibility thought in such variable character have a consistent meaning, or arbitrary chased the history trend for serving personal benefits? This paper will explore the concept of Ngo Thi Nham``s social responsibility thoughts to point out the dialectical and consistent principles in them, though their appearances can be thought contradictory and conflicting to each other. This article also shows that, though social responsibility is an economics concept from the West, but it was always been early attentive from the perspective of Eastern philosophy, especially Confucianism . This concept was increasingly more attentionally in the context of social unrest. By this time, choose which philosophy to be the best performing social responsibility was a challenge to the thinkers and practicers of the era. Ngo Thi Nham had his answers for this conundrum by his social responsibility commitment through his life.
Tran,,Ha,Thi,Thanh,Dang,,Anh,Kieu,Ly,,Duc,Viet,Vu,,Hao,Thi,Hoang,,Tuan,Van,Nguyen,,Chinh,Thi,Chu,,Nhu,Thi,Nguyen,,Vinh,The,Nguyen,,Huyen,Thi,Truong,,Anh,Duc,Pham,,Ngoc,Thi,Dang,,Hoang,Vu Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2020 Animal Bioscience Vol.33 No.10
Objective: The rapid and reliable detection of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) plays an important role in emergency control and preventive measures of ASF. Some methods have been recommended by FAO/OIE to detect ASFV in clinical samples, including realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, mismatches in primer and probe binding regions may cause a false-negative result. Here, a slight modification in probe sequence has been conducted to improve the qualification of real-time PCR based on World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) protocol for accurate detection of ASFV in field samples in Vietnam. Methods: Seven positive confirmed samples (four samples have no mismatch, and three samples contained one mutation in probe binding sites) were used to establish novel real-time PCR with slightly modified probe (Y = C or T) in comparison with original probe recommended by OIE. Results: Both real-time PCRs using the OIE-recommended probe and novel modified probe can detect ASFV in clinical samples without mismatch in probe binding site. A high correlation of cycle quantification (Cq) values was observed in which Cq values obtained from both probes arranged from 22 to 25, suggesting that modified probe sequence does not impede the qualification of real-time PCR to detect ASFV in clinical samples. However, the samples with one mutation in probe binding sites were ASFV negative with OIE recommended probe but positive with our modified probe (Cq value ranked between 33.12-35.78). Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time that a mismatch in probe binding regions caused a false negative result by OIE recommended real-time PCR, and a slightly modified probe is required to enhance the sensitivity and obtain an ASF accurate diagnosis in field samples in Vietnam.
Tran,Ha,Thi,Thanh,Dang,Anh,Kieu,Ly,Duc,Viet,Vu,Hao,Thi,Hoang,Tuan,Van,Nguyen,Chinh,Thi,Chu,Nhu,Thi,Nguyen,Vinh,The,Nguyen,Huyen,Thi,Truong,Anh,Duc,Pham,Ngoc,Thi,Dang,Hoang,Vu 아세아·태평양축산학회 2020 Animal Bioscience Vol.33 No.10
Objective: The rapid and reliable detection of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) plays an important role in emergency control and preventive measures of ASF. Some methods have been recommended by FAO/OIE to detect ASFV in clinical samples, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, mismatches in primer and probe binding regions may cause a false-negative result. Here, a slight modification in probe sequence has been conducted to improve the qualification of real-time PCR based on World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) protocol for accurate detection of ASFV in field samples in Vietnam. Methods: Seven positive confirmed samples (four samples have no mismatch, and three samples contained one mutation in probe binding sites) were used to establish novel real-time PCR with slightly modified probe (Y = C or T) in comparison with original probe recommended by OIE. Results: Both real-time PCRs using the OIE-recommended probe and novel modified probe can detect ASFV in clinical samples without mismatch in probe binding site. A high correlation of cycle quantification (Cq) values was observed in which Cq values obtained from both probes arranged from 22 to 25, suggesting that modified probe sequence does not impede the qualification of real-time PCR to detect ASFV in clinical samples. However, the samples with one mutation in probe binding sites were ASFV negative with OIE recommended probe but positive with our modified probe (Cq value ranked between 33.12-35.78). Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time that a mismatch in probe binding regions caused a false negative result by OIE recommended real-time PCR, and a slightly modified probe is required to enhance the sensitivity and obtain an ASF accurate diagnosis in field samples in Vietnam.
Le,,Thi,Huong,Nga,,Thi,Thu,Vu,Nguyen,,Ngoc,Dung,Le,,Thi,Thanh,Xuan,Kim,,Bao,Giang,Phan,,Thi,Hai,Doan,,Thu,Huyen,Luong,,Ngoc,Khue,Nguyen,,Tuan,Lam,Hoang,,Van,Minh,Pham,,Thi,Quynh,Nga Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.no.sup1
The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.
