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도로를 개설하기 어려운 하천이나 협곡을 건너가기 위해 건설하는 교량은 교통의 기능뿐만 아니라 경관과 문화적인요소를 가지고 있어 ‘경관교량'이라 칭한다. 태산풍경구내에는 자연과 인문자원이 풍부하고 경관교량을 구성하고 있는 주변의 환경요소가 다양하여 유네스코에 의해 세계문화유산과 세계지질공원으로 지정되었다. 본 논문은 태산풍경구의 문헌연구와 현장조사를 통해 자연환경 요소와 인문환경요소 두 가지 측면에서 태산풍경구에 설치된 교량에 대한 경관영향 및 조경기법을 분석하고 환경요소의 특성 및 형식에 따라 자연환경과 인문환경으로 분류하여 연구하였다. 자연환경은 지형, 물, 식생 등이 있으며, 인문환경은 석각(石刻), 패방(牌坊) 등을 포함하고 있다. 연구결과 경관교량은 태산풍경구 환경과 경관요소로서 매우 중요한 영향을 미치고 있는 것으로 나타났으며 주요 조경기법으로 점경(點景), 차경(借景), 대경(對景), 광경(광景), 장경(障景) 등이 있어 산악형 풍경지구내 경관교량에 대한 디자인 및 계획, 보호, 개조에 요구되는 이론적 근거를 제시하였다. Bridges are built over rivers, gorges or other places where roads are impossible. Those which have traffic, decorative and cultural functions are usually named as garden-bridges. Mount Tai Scenic Area locates in the middle part of Shandong Province, China. It is renowned for its rich natural and cultural resources and ranks No.1 among the five most important mountains in China. It was honored as Mixed World Heritage and Global Geopark. There are decades of different bridges in the Scenic Area. Most of them have important values. Based on field survey and literature research, this paper takes the two main route (mid-climbing rout and west climbing route) as the research objects. The landscape characteristics of garden-bridge together with the surrounding environmental elements are studied. The environmental elements are classified into two categories according to their attributes and existing forms: one is natural and the other is cultural. Furthermore, The natural category includes topography, water, plant and climate etc. The cultural elements mainly consist of memorial archway(牌坊), pavilion and stone inscription etc. Their functions and effects on the garden-bridges are analyzed systematically. As a result, integrating the garden-bridge with the surrounding environmental elements as an organic group, garden-bridge landscape making techniques such as scenery inscription, view borrowing, opposite scenery, frame scenery and obstructive scenery are discussed. It puts forward to give some theoretical and practical references to the garden-bridge's planning and design, protection and improvement in mountainous scenic areas.
Trusted operating systems (OS) provide the basic security mechanisms and services that allow a computer system to protect, distinguish, and separate classified data. Trusted operating systems have been developed since the early 1980s and began to receive National Security Agency (NSA) evaluation in 1984. The researches about trusted OS are proceeding over the world, and new product type using the loadable security kernel module (LSKM) or dynamic link library (DLL) is being developed. Most important concept in this paper is Security Level proposed by Dr. Tai-hoon Kim, because this concept should be considered in every operational environment. This paper assumed security level 1st proposed by Dr. Taihoon Kim, and proposes a special type of product using LSKM and specific conditions for operational environment should be.
In order to understand the effect of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) on the economic performance of ducks, Three groups (DHBV congenitally infected, experimentally infected and DHBV negative) Brown Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhyncha) were used for experimental animals. Artificial insemination and pedigree hatching were applied in the propagation of ducklings, and the efficiency of vertical transmission and experimental infection was analyzed through the detection of DHBV DNA in the sera of 8-week-old offspring. The observation of the records of the first year indicated that the persistent infection had no significant effects on the performance of ducks, except the egg number of survival ducks up to 40 week of age. Thus DHBV infection did not appear to give ill effects to the economic performance of ducks in first laying year. A higher infection rate (85.3%) was obtained in congenital transmission than that (75.5%) of experimental infection. Both modes of infection did not reach 100% infectious rate, although some ducks developed transient viraemia in a tracing of DHBV DNA for 24 weeks to 11 challenged ducklings.
To manage security level of information system (IS), organizations must select security practices (SP) first, and then apply them according to security level. SP can be divided into 2 groups security management part (SMP) and security technology part (STP), and some SPs in SMP were proposed already by Drs. Tai-hoon Kim and Kouichi Sakurai . In this paper, we propose some SPs in STP to construct STP for Security Level Management Model (SLMM).
With the trend of minimally invasive spine surgery, full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy (FELD) has evolved with the advancement of the optics and instruments. Regarding the techniques, the transforaminal and interlaminar approach remain the major accesses in FELD. Transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy (TELD) is an effective and safe treatment for herniation of the lumbar disc. More and more evidence supports the TELD in enhancing recovery and decreasing surgical complications. However, the learning curve of TELD remains steep, especially at the L5–S1 level. The iliac crest height is an essential factor in the operability of TELD at the L5–S1 level. In the situation of the high iliac crest, TELD is technically challenging even for an experienced surgeon. Therefore, the authors report their techniques of TELD with foraminoplasty step-by-step and the preliminary results in this report.
Silver chlorobromoiodide cubic seed emulsion was prepared'in the presence of ammonia and phenylcarbamyl gelatin solution. When benzenethiosulfonate sodium salt (BTS) and 4-hydroxy6-methyl-1,3,3a,7-tetraazaindene (TAI), as growth modifiers, were added in the seed emulsion, the silver halide microcrystals were obtained in the forms of cubo-octahedrons, octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedron by variation of pAg value through controlled double jet. The crystal habits and shapes were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (D/MAX BIB, Rigaku) and electron microscopy (JSM-840, JEOL), respectively.