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본 연구는 신종 발표시 기록하지 않았던 진노랑상사화 Lycoris chinensis Traub var. sinuolata K. Tae et S. Ko에 대하여 라틴어 기재를 추가하였고, 또한 근연관계에 있는 L chinensis Traub와 L. aurea Herb를 포함한 새로운 분류군에 대한 검색표를 제시하였다. For Lycoirs chinensis Traub var. sinuolata K. Tae et S. Ko ex K. Tae et S. Ko, Korean endemic plant, latin description is add to the previous study, and a key including L. chinensis Traub and L. aurea Herb. which are closely related to the above variety, is newly provided.
( Tae Hwan Ha ), ( Tae Hoon Oh ), ( Sung In Yu ), ( Min Kim ), ( Jong Wook Kim ), ( Won Ki Bae ), ( Jae Hyung Kim ), ( Seung Suk Baek ), ( Mi Jin Ryu ), ( Ye Na Choi ), ( Ji Young Park ), ( Eileen L Yoon ), ( Tae) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1
Background: Non-variceal upper GI bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common medical problem that has signifi cant association with morbidity and mortality. Angiographic detection and subsequent transarterial embolization (TAE) is a primary treatment option when medical and endoscopic treatments fail. We investigated clinical factors that could affect the success of the angiographic detection and prognosis after TAE in patients with NVUGIB refractory to endoscopic therapy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data was done in patients with failed endoscopic treatment who underwent angiography for the treatment of acute NVUGIB between May 2002 and May 2013. Patients were divided into detection or non-detection groups according to the presence of bleeding stigmata in angiographic fi nding. Rebleeding defi ned as subsequent bleeding event within 7 days and mortality within 30days were analyzed as outcome parameters after TAE following detection in angiography. Results: A total 45 patients 37 (male, mean age, 65.9±14.9 years) were analyzed and classifi ed as a detection group (n=25, 55.5%) and non-detection group (n=20, 44.6%). Peptic ulcers were the most common cause of refractory NVUGIB. Larger transfusion amount (5.7±3.9 unit vs. 3.5±2.8 unit; P=0.03), prolonged aPTT level (34.2±17.3 sec vs. 21.8±13.8 sec; P=0.01) and short time interval between last endoscopy and angiography (17.5±25.9 hours vs. 34.3±59.5 hours; P=0.04) were found to be signifi cant factors for predicting angiographic detection. TAE was performed in all patients detected in angiography. Rebleeding (44%) was significantly associated with higher Rockall score (8.3±1.5 vs. 6.6±2.4; P=0.046) and mortality (12%) was signifi cantly associated with higher Rockall score (9.3±0.6 vs. 7.1±2.2; P=0.002) and higher level of BUN (55.3±47.4 vs. 27.6±17.4; P=0.01). Conclusions: Clinical characteristics associated with angiographic detection in patients with NVUGIB refractory to endoscopic therapy were severe bleeding, bleeding tendency and early angiographic intervention. The Rockall score is useful parameter for predicting rebleeding and mortality after TAE.
This study has been carried out to investigate Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ), Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ), Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ), Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) by referring to 56 literatures. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The treatllent-method of Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ) are Ik Ki ( 益氣 ), SuI Yem Wha ( 洩陰火 ), So Juk ( 消積 ), Wha Juk ( 化積 ), Son Juk ( 損積 ), Ma Juk ( 摩積 ) Jo Chil Gi ( 調七氣 ), and herbs are Sik Bun Tang ( 息賁湯 ), Sik Bun Hwan ( 息賁丸 ), O Juk Hwan ( 五積丸 ), Ban ha Tang ( 半夏湯 ), Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Dae Chil Gi Tang ( 大七氣湯 ), Chil Gi Hwan ( 七氣湯 ) , Ga Gam Sik BlDl Hwan ( 加減息賁丸 ), Bil Rang San ( 檳郞散 ). 2. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ) Yang pyu ( 養肺 ), Yang Hyul ( 養血 ), Yang Gi ( 陽氣 ), Chung Geam Youn Pye ( 淸金潤肺 ), Hal Dam Bae Nong ( 豁痰排膿 ), Saeng Gi ( 生肌 ), herbs are Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Jung Ryuk Dae Jo Sa Pyu Tang ( ??大棗瀉肺湯 ), Chung Geom Wy Gyung Tang ( 千金 葦莖湯 ) Hwang Gi tang ( 黃嗜湯 ), Hyun Sam Chung Pyu Eum ( 玄蔘淸肺飮 ), Sip Mi Hwan ( 十味丸 ), Gil Gyung Baek San ( 桔梗白散 ), So Hong Eum ( 消膿飮 ), Sam Gi Bo Pyu Tang ( 蔘嗜補肺湯 ), sam Chul Gun Bi Tang ( 蔘朮健脾湯 ), Chung Pyu Gil Gyung Tang ( 淸肺桔梗湯 ), Yu Sung Hwan ( 如聖丸 ). 3. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ) are Be Bi ( 補脾 ), Bo Pyu ( 補肺 ), herbs are Hwang Gi Gum Jung Tang( 黃嗜補裨湯 ), lnSamBoPyuSan (人蔘補肺散) 4. The treatment-method of Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) are Bal Han ( 發汗 ), Chung Yul Hae Dok ( 淸熱解毒 ), Gang Hwa Do Dam ( 降火導痰 ), Hwa Rak Hwa a ( 和絡化瘀 ) Ik Pyu ( 益肺 ), Gun Bi ( 健脾 ), Ja Eum Yun Pyu ( 滋陰潤肺 ), Gi Hu Yang Bo ( 氣虛兩補 ), herbs are Gyul Yua Hae Dok Tang ( 莖熱解毒湯 ), Gang Hwa Jae ( 降火劑 ), Chil Yul Do Dam Tang ( 治熱導痰湯 ), Chong Ho Byul Gap Tang ( 靑蒿鱉甲湯 ), Ga gam Gil Gyung Tang ( 加減桔梗湯 ), Sang Mak San ( 生脈散), Yuk Mi Ji Hwang Tang ( 六味地黃湯 ), Baek Hap Go Geum Tang ( 百合固金湯 ), Dae Be Won Jun ( 大補元煎 ), Ga Mi Jae Che Bo Pyu Tang ( 加味載體補肺湯 ).
