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      • 한우에 대한 농후사료(濃厚飼料) 급여가 전체사료의 에너지사용효율 및 비육에 미치는 영향

        강태홍,이상철,이봉재,김강식 한국영양사료학회 1988 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.12 No.4

        한우 비육시 조사료 종류에 따라 농후사료 급여가 일량사료 (ration) 의 에너지 이용효율과 증체에 미치는 영향을 조사하고자, 한우 20두를 가지고 153일간의 사양시험 및 대사시험을 실시하였다. 볏짚, 혼합목건초, 옥수수사일레지, 호맥사일레지를 자유채식시키고 농후사료를 체중의 1.5% 급여하였다. 시험결과는 다음과 같았다. 1. 조사료들의 NEm은 볏짚 1.12, 혼합목건초 1.36, 옥수수사일레지 1.69, 호맥사일레지 1.46Mcal/㎏ DM이었으며, 대사율은 볏짚 0.50, 혼합목건초 0.57, 옥수수사일레지 0.69, 호맥사일레지 0.59이었다. 2.농후사료 급여 결과, 유기물소화율은 T1 (볏짚+농후사료), T2 (혼합목건초+농후사료), T4 (호맥사일레지 +농후사료)에서 증가하였으나 T3 (옥수수사일레지 +농후사료)에서는 감소하였다. T4의 셀룰로스의 소화군은 영향을 받지 않았으나, T1, T2, T3 구에서는 감소하였다. 3. T4의 대사에너지 농도는 3.62Mcal/㎏ DM으로 가장 높았으며, 대사율은 T1 0.66, T2 0.70, T3 0.72, T4 0.50이었다. 4. 일당증체량은 T1 0.61, T2 0.77, T3 0.77, T4 1.11 ㎏/day로서 T3와 유의성은 없었으나 T4가 가장 높았으며, 사료요구율도 T4가 가장 낮았다. 5. 도체율, 정육율, 거래정육율은 처리간에 차이가 없었으나, T3와 T4구의 신지방과 체지방은 T1과 T2구에 비해 유의적으로 높았다 (P<0.05). 따라서, 비록 옥수수사일레지가 호맥사일레지에 비해 영양가는 높았으나, 농후사료 급여에 의해 T4구의 에너지 이용효율 및 증체량이 다른 처리구들에 비해 가장 높았다. 따라서 금후 사일레지 종류에 따른 배합 사료와의 associative effect 에 관한 기초적인 연구가 수행되어져야 할 필요성이 있다고 생각된다. In order to investigate the effect of concentrate on the efficiency of energy utilization of concentrate-forage ration and the fattening of Korean native cattle, feeding trials for 153 days and metabolism trials were carried out with 20 heads of Korean native bulls. Rice straw, mixed grass hay, corn silage and rye silage were offered adlibitum at the concentrate level of 1.5% of live weight. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The metabolizabilities(q) and NEm values(Mcal/㎏ DM) of rice straw, mixed grass hay, corn corn silage and rye silage were 0.50 and 1.12,. 0.57 and 1.36, 0.69 and 1.69, and 0.59 and 1.46, respectively. 2. The addition of concentrate increased the organic matter digestibilities of T1(rice straw-concentrate), T2(mixed grass hay-concentrate) and T4(rye silage-concentrate), but decreased in T2. Cellulose digestibility was not changed in T4 with the addition of concentrate, while decreased in T1, T2 and T3. 3. The ME value of T4 was highest(3.62 Mcal/㎏ DM) among the treatments. The metabolizabilities of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.66, 0.70, 0.72 and 0.80, respectively. 4. The daily gain of T4 was highest(1.11: ㎏/day) and followed by T3(0.97), T2(0.87) and 11(0.61), but there was no significance between T3 and T4. Feed conversion was also the lowest in T4. 5. There was no significant difference in dressing and retailed cuts among the treatments. But carcass fat and kidney fat of T1 and T2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of T3 and T4. From the results, in conclusion, the growth performance and the efficiency of energy utilization of T4 were the highest among the treatments, although nutritive value of corn silage was higher than that of rye silage. Therefore, it was suggested that further and basic research should be conducted for associative effect of silages with concentrate mixture.

