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        • KCI등재후보

          Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

          Raghavendra Bhatta,Saravanan Mani,Luna Baruah,K.T. Sampath 아세아·태평양축산학회 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.10

          Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The t1/2 (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of CH4 (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis.

        • Gender Disparities in the Use of ICT: A Survey of Students in Urban Schools

          Basavaraja, M.T.,Sampath Kumar, B.T. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Informat 2017 Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice Vol.5 No.4

          This study aims to investigate gender differences in the use of ICT by the students of urban schools. The objectives of the study are to find out the use of computers and Internet by the students and also the problems encountered by them while using computers and Internet. The study found that there is a significant association between the place (p=.005) and frequency (p=.002) of use of computers and gender. It is also found that there are significant differences in the problems faced by students while using computers (p=.002), use of Internet (p=.004), and the gender. This clearly indicates that there exists a gender disparity in the use of ICT by the male and female students in the urban schools. In order to overcome this disparity, the school authority should provide the basic and necessary ICT infrastructure in schools which can be equally used by male and female students.

        • KCI등재

          Differential Induction of Bone Sialoprotein by Dexamethasone and Osteogenic Protein-1 (OP-1, BMP-7) in Rat Periodonatal Ligament Cells In Vitro : Relationship to the Mineralization of Tissue Nodules

          Zhumabayeva, Bakhyt D.,Lin, Wen-Lang,Choung, Pill-Hoon,Chien, Hua-Hong,Jaro Sodek,Sampath, Kuber T.,Cho, Moon-Il Korean Academy of Oral Biology and the UCLA Dental 1998 International Journal of Oral Biology Vol.23 No.2

          Both osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) and dexamethasone (Dex) are known to promote osteogenic cell differentiation and mineralized nodule formation in cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells and MC3T3-EI (MC3T3) cells. However, only Dex induces mineralized nodule formation by rat bone marrow stromal cells and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. To determine the differential effects of OP-1, the synthesis of matrix components and the mineralization of nodules in cultures of PDL were investigated and compared with those of MC3T3 cells using electron microscopy, Northern blot, immunoprecipitation and immunogold labeling. Rat PDL cells derived from coagulum in the sockets at two days after tooth extrction, and MC3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% FBS, β-glycerophosphate (GP), and ascorbic acid (AA). When cultured for 21 days with Dex, PDL cells underwent sequential defferentiation and formed mineralized nodules. the mineral deposit was first observed on densely-stained globular patches located primarily in the upper cell layers of nodules. As mineralization progressed, the deposits fused together and increased in size, forming a continuous mineral deposit that extended into the lower cell layers of the nodule. High levels of mRNA expression for secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and type I collagen (Col I) were observed, together with a time-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC) mRNAs, and the synthesis of BSP shown by immunoprecipitation, A comparable expression pattern of matrix protein mRNAs was observed when PDL cells were treted gor 21 day with OP-1. However, OP-1 failed to induce the expression of BSP m RNA and the mineralization of nodules. Although globular patches were formed, they were neither fused together nor associated with mineral deposits. In contrast, OP-1 not only drmatically increased expression levels of mRNA for the matrix components including BSP in MC3T3 cells, but also increased the number of mineralized areas. These results demonstrate that there are marked differences in the ability of OP-1 to induce BSP gene expression depending on cell types, and also indicate that BSP is required for the mineralization of extracellular matrix.

        • Estimating Total Factor Productivity and Its components - Evidence from Manufacturing Sector of Tamilnadu, India

          Kumar,T. Sampath,Pradeep V. 한국유통과학회 2019 KODISA ICBE (International Conference on Business Vol.2019 No.-

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          The study applied Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate total factor productivity growth and to identify the sources of productivity growth in the manufacturing sector of Tamil Nadu. The study considered 12 major sectors and estimated productivity growth and the major sources of productivity growth during the period 1981-82 to 2007-08. The study found that the productivity growth in the industrial sector of Tamil Nadu at the aggregate level during the test period was almost nil. While it is the case at the aggregate level, there are mixed results at the sectoral level. During the pre-reform period, there was significantly higher productivity growth in almost all the sectors contributed mainly by the improvements in efficiency. On other hand, there was productivity deterioration in the post-reform period since almost all the sectors witnessed negative productivity growth despite a technical change in the post-reform period. The study based on the empirical findings suggests that there will be productivity growth only if any improvement in the technology is accompanied by the corresponding improvement in the efficiency with which the technology can be turned into productivity gains. A well developed and skilled labour force along with the improvements in the technological developments will lead to higher productivity growth in the manufacturing sector both at the aggregate and sectoral level.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

          Bhatta, Raghavendra,Mani, Saravanan,Baruah, Luna,Sampath, K.T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.10

          Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The $t^{1/2}$ (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of $CH_4$ (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis.