Ha,,Nguyen,Thi,Hoang,Ha,,Nguyen,Thi,Nga,,Tran,Thi,Huyen,Minh,,Nguyen,Ngoc,Anh,,Bui,Thi,Kim,Hang,,Nguyen,Thi,An,Duc,,Nguyen,Anh,Nhuan,,Mai,Trong,Kim,,Kyoung-Woong Elsevier 2019 Applied geochemistry Vol.108 No.-
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Phytoremediation is a plant-based, environment-friendly, and cost-effective technology that can be potentially used to remediate contaminated media. This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential, two common techniques of phytoremediation, of 21 plant species growing naturally at the largest tungsten (W) mine in Vietnam—the second largest production of W in the world. The average concentrations in different soil fractions were in the following order: residue > organically complexed, Fe- and Mn oxide-bound > carbonate bound > exchangeable. The total concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in the soil varied by 34–3390, 4.87–81.6, 14.3–2080, and 21.9–370 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the shoots ranged 0.71–2400, 0.05–5.55, 4.81–249, and 13.3–380 mg/kg-DW, respectively. The concentrations of As and Cd in all soil samples and Cu in 70% of soil samples collected around the mine fluctuated within 2–227, 3–54, and up to 21-folds higher than the maximum allowable limit for agricultural soils in Vietnam (QCVN 03-MT:2015/BTNMT). The results indicated that hyperaccumulation levels (mg/kg-DW) were obtained for only As in <I>Pityrogramma calomelanos</I> (2400) and <I>Pteris vittata</I> L. (1860). Based on the recorded hyperaccumulation levels, translocation and accumulation factors, biomass, and fast growth of these plants, <I>P. calomelanos</I> and <I>P. vittata</I> were considered to be promising native plants for the phytoextraction of As contaminated soils. <I>Bidens pilosa</I> L. also has great potential for phytostabilization of mining soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Soils near multi-metal (W–F–Cu–Au–Bi) mine were contaminated with As, Cd, Cu. </LI> <LI> Arsenic in shoots were in order of Fern > Monocotyledonae > Dicotyledonae. </LI> <LI> <I>Pityrogramma calomelanos</I> and <I>Pteris vittata</I> L. suggested for phytoextraction of As. </LI> <LI> <I>Bidens pilosa</I> L. suggested for the phytostabilization of mining contaminated soils. </LI> </UL> </P>
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The human and capital resources from foreign investors are important sources of finance for developing countries. Foreign ownership can help the firm to raise funds for operations and the foreign management can help the firm expand the market and improve management. However, does this really happen to Vietnamese firm? To find the answer to that question, this paper examines the impact of foreign ownership and management on the financial performance of listed firms on Vietnam's stock market. The data collected include 427 listed firms in all fields over five years, from 2014 to 2018. The financial performance is measured by Tobin's Q, ROA and ROE. The study carried out testing of each model by the least squares method of Pool OLS, assessing random effects (REM) and evaluating fixed effects (FEM). The most effective model is the FEM model. The results show that the foreign ownership ratio and the size of the firm have a positive impact on the financial performance. The foreign management, the age of the firms, the liquidity and financial leverage have a negative impact on the financial performance. Based on the research results, the study proposes some recommendations to improve the financial performance of listed firms in Vietnam.
Ha,Thi,Thanh,Tran,Duc,Anh,Truong,Viet,Duc,Ly,Hao,Thi,Vu,Tuan,Van,Hoang,Chinh,Thi,Nguyen,Nhu,Thi,Chu,Vinh,The,Nguyen,Duyen,Thuy,Nguyen,Kohtaroh,Miyazawa,Takehiro,Kokuho,Hoang,Vu,Dang 대한백신학회 2020 Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research Vol.9 No.1
Purpose: To date, many kinds of classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines have been developed to protect against this disease. However, the efficacy of these vaccines to protect the pig against field CSF strains needs to be considered, based on circulating strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Materials and Methods: Recombinant E2-CSFV protein produced by baculovirus/insect cell system was analyzed by western blots and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The effect of CSFV-E2 subunit vaccines was evaluated in experimental pigs with three genotypes of CSFV challenge. Anti-E2 specific and neutralizing antibodies in experimental pigs were analyzed by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralization peroxidize-linked assay. Results: The data showed that CSFV VN91-E2 subunit vaccine provided clinical protection in pigs against three different genotypes of CSFV without noticeable clinical signs, symptoms, and mortality. In addition, no CSFV was isolated from the spleen of the vaccinated pigs. However, the unvaccinated pigs exhibited high clinical scores and the successful virus isolation from spleen. These results showed that the E2-specific and neutralizing antibodies induced by VN91-E2 antigen appeared at day 24 after first boost and a significant increase was observed at day 28 (p<0.01). This response reached a peak at day 35 and continued until day 63 when compared to controls. Importantly, VN91-E2 induced E2-specific and neutralizing antibodies protected experimental pigs against high virulence of CSFVs circulating in Vietnam, including genotype 1.1, 2.1, and 2.2. Conclusion: These findings also suggested that CSFV VN91-E2 subunit vaccine could be a promising vaccine candidate for the control and prevention of CSFV in Vietnam.