      • 조사료원과 급여수준이 한우의 비육능력(肥育能力) 및 도체성적(屠體成績)에 미치는 영향

        정태영,김종민,이왕열,선우훈희 한국영양사료학회 1994 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.18 No.1

        조사료 급여수준을 20, 20, 10 및 20%(T1, T3)와 40, 30, 20 및 10%(T2, T4)의 4단계로 구분하고, 다시 동일 조사료 급여수준에서 알팔파 큐브와 볏짚 급여구(T1, T2)와 볏짚 단용구(T3, T4)로 나누어 1991년 8월 1일부터 1992년 5월 10일까지 284일간 韓牛 수소 20두를 시험동물로 공시하여 비육능력과 도체성적을 조사하여 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 試驗期開 동안의 1일 평균 사료섭취량(DM)은 T1, T2,T3 및 T4구 각각 8.22, 8.45, 8.71 및 8.37㎏이고 TDN은 각각 5.82, 5.92, 6.12 및 5.84㎏으로 볏짚 만을 급여하고 조사료 섭취량이 가장 낮았던 T3에서 가장 높게 나타났다. 2. 出荷時까지의 日當增體量은 T1, T2, T3 및 T4구 각각 0.875, 0.873, 0.932 및 0.843으로 볏짚 만을 급여하고 농후사료 섭취량이 가장 높았던(DM기준 81.2%) T3의 일당증체량이 가장 높았으나 통계적인 유의차는 없었다. 3. 飼料要求率(DM섭취랑/일당증체량)은 T1, T2, T3 및 T4구가 각각 9.38, 9.68, 9.36 및 9.92㎏으로 나타났으며, TDN 이용률은 각각 6.65, 6.78. 6.57 및 6.93으로 DM과 TDN 이용률도 T3구가 가장 좋았고 그 다음이 T1, T2, T4구순이었다. 4. 도체율은 T1, T2, T3 및 T4구가 59.9, 60.1, 61.2 및 60.4%로서 처리구간 차이가 없었으머, 도체중에 대한 거래 정육률도 각각 76.4, 77.4. 77.9 및 75.6%로서 차이는 보이지 않았다. 갈비뼈를 제외한 뼈의 함량은 T1, 배최장근 단면적은 T2에서 가장 높게 나타났으나 유의차는 없었다. 5. 육량등급은 모든 처리구에서 B등급이었으며, 육질등급은 조사료 섭취량이 낮았던 T1과 T3구에서 1등급이 1두씩, 그리고 T1구와 조사료 섭취량이 높았던 T4구에서 3등급이 1두 있었다. 나머지는 모두 2등급을 나타내었다. 6. 조수익에서 밑소대와 사료비를 공제한 소득에서는 T3구가 두당 849,000원으로서 T1, T2, T4에 비하여 각각 45, 95, 및 160천원이 더 높았다. This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of feeding regime of roughage on beef performance and carcass composition of Korean native bulls. Twenty bulls(average 255㎏ BW) were used for this experiment from August 1, 1991 to May 10, 1992 for 284 days. The animal were fed two types of roughage sources : alfalfa cube and rice straw at 50 : 50 ratio (T1 and T2) or rice straw only (T3 and T4). The bulls were divided into two groups and treated with different roughage levels during four stages : 20, 20, 20, and 20% (T1 and T3) and 40, 30, 20 and 10% (T2 and T4) at growing, early, mid and last fattening period, respectively. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. The average daily feed intakes of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 8.22, 8.45, 8.71, and 8.37 ㎏, respectively, during the overall experimental period. Average daily TDN intakes of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 5.82, 5.92, 6.12, and 5.84 ㎏, respectively. There was a tendency that the intakes of DM and TDN of T3 were slightly greater compared to the others. 2. During the overall experimental period, the daily gains of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.875, 0.873, 0.932 and 0.843 ㎏, respectively. Even though there were no significant differences in daily gains among treatments, T3 group which are fed 20% rice straw of the diet through out whole period showed the highest gains. 3. Feed conversion (㎏ feed/㎏ gain) of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 9.38, 9.68, 9.36 and 9.92, respectively, during the overall experimental period. DM and TDN conversions to ㎏ gain were lower in the order of the T3, T1, T2 and T4 without a significant difference. 4. The dressing percentages of T1, T2, T3 and T4 wae 59.9, 60.1, 61.2 and 60.4%, respectively. Retailed cut yields of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 76.4 77.4, 77.9 and 75.6%, respectively. T3 treatment showed the highest dressing percentage and retailed cut yields compared to other groups without significant differences. Percentage of bone, body fat and loin eye area did not show any significant trends among treatments. 5. No detectable differences were found in the quantity and quality of meat among treatments. 6. T3 group showed the highest income over feed cost [Gross income-(cattle+feeds)] comprising 849,000 won per head.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        임신 및 각종 갑상선질환에서 갑상선 기능 판정에 관한 연구 : 혈청유리 T4의 진단적 의의에 관한 고찰 The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA

        이종철,유명희,윤휘중,신영태,정순일,조보연,이문호,이명철 대한핵의학회 1981 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.15 No.1

        To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T4 and T4, T3, T3RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T3, free T4 and FTI, T4/TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T4 is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T4 and FTI is decreased in all cases. T4 is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T3 is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T4/TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T4 free T4, FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T3 is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T4 and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T4 and T3, T4/TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T4 or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T4, FTI and T4/TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T4 and FTI were 0.862(p〈0.001) and 0.685(p〈0.001) between free T4 and T4/TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T4 was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T4 measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyrodism or with T3 for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Relative Genetic Effects of Duroc and Taoyuan Breeds on the Economic Traits of Their Hybrids

        Yen,,N.T.,Tai,,C.,Cheng,,Y.S.,Huang,,M.C. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.4

        For determining the relative genetic effects of Duroc (D) and Taoyuan (T) breeds on the economic traits of their hybrids, 72 litters of pigs, from four mating types, namely TT (T♂$\times$T♀), DD (D♂$\times$D♀) and D-T hybrids (TD, T♂$\times$D♀ and DT, D♂$\times$T♀) were used in this study. The various crossbreeding parameters were estimated by comparisons among mating types using linear contrasts of least-square analysis. The results of reproductive traits analysis showed that T breed had contributed superior genetic effects on the total number of piglets at birth (TBN) (p<0.10) and number of live piglets at 21 days (LP21) (p<0.05) to the D-T hybrids. Estimates of maternal genetic effects showed that the T females were superior in TBN (p<0.05), but inferior in average birth weight (ABW) and average litter birth weight (LBW) (p<0.01) to the D females. Direct heterosis effects were significant for LBW, LP21 and LWT21 (p<0.01). Least-squares analysis of other economic traits showed that T breed had relative negative effects on all growth traits, withers height (WH), body type index (BTI), average backfat thickness (ABF), carcass length (LENG), loin eye area (longissimus) (LEARA), and lean percentage (LEAN) of D-T hybrids (p<0.05). Estimates of direct genetic effects showed that the D breed was superior to the T breed in all growth and carcass traits except the average backfat (BF). Estimates of maternal genetic effects showed that average body weight at 180 days (WT180) of progenies from T sows were lighter than from D sows. Progenies from D females had larger and leaner carcass than those from T females. Direct heterosis effects were significant for average daily weight gains from 150 to 180 days ($ADG_{150-180}$) (p<0.05) and for average body weights at 150 (WT150), and 180 days (WT180), average daily weight gains from birth to 150 and 180 days ($ADG_{150}$ and $ADG_{180}$, respectively), WH, body length (BL), ABF, BTI, and LENG (p<0.01). The results showed that D-T hybrids tended to have superior TBN and LP21 than D breed, and to be superior in all growth and most conformation and carcass traits to the T breed.