        • KCI등재후보

          Modeling and Forecasting Livestock Feed Resources in India Using Climate Variables

          K.P. Suresh,G. Ravi Kiran,K. Giridhar,K.T. Sampath 아세아·태평양축산학회 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.4

          The availability and efficient use of the feed resources in India are the primary drivers to maximize productivity of Indian livestock. Feed security is vital to the livestock management, extent of use, conservation and productivity enhancement. Assessment and forecasting of livestock feed resources are most important for effective planning and policy making. In the present study, 40 years of data on crop production, land use pattern, rainfall, its deviation from normal, area under crop and yield of crop were collected and modeled to forecast the likely production of feed resources for the next 20 years. The higher order auto-regressive (AR) models were used to develop efficient forecasting models. Use of climatic variables (actual rainfall and its deviation from normal) in combination with non-climatic factors like area under each crop, yield of crop, lag period etc., increased the efficiency of forecasting models. From the best fitting models, the current total dry matter (DM) availability in India was estimated to be 510.6 million tonnes (mt) comprising of 47.2 mt from concentrates, 319.6 mt from crop residues and 143.8 mt from greens. The availability of DM from dry fodder, green fodder and concentrates is forecasted at 409.4, 135.6 and 61.2 mt, respectively, for 2030.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Modeling and Forecasting Livestock Feed Resources in India Using Climate Variables

          Suresh, K.P.,Kiran, G. Ravi,Giridhar, K.,Sampath, K.T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.4

          The availability and efficient use of the feed resources in India are the primary drivers to maximize productivity of Indian livestock. Feed security is vital to the livestock management, extent of use, conservation and productivity enhancement. Assessment and forecasting of livestock feed resources are most important for effective planning and policy making. In the present study, 40 years of data on crop production, land use pattern, rainfall, its deviation from normal, area under crop and yield of crop were collected and modeled to forecast the likely production of feed resources for the next 20 years. The higher order auto-regressive (AR) models were used to develop efficient forecasting models. Use of climatic variables (actual rainfall and its deviation from normal) in combination with non-climatic factors like area under each crop, yield of crop, lag period etc., increased the efficiency of forecasting models. From the best fitting models, the current total dry matter (DM) availability in India was estimated to be 510.6 million tonnes (mt) comprising of 47.2 mt from concentrates, 319.6 mt from crop residues and 143.8 mt from greens. The availability of DM from dry fodder, green fodder and concentrates is forecasted at 409.4, 135.6 and 61.2 mt, respectively, for 2030.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          COMPARATIVE RESPONSES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) STRAW TO UREA SUPPLEMENTATION AND UREA TREATMENT

          Kumar, M.N.A.,Sundareshan, K.,Jagannath, E.G.,Sampath, S.R.,Doyle, P.T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1991 Animal Bioscience Vol.4 No.1

          Twenty five 75% Holstein Friesian cross bred bullocks fed rice straw (Oryza sativa) of long form, were fed with the following five treatments. 1. Rice straw, untreated (RS) 2. RS + water (1:1), stored for 24 hours (WRS) 3. RS (100 kg) + urea solution (4 kg urea/100 litre water) and dried (USRS) 4. RS (100 kg) + urea solution (as in 3) stored in wet condition for 24 hours (UWRS) 5. RS (100 kg) + urea solution (as in 3) stored in pit for 21 days (UTRS). Potential digestibility of treatments of RS was evaluated by monitoring (in vitro) Simulating Rumen like Fermentation (SRLF). The results indicated that Dry Matter Intake (DMI), digestibility of nutrients, N utilization were of the order UTRS > UWRS > USRS > WRS and RS (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). SRLF index was high (255.84) for UTRS and least (145.58) for USRS. It was intermediary (199.66) for UWRS. The acetyl content (AC) of UTRS with higher hemicellulose (HCE) digestibility (80.8%) was low compared to UWRS, USRS, RS and WRS. The acetate content was of the order UTRS < UWRS < USRS < WRS and RS thereby indicating that reduction in acetyl content was an index of positive response of urea-treatment of RS. In addition, the ratio of HCE/AC in faeces of UTRS was 0.87 as against the ratios (2.26-2.48) observed in other treatments recording reduction in AC due to urea-treatment. Among the treatments, USRS only supplemented N while UTRS in addition to utilization N, increased the digestibility of structural carbohydrates. Reduction in treatment time from 21 days to 1 day (UWRS) resulted in improvements similar to those of UTRS.

        • KCI등재

          Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel feruloyl esterase enzyme from the symbionts of termite (Coptotermes formosanus) gut

          ( Matam Chandrasekharaiah ),( Appoothy Thulasi ),( M Bagath ),( Duvvuri Prasanna Kumar ),( Sunil Singh Santosh ),( Chenniappan Palanivel ),( Vazhakkala Lyju Jose ),( K. T. Sampath ) 생화학분자생물학회(구 한국생화학분자생물학회) 2011 BMB Reports Vol.44 No.1

          Termites play an important role in the degradation of dead plant materials and have acquired endogenous and symbiotic cellulose digestion capabilities. The feruloyl esterase enzyme (FAE) gene amplified from the metagenomic DNA of Coptotermes formosanus gut was cloned in the TA cloning vector and subcloned into a pET32a expression vector. The Ft3-7 gene has 84% sequence identity with Clostridium saccharolyticum and shows amino acid sequence identity with predicted xylanase/chitin deacetylase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. The sequence analysis reveals that probably Ft3-7 could be a new gene and that its molecular mass was 18.5 kDa. The activity of the recombinant enzyme (Ft3-7) produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli) was 21.4 U with substrate ethyl ferulate and its specific activity was 24.6 U/mg protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 7.0 and 37oC, respectively. The substrate utilization preferences and sequence similarity of the Ft3-7 place it in the type-D sub-class of FAE. [BMB reports 2011; 44(1): 52-57]

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