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Drought is a one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting rice production. However, little progress has been made in the genetic analysis of drought tolerance, because it is a complex trait controlled by a number of genes and affected by various environmental factors. The most efficient method for drought tolerance breeding is using drought tolerance genetic resources. We used a doubled-haploid (DH) population consist of 101 lines derived from a cross the drought tolerant cultivar ‘Samgang' and the drought sensitive cultivar ‘Nagdong' for QTL analysis. Drought stress was treated by withholding water for 6 weeks, and then rewatered for 7 days. After rewatering visual phenotype was observed according to the standard evaluation system for rice, IRRI. Drought sensitive parent ‘Nagdong' was almost died, while tolerant parent ‘Samgang' showed slightly leaf tip dring phenotype. The qdr11 detected on chromosome 11 with flanking markers RM26755-RM287 and accounted for 19% phenotype variation with a LOD score of 3.7.
This study looked into the international negotiation patterns of North Korea with special regard to the process of the second North Korean nuclear crisis. The study shows that North Korea's negotiation patterns were not greatly different from those in the Cold War era: strategies of bluffing, threat, carrot-and-stick, etc. were also reproduced during the second North Korean crisis. In addition, the level of negotiations was not determined by the difference in power which was visible between weak and strong nations. It is highly possible that the existing negotiation patterns will be repeated in the future. Especially, carrot-and-stick, bluffing, frontal breakthrough and non-action are the negotiation patterns and strategies expected to be frequently used. However, this forecast seems to be floating, depending on North Korea's negotiation environment.
Prenatal stress causes learning deficits by inhibiting neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We studied the effects of maternal treadmill running or offspring treadmill running on the spatial learning ability of adoles-cent offspring rats or adult offspring rats born to maternal rats that re-ceived stress during pregnancy. For this study, spatial learning ability was measured by radial 8-arm maze task. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and Western blot for brain-derived neuro-trophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), Bcl-2-associated X pro-tein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were also conducted. Stress was induced by exposing pregnant rats to hound in an enclosed room. Maternal treadmill running or treadmill running of offspring improved spatial learning ability of adolescent and adult offspring rats born to maternal rats receiving stress during pregnancy. Maternal treadmill running or treadmill running of offspring increased hippocampal cell proliferation of adolescent and adult offspring rats born to maternal rats receiving stress during pregnancy. Maternal treadmill running or tread-mill running of offspring increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of adolescent and adult offspring rats born to maternal rats receiving stress during pregnancy. Maternal treadmill running or treadmill running of offspring inhibited Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus of adolescent and adult offspring rats born to maternal rats receiving stress during pregnancy. Mother's exercise during pregnancy or child's exercise after childbirth can im-prove the spatial learning ability deteriorated due to stress during preg-nancy.
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Background: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a well-known cause of zoonotic tuberculosis in cattle and deer, and has been investigated in many physiological and molecular studies. However, detailed genome-level studies of M. bovis have not been performed in Korea. Objectives: To survey whole genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants in Korean M. bovis field isolates and to define M. bovis groups in Korea by comparing SNP typing with spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat typing. Methods: A total of 46 M. bovis field isolates, isolated from laryngopharyngeal lymph nodes and lungs of Korean cattle, wild boar, and Korean water deer, were used to identify SNPs by performing whole-genome sequencing. SNP sites were confirmed via polymerase chain reaction using 87 primer pairs. Results: We identified 34 SNP sites with different frequencies across M. bovis isolates, and performed SNP typing and epidemiological analysis, which divided the 46 field isolates into 16 subtypes. Conclusions: Through SNP analysis, detailed differences in samples with identical spoligotypes could be detected. SNP analysis is, therefore, a useful epidemiological tracing tool that could enable better management of bovine TB, thus preventing further outbreaks and reducing the impact of this disease.
Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of doenjang, and Bacillus species are known to perform significant roles. Although SDS-PAGE has been frequently used to classify and identify bacteria in various samples, the microbial diversity in doenjang has not yet been investigated. This study aims to determine the identity and distribution of dominant Bacillus species in doenjang using SDSPAGE profiles of whole-cell proteins and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Reference Bacillus strains yielded differential SDS-PAGE banding patterns that could be considered to be highly specific fingerprints. Grouping of bacterial strains isolated from doenjang samples by whole-cell protein patterns was confirmed by analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. B. subtilis was found to be the most dominant strain in most of the samples, whereas B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens were less frequently found but were also detected in several samples. The results obtained in this study show that a combined identification method using SDS-PAGE profiles of whole-cell proteins and subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis could successfully identify Bacillus species isolated from doenjang.