      • 한국재래산양의 반추위내(反芻胃內) 발효특성에 관한 연구 : (2) 가성(苛性)소다 처리볏짚 급여에 따른 한국산재래산양의 반추위미생물내 아미노산 및 광물질(鑛物質) 함량변화 (2) EFFECT OF NaOH TREATED RICE STRAW FEEDING ON THE AMINO ACID AND MINERAL CONTENT IN FRACTIONATED RUMINAL MICROBES IN KOREAN NATIVE GOATS

        신형태,배희동 한국영양사료학회 1994 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.18 No.4

        본 연구는 우리나라에서 조사료 공급원으로 많이 사용되는 볏짚에 가성소다(0% 및 4%)를 처리하여 급여하였을 때 반추위내 존재하는 미생물(small bacteria, large bacteria 및 protozoa)내 광물질 및 아미노산의 함량을 분석, 조사함으로서 조사료 공급원별에 따른 반추위 미생물내 광물질 및 아미노산 조성에 어떠한 영향을 미치며 미생물 성장에 요구되기 쉬운 광물질 및 아미노산을 간접적으로 조사하기 위하여 수행하였다. 본 시험에 사용된 공시축은 평균체중이 20.5㎏이고 rumen fistula가 부착된 한국재래산양 6두로서 농후사료는 일일 100g을 2회(06:00, 18:00)에 나누어 급여하였으며 조사료는 무처리 및 가성소다처리볏짚을 완전자유채식토록 한 후 채취한 반추위액내 미생불의 fraction별 광물질 및 아미노산 함량을 분석하였는데 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1) 무처리볏짚급여구와 가성소다처리볏짚급여구의 미생물내 광물질 함량은 mixed microbes에서 건조균체 g당 K함량은 각가 810ug. 1,204.4ug이었고, Mg는 각각 132.0ug, 255.1ug, Fe는 각각 117.0 ug, 250.0ug 및 Zn은 각각 41.0ug, 183.6ug으로서 가성소다처리볏짚급여구가 무처리 볏짚급여구에 비하여 현저히 높았지만(P<0.05) Co의 함량은 두 처리 모두 대단히 낮았다. 2) 각 처리구별 small bacteria, large bacteria 및 protozoa내 광물질 함량은 가성소다처리볏짚급여구기 무처리볏짚급여구에 비하여 현저히 높았으며(P<0.05) 특히 Zn의 함량이 매우 높았다. 3) 무처리 및 가성소다처리 볏짚급여구의 반추위액내 혼합미생물들의 아미노산 함량은 건조균체 g당 각각 293.9㎎, 321㎎으로 가성소다처리볏짚급여구가 무처리볏짚급여구 보다 높았으며(P<0.05), small bacteria의 아미노산 함량은 각각 299.7㎎, 306.7㎎으로 거의 유사하였고 large bacteria의 아미노산 함량은 각각 311.5㎎, 372.9㎎(P<0.05), protozoa의 아미노산 함량은 각각 217.3㎎, 272.9㎎(P<0.05)으로 가성소다처리 볏짚급여구가 무처리볏짚급여구보다 높았다. 4) 처리구별 아미노산 함량중 가장 높은 함량을 나타낸 것은 처리구별에 관계없어 glutamic acid 및 aspartic acid였으며 가장 낮은 함량은 나타낸 것은 cystine과 methionine이었다. 대체적으로 무처리볏짚급여구의 경우에는 가성소다볏짚급여구에 비하여 미생물의 fraction에 관계없이 대체적으로 낮았으나 arginine만이 가성소다처리 볏짚급여구에 비하여 높은 함량을 나타냈다(P<0.05). 결론적으로 가성소다처리볏짚의 급여는 반추위내 미생물의 fraction(small, large bacteria 및 protozoa)별에 따라 광물질 및 아미노산 조성에 많은 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 가성소다처리볏짚의 급여가 반추위내 발효환경을 변화시켜 우세균총의 변화를 초래함으로써 나타난 결과라 생각된다. 또한 이와 같은 변화는 사료의 이용성 개선과 가축의 생산성 증가에 많은 영향을 미칠 것으로 생각되며 향후 볏짚의 화학적 특징상 주요 섬유소 분해균에 관한 미량 광물질의 공급(Co, Fe 및 Zn)과 아미뇌산의 공급(glutamic acid, aspartic acid, methionine, arginine, lysine 및 leucine)에 관한 연구가 향후 진행되어야 할 과제라고 생각된다. In the present research, to evaluate the content of mineral and amino acid in fractionated rumen fluids(small and large bacteria, protozoa and mixed microbes) from the Korean native goats fed mainly rice straw, have been investigated. Six rumen fistulated Korean native goats, approximately 20.5㎏, were alloted and three goats were fed untreated rice straw(T-I) and others were fed 4% MaOH treated rice straw(T-II). The results which were obtained from this experiment were as follows. Mineral content of fractionated microbes (small and large bacteria) were higher in T-I than that of T-II(P<0.05). Mineral content (ug/g) in mixed microbes with T-I and T-II were K: 810.0 and 1,204.4, Mg: 132.0 and 255.1, Fe: 117.0 and 250.0 and Zn: 41.0 and 183.6, respectively. Particulary, Co content was very low in various fractionated microbes of both treatments. Total amino acid content of fractionated microbes were also higher T-I than that of T-II(P<0.05) except small bacteria. Total amino acid content(㎎/g) in T-I and T-I were mixed microbes: 293.8 and 321.0, small bacteria: 299.7 and 306.7. large bacteria: 311.5 and 372.9 and protozoa 217.3 and 272.9, respectively. Major amino acid in fractionated ruminal microbes were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine and leucine and minor amino acid were cystine and methionine. Individual amino acid content of fractionated ruminal microbes were higher in T-I than that of T-II, however, arginine was high in T-II(P<0.05). In conclusion, based on these results which was shown mineral and amino acid content in different fractionated ruminal microbes, sodium hydroxide treated rice straw have susceptibility to change the rumen microbial ecology which can be contribute to increase the feed utilization and animal productivity.