Purpose: HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP> is the most important ion to buffer the acidity of saliva. The transport of HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP> is mediated by electrogenic Na<SUP>+</SUP>/HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP> cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), which expressed in various tissues including salivary glands, kidney and pancreas, etc. This experiment was performed to investigate regulatory site of NBCe1 involved in the pH regulation using various mutants of NBCe1. Materials and Methods: Human parotid gland NBCe1 (hpNBCe1) and mutants by deletion of 1~285 bp and 1~1,035 bp were prepared. After microinjection of each cRNA to oocytes of Xenopus laevis, they were incubated for 2~3 days. The function of each protein was tested by electrophysiological method. Results: When oocytes were exposed to the HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP> buffered solution, 1~285 bp deleted mutant hpNBCe1 evoked a marked hyperpolarization ranging from -90 ㎷ to -160 ㎷ (average: -134 ㎷; n=12) compared to the full length of hpNBCe1. Although 1~1,035 bp deleted mutant hpNBCe1 was also expressed in the plasma membrane, but it did not show any changes of membrane potentials. Conclusion: Our deletion mutant study demonstrated that 1~285 bp of the NBCe1 is the major domain to determine HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP> transport ratio.
The author proposes a long-term, comprehensive roadmap toward building a Korean peninsula peace regime that can replace the 1953 Korean armistice agreement. A two-track approach to a Korean peninsula peace regime is examined at inter-Korean and international levels. The inter-Korean level involves the two Koreas and the international level requires participation of the six parties, namely the two Koreas, the U.S., China, Japan, and Russia. The parties involved in the dual tracks may concurrently make efforts through confidence-building measures, national reconciliation, and international cooperation to build a peace regime and to replace the 1953 Korean armistice agreement. This regime can take the form of a four-party peace treaty that can be institutionalized by implementing the inter-Korean basic agreement (1991) and by concluding a Korean peninsula peace treaty at four-party peace talks involving the United States, China, and the two Koreas. This article presents three major arguments: First, the two Koreas and the four relevant powers need to agree on a comprehensive roadmap for a Korean peninsula peace regime. Second, in the short-term, the North Korean nuclear issue should be resolved peacefully and diplomatically through the six-party process. Third, the two Koreas need to abandon their respective positions: Seoul's proposal for an inter-Korean peace agreement and Pyongyang's proposal for a DPRK-U.S. peace treaty. The author proposes a Korean peninsula peace treaty among the four parties involving the ROK, the DPRK, the United States and China as an alternative to the formula of a peace regime just between the two Koreas. Peace talks among the four parties, in tandem with denuclearization negotiations at the Six-Party Talks, should be pursued.
The gene encoding an esterase enzyme was cloned from a metagenomic library of cow rumen bacteria. The esterase gene (est2R) was 2,120 bp in length, encoding a protein of 516 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 57,286 Da. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 57,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. Est2R shared 35.6% amino acid identity with esterase (CAH19079) of uncultured prokaryote. The Est2R was most active at 20-40°C, and showed optimum at 30°C and pH 8.0. The most activity of Est2R for the different chain length of p-nitrophenyl ester group as substrate was p-nitrophenyl acetate. Moreover, the enzyme was found to be most active without organic solvent, followed by 98% active with ethanol, and the enzyme activity was highly affected by the acetonitrile. The enzyme was significantly inhibited by Zn2+ but stimulated by Ca2+. So, novel esterase gene est2R is likely to obtain from cow rumen metagenome and supposed to use for industrial purpose.
To investigate of C and N metabolisms in response to phosphorus-deficient stress during regrowth of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), C and N metabolites were analyzed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 days after defoliation. P-sufficient (control, +P) and P-absent (-P) nutrient solutions were applied from 7 days before defoliation, and continued for one cycle of 24 day-regrowth period. During 24 days of regrowth, dry matter of regrowing shoots and remaining tissues were not significantly different between +P and -P treatment. In remaining stubble, 70% to 91 % decline of the initial level (at day 0) in all C compounds occurred during the first 6 days of regrowth. Initial amounts of nitrate and amino acids in roots were significantly higher in the +P medium. Nitrate contents in stubble in the +P medium significantly decreased for the first 12 days and then rapidly recovered, while that of the -P medium continuously decreased until day 24. Amino acids in stubble in the P medium were continuously increased during the whole regrowth period. Soluble proteins in stubble in the +P medium also largely fell down (46.0% of the initial) for only the first 6 days, however the decline in the -P medium continued until day 12. In regrowing shoots, the accumulation of C compounds was significantly higher, while that of N compounds except amino acids was largely lower in the -P medium. These results showed a stimulation of carbohydrate synthesis and a compensatory utilization of organic reserves occurred to support regrowth under P-deficient condition.