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Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang₃,Ching-Yung Lin⁴,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Yuh-Chi Kuo¹,Chia-Lin Wn¹,Wei-jern Tasi¹,Jir-Yenn Wang²,Shi-Chung Chang²,Ching-Yung Lin³,and Ming-Shi Shiao⁴.¹National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, ²Department of Biology,Fu Jen University, ³Department of Chest, ⁴Department of Pediatrics, □De[art,amt of Medical Research and Education. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Blocking of Cell Proliferation, Cytokines Production and Genes Expression Following Administration of Cordyceps sinensis in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids Cells. Proceedings of international Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 44-64, 1999.-Cordyceps sinensis is a major parasitic fungus on larva of Lepidoptera. It is one of the well know fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma, lung and kideney diseases. Many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps have been demonstrated to produce natural products with various biological activities. Reported biological activities of genus cordyceps include:(a)inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis;(b)enhancement of cell differentiation;(c)restruction of cytoskeleton;(d)inhibition of protein kinase activity;(e)antitumor activity on bladder, colon, lung carcinoma as well as fibroblastoma;(f)inhibition of the infection and revers transciptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; and(g) inhibition of methylation of nucleic acid. Thus, it is suggested that the extracts of Cordyceps sp. Contain antitumor, antiviral, and many other biological activities. In our previous studies, we proved that C. sinensis contains the antitumor and immunomodulatory agents. In the present studies, effects of C. sinensis on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids(BAL)cells were demonstrated. The crude methanolic extracts of C. sinensis were fractionated into 15 fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Effects of various fraction on BAL cells proliferation and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated interleukin-1β(IL-8),platelet activating factor(PAF), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),and interleukin-8(IL-8) production on BAL cells were determined. The result indicated that the CS-19-22 fraction suppressed BAL cells proliferation activated by LPS. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 6㎍/ml. The CS-19-22 fraction also decreased IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-αand IL-8 production.The results of revers transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that the CS-19-22 fraction did not affect IL-1β,PAF,IL-6, TNF-α,and IL-8 mRNAs expression in BAL cells activated by LPS. By contrast, it inhibited the IL-10 mRNA expression but enhanced IFN-γand IL-12 mRNAs expression in activated BAL cells. Moreover, the CS-19-22 fraction blocked PAF-induced platelet aggregation. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved. Because no cell deths were observable. We hypothesize that inhibitory mechanisms of CS-19-22 on BAL cells proliferation may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in BAL cells. The explanation of C. sinensis antiasthma function may involved the following(1)C.sinenesis contained immunomodulatory agents that stimulated IFN-γand IL-12 expression in TH1cells.(2)Enhanced secretion of IFN-γand IL-12 will inhibit the Tγcells immune responses Ex. Decreasing of IL-6 and IL-10 production.(3) The impairments of cytokines production in TH2 cells suppressed th BAL cells proliferation then more cytokines production Ex.IL-1β,PAF,IL-6,TNF-αand IL-8 in activated BAL cells were decreased. (4)The suppression of TH2cells immune responses will inhibit the growth and differentiation of B cells then IgE production will be decreased. (5)Reduced production of IgE will decreased asthma attack occurring in individuals. However, the results of the present study suggested that C. sinensis may also have acted to treat asthma in part by inhibiting BAL cells proliferation and cytokine gene expression and production. Future, experiments with treatment of animals with asthma with C. sinensis will be necessary to defined whether C. sinensis can reduce asthma injury. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure principal growth inhibitors and their mechanisms of action are subjected for further study.
Power estimation tool is needed to be more fast and accurate when the power consumption is the chief concern during the chip design. Logic-level simulator is a good choice to estimate the power consumption of a chip design. In this paper we attempt to improve the accuracy of a logic-level simulator using glitch filtering and estimation techniques. We use logic-level simulator to filter some glitches and estimate the glitch power. We use slope of transition and time interval of two consecutive transitions to decide whether these transitions is partial glitches or full transitions. We estimate the transition power of each transition event and summed them up. The power simulation error is reduced from 35.8% to 7.9% referring to the Spice simulation.
본고는 Dylan Tsai(2015)의 후반부를 번역한 것이다. Tsai의 연구성과는 중국어 기능성분의 지형도를 통해 중국어 문법 구축에 새로운 시야를 제공해준다는 점에서 큰 영향력을 발휘하고 있다. Tsai(2015)에서는 중국어의 기능성분은 경동사구 외연과 좌측 외연이라는 두 특정 영역에 집중되어 있으며, 이는 다시 통사-의미 접합면에서 각각 동반성과 인과성에 결부되어 있음을 밝히고 있다. 의문/재귀 부사어, 경동사, 부가논항, 목적어 전치 등 중국어 및 언어 교차적인 다양한 사례들은 내부-외부 이분법의 존재에 강력한 입증자료를 제공해 준다. 이러한 연구결과는 지형학적인 접근법에 기초하여 통사-의미의 사상 관계를 폭넓게 이해하는데 크게 기여하고 있다. This paper is a translation of the latter half part of Tsai(2015)'s influential work, which provides new insights into the architecture of Chinese grammar, particularly in mapping out the topography of Chinese functional elements. Tsai shows that the distribution of Chinese functional elements is concentrated in two specific areas (i.e., the vP periphery and the left periphery), which in turn are associated with comitativity and causality respectively through the syntax-semantics interface. Both language-internal and cross-linguistic evidence from wh-/reflexive adverbials, light verbs, applicatives, and object fronting lend strong support to the existence of the inner-outer dichotomy. These findings make a great contribution to the full understanding of the nature of syntax-semantics mapping under the cartographic approach.
A comparison of the performances of two diferent approaches of cubic equations of state models, basedon a classical van der Wals and mixing rules incorporating the GEequation, was carried out for corelation ofVapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE), HEand cPE data alone, and simultaneous correlation of VLE+HE, VLE+cPE, HE+cPE andVLE+HE+cPE data for the diethers (1,4-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane) with n-alkane systems. For all calculations thePeng-Robinson-Stryjek-Vera cubic equation of state (PRSV CEOS) was used. A family of mixing rules for thePRSV CEOS based on the Modified van der Wals one-fluid mixing rule (MvdW1) and two well-known CEOS/GEmixing rules (MHV1 and MHV2), was considered. The NRTL equation, as the GEmodel with linear or reciprocal tem-perature dependent parameters, was incorporated in the CEOS/GEmodels. The results obtained by the CEOS/GEmodelsexhibit significant improvement in comparison to the MvdW1 models.