      • KCI우수등재

        Sorghum × Sudangrass hybrid 의 입모저장에 관한 연구;1. 입모저장기간이 생육특성 및 기호성 변화에 미치는 영향

        전병태,문상호,이상무,백인철 한국축산학회 1994 한국축산학회지 Vol.36 No.1

        Growth characteristics and palatability by different harvesting dates were measured in order to determine its availability and effective storage period when sorghum × sudangrass hybrid were stored as foggage. Experiment was carried out with six treatments as follows; T1, T2 and T3 were foggaged at 120, 160 and 200㎝ in plant length and T4, T5 and T6 were foggaged at boot, milk and dough stage on 7 october after regrowth respectively. Rice straw was offered to examine the relative palatability a, control. 1. Growth characteristics such as plant length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf number and stem hardness were decreased with prolongation of foggage period at all treatments. Especially, decrease and falling ratio were a heigher at T5 and T6 than the other treatments. 2. Greeness grade of leaf showed fast decoloration at TI and T2 treatments, but stem showed fast decoloration at TS and T6 treatments. Leaf and stem decolorized in mid-October and mid-november in all treatments. 3. Leaf ratio was deceased with prolongation of foggage period, but stem showed gradually increase. Grain ratio was stable increase at T6 treatments, but not at T5 treatment, 4. Dry matter contents of leaf and grain were stable increased at all treatment but stem was multifarious according to weather conditions. 5. Changes of palatability were high at T1, T2 and T3 treatments untill mid-October, but T4 treatment and rice straw showed high in early December. 6. According to the results obtained in this study, it was suggested that when sorghum x sudangrass hybrid is used as foggage, foggaging period would be suitable until mid-november and growth stage for foggaging would be recommendable from T2 to boot stage for maximum availability.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effect of Dietary Copper Sources (Cupric Sulfate and Cupric Methionate) and Concentrations on Performance and Fecal Characteristics in Growing Pigs

        Y.,Huang,T.X.,Zhou,J.H.,Lee,H.D.,Jang,J.,C.,Park,김인호 아세아·태평양축산학회 2010 Animal Bioscience Vol.23 No.6