TRAN,,Thi-Thu,NGO,,Thi,Quynh-Anh,CUNG,,Thi,Ngoc-Anh,NGUYEN,,Thi-Giang,VU,,Dang-Duong,NGUYEN,,Phi-Hung,TSAI,,Jung-Fa Korea Distribution Science Association 2020 The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Busine Vol.7 No.10
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International payment is an essential part of the economy, which is beneficial to both commercial banks and trading enterprises. Moreover, service quality, which has been a key point of discussion for decades, relates to customer satisfaction. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing international payment service quality at the Join Stock Commercial Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam (BIDV) from 2015 through 2019. This research deploys both quantitative and qualitative methods to discuss the effects of these components. Statistical data was examined through different tests, including reliability analysis, correlation, and regression analysis by SPSS 16.0. The authors obtain and analyze 157 valid responses from customer surveys, then by applying an integration SERVPERF and PSQM model, identify five main components: Reliability, Tangibles, Assurance, Convenience, and Responsiveness, which explain how the customer perceives the service quality of international payment activities at BIDV. The results show that these five factors have a positive relationship with service quality, in which, Reliability has the most significant impacts on service quality level. Besides, the findings not only contribute to the literature but also give some practical implications for BIDV to improve its international payment service quality and help them to obtain customer satisfaction in the fast-changing environment.
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After obtaining the nation's independence, Vietnam feudal dynasties continued to use Han as the official script. However, to satisfy people's daily need, Nom was created and became an outstanding accomplishment in Vietnamese literature, which expressed the national esteem, power as well as position of Vietnamese language. Nom script was steadily improved, and Vietnamese people started to use Nom in literature work from XIII century. This was a significant improvement in national esteem and as well as a remarkable development in literature. History of Nom literature spread in seven centuries and was divided into four periods: Period 1 (the X century - the XIV century): Come along with Han, Nom script started to appear in literature since Tran's dynasties. This is the vital achievement in the period which set up the basis for the development of composing in national language in the following centuries. Period 2 (the XV century -the XVII century): Besides accomplishments in Han compositions, Nom literature with diverse styles was well developed and attained worthy achievements, which set a firm fundamental for the development later on. The success of Tho Nom Duong luat was marked with the existence of massive collections (including hundreds of poems). This time was the outstanding period in the literature history. Period 3 (the XVIII century - the beginning of XIX century): This time was considered as the golden age in the history with a notable development in Nom literature. With traditional literary styles, compositions written in Nom created masterpieces in literary heritages. Period 4 (from the late XIX century): In transformation process of national literature from medieval to modern, Nom compositions continuously played an importance role in create the unique features in this stage. The appearance and development of Nom literature is a must in the Vietnamese literature history in the process of building up our literature, In this process, the compositions written by several famous authors, for example Nguyen Trai, Nguyen Binh Khiem, Doan Thi Diem, Nguyen Gia Thieu, Ho Xuan Huong, Nguyen Du, Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Nguyen Khuyen, Tu Xuong, and etc., have created a series of valued masterpiece; among those, ‘Doan truong tan thanh' (Truyen Kieu) written by Nguyen Du is consider the number one masterpiece. Hence, Nom literature achievement has claimed an important role of Vietnamese language in literature compositions. The appearance of Nom script and Nom literature are astounding successes of Vietnamese literature in medieval period. With Nom written language, so many traditional literary styles were created and added worthy values into Vietnamese literature. The first achievement was to vietnamize Duong luat style to make up Tho Nom Duong luat - a style of poetry of which all the features of Vietnamese poetry were taken into account. The second success was creating two kinds of whtten compositions named Truyen Nom and Khuc ngam song that luc bat on the basis of folk poetry (six-eight meter and double seven six-eight meter style) In Nom compositions, public language used to be considered informal speech was brought into written work. The process of setting up Nom literature was the development of language selection and usage as well as the improvement in expression abilities and art level of national language. Nom compositions insisted the values, fates, right of existence and aspirations of human, especially those of women. Those were the general topics in our literature which followed humanism. As a result, democracy in content which required nationalized manners of expression in terms of written language, style of poetry and speech became the norm in Vietnamese literature. Vietnam has officially been a member of IRG since 2000. Written Nom has been encoded to add into international symbol system with similar script in the area. As a result, Nom written language created by Vietnamese people has been internationally recognized as a unique contribution to the cultural treasure of humanity.