        This study was conducted to assess the effects of organic and inorganic copper on performance in growing pigs. A total of 100 pigs, average age 63 d and initial body weight 21.46??.13 kg, were assigned to five treatment groups. Dietary treatments included i) CON (basal diet, 0 ppm Cu), ii) T1 (basal diet with 67 ppm Cu as cupric sulfate, CuSO4), iii) T2 (basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as CuSO4), iv) T3 (basal diet with 67 ppm Cu as cupric methionate, CuMet) and v) T4 (basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as CuMet). Throughout the entire experimental period, ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake) and G/F (gain: feed) ratios showed no significant differences. The dry matter digestibility was improved in the T1, T2, T3, and T4 treatments (p<0.05), as compared with CON. Nitrogen digestibility was improved in the T3 treatment group as compared with CON (p<0.05). As compared with the T1 treatment group, fecal pH values were improved in the CON, T3, and T4 treatment groups (p<0.05). Fecal Cu concentrations were significantly lower in the CON, T3, and T4 treatment groups than in T1 and T2 (p<0.05). The incidence of diarrhea was reduced when the pigs were fed on the T2, T3, and T4 diets as compared with CON. In conclusion, diets supplemented with 67 or 134 ppm Cu as CuMet may prove effective in improving nutrient digestibility and fecal pH value in growing pigs, and fecal Cu concentrations may be reduced by CuMet supplementation.

      • 축사환경개선제의 비육돈 생산 효과에 관한 연구

        정창조,오태광,김판경,김문철 濟州大學校 農科大學 動物科學硏究所 1997 動物科學論叢 Vol.12 No.1

        Five commerdy avatlable probiotics or yeast culture were compared with the performance of growing-hhgpigs and odorgenerating substances in the feces. Total of 240 pigs were used for group feedig trial for 80 days with 6 treatments(T0 : Control, T1 : DS Cleaner 1 kgl 1 ton feed, T2 Atapon 0.5 kg/l ton feed, T3 : Bio-pro 1 kgl 1 ton feed, T4 : Photoplus 1 kg/ 1 ton feed and T5 CYC 2000, 5 kg/ 1 ton feed). Each treatment has 20 pigs with two replicates. At the end of trial 7 pigs from each treatment were slaughtered for carcase quality evaluation. Fecal nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, VFA concentration and pH were analysed as a indicator of ordorgenerahg substance. The bactenal counts in the feces and acid resstance and enzyme activity of isolated bacteria were also evaluated. Average body weght at D-70 were T1: 97.46 kg, T3 : 95.18 kg, T2 : 94.44 kg and T4 : 93.49 kg, sgruficantly(p<O.05) higher body weights were obtained in probiotic feeding group than the control. However, there was no significant difference in feed intake and feed converjlon between treatments. Backfat thickness were Sgnficantly(p<O.05) affected by probiotic or yeast culture feeding, lowest backfat was in Tl(15.29 mm) and higher backfat were found in probiotic feedug group than the control. Total bactenal counts in feces were in the range of 10^(7)-10^(8) cfu/g in the first week of tnal but was gradually decreased by 106-107 at the end of experiment. Number of coliform bactenal cell was not in the other group. Total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA umcentration in the feces were decreased in all treatment during probiotic feeding period. Total nitrogen concentration were decreased by 68.28% in T1, 60.19% in T4, 45.63% in the control, 38.99% in T2, 31.83% in T5 and 18.10% in T3 when compared between week 1 and week 10. Fecal ammonia nitrogen concentration also expressed the similar pattern of total nitrogen. Bactenal enzyme activity and the add resistance capability of bacteria which were cultured from commercial probiotics were also evaluated.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Feeding Graded Levels of Undegraded Dietary Protein on Voluntary Intake, Milk Production and Economic Return in Early Lactating Crossbred Cows

        Chaturvedi,,O.H.,Walli,,T.K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.8

        Fifteen lactating crossbred cows were randomly allotted to three groups of 5 each, and fed three isoproteinous concentrate mixture varying in RDP and UDP ratios, viz. 71: 29 (T1) and 58: 42 (T2) and 44: 56 (T3), along with green maize and wheat straw given as 2/3 and 1/3 of total roughage respectively, for a period of 120 days. The DM intake (kg/d) differed significantly (p<0.01) among the treatments as well as among the fortnights over a period of 120 days. DMI (kg/d) progressively increased from first to eighth fortnight in all the treatments. The daily DMI (% BW) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in T1 (2.37) than those of T2 (2.82) and T3 (2.67). The body weights of cows decreased up to 4th fortnight in T1 and up to 3rd fortnight in T2 and T3, then it showed an increasing trend till the end of the experiment in all the treatments. Cows in T1 lost 10 kg body weight but cows in T2 and T3 gained 23 and 12 kg the body weight, respectively. Both the milk and FCM yield differed significantly (p<0.01) among the fortnights. The FCM yield increased up to 2nd fortnight in all the treatments and thereafter, the FCM yield declined gradually as the lactation advanced. The FCM yield (kg/d) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 (10.47) than in T2 (9.81) and T1 (9.68), however, milk yield, SCM yield and milk energy yield did not differ among the treatments as well as among the fortnights. Fat and protein % in milk increased as the lactation advanced. However, fortnightly SNF % in milk showed an irregular trend. The % fat, protein, SNF and total solids in milk differed significantly (p<0.01) among the fortnights. The % fat and protein in milk varied significantly (p<0.01) among the treatments, being lowest in T1 and highest in T3. The feed efficiency for milk production showed a non-significant variation among the treatments as well as among the fortnights, but increased with the increase in UDP level. It is concluded that by increasing the UDP level from 29 to 56 per cent of CP in the diet of medium producing cows, the milk production increases and cost of milk production reduces.

      • KCI등재

        NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T 유전자 다형성이 8주간의 유산소성 훈련에 따른 운동수행능력 및 산화적 손상에 미치는 영향

        조수연 ( S. Y Cho ), 백일영 ( I. Y Paik ), 진화은 ( H. E Jin ), 노희태 ( H. T Roh ) 한국운동생리학회(구 한국운동과학회) 2012 운동과학 Vol.21 No.4

        본 연구는 성인 남성과 여성을 대상으로 NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T 유전자 다형성이 8주간의 유산소성 훈련에 따른 운동수행력 증진 및 1회성 운동시 산화적 손상에 미치는 영향을 규명하는데 있다. 본 연구를 위한 실험대상자 선정을 위해 남자대학생 118명, 여자대학생 112명을 대상으로 NADPH oxidase C242T 유전자형을 분석한 후 남성 CC genotype, 남성 T allele, 여성 CC genotype, 여성 T allele 그룹에각각 12명씩 총 48명을 배정하였다. 사전, 사후 운동검사는 트레드밀을 이용하여 85%V O2max all-out 운동을 수행하였으며, 채혈은 총 5번(안정시, 운동 종료시, 회복 30분, 회복 4시간, 24시간) 실시되었다. 채혈된 혈액을 통해 혈장 lactate와 SOD, 임파구 DNA 손상에 대한 분석을 실시하였다. 유산소성 훈련은 8주간(3일/주), 70%HRR의 강도로 트레드밀 런닝을 실시하였으며, 연구 결과에 대한 결론은 다음과 같다. 8주간의 유산소성 훈련 후 85%V O2max all-out 운동수행시간은 네 그룹 모두 유의하게 증가되었다. 85%V O2max all-out 운동수행에 따른 혈장 lactate 농도는 트레이닝 후 동일 시점에서 감소되었으며, 유전자다형성 간 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 또한, 트레이닝 후 동일시점에서 혈장 SOD가 감소하였으며, 이와 함께 임파구세포 DNA 손상 역시도 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고, T allele보다 CC genotype이 트레이닝에 대한 효과가 더 큰것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism on endurance exercise performance and oxidative damage in response to acute and chronic exercise. Medically healthy 118 men and 112 women were analyzed with the genotype of p22phox C242T and then 48 men and women were finally selected and divided into two different polymorphism groups(CC genotype: 24, T allele:24). Before and after exercise tests were measured at 85%V O2max until all-out and blood samples were taken 5 t imes( rest, end of exercise, after 30 min, 4 h and 24 h of recovery) to measure the concentration of plasma lactate, SOD(antioxidant enzyme) and lymphocyte DNA damage. 8 weeks of exercise training were performed 3 times a week at 70%HRR on the treadmill. The results of the research are as follows. it was shown that the eight-weeks aerobic training related to NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T genotype executed in this study not only increased maximal oxygen uptake and exercise performed time but also decreased the plasma lactate level. In addition, both CC genotype and T allele groups showed decreases in plasma SOD after the training and reductions in lymphocyte DNA damage as well. Furthermore, CC genotype than T allele showed a greater effect from the training.

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