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This paper is concerned with the investigation of variable viscosity bioconvection flow of nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic microorganisms over a nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation, chemical reaction, internal heat source, and suction/injection effects. The homotopy analysis method has been developed for solving the governing nonlinear differential equations of the boundary layer flow of nanofluid over a stretching sheet. The scaling group transformation (a special form of Lie group transformation) has been applied to find the similarity variable η. Figures are drawn by using Mathematica software to analyze the results that correspond to some important physical parameters and bioconvection parameters on velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, and density of gyrotactic microorganisms. It is found that the influence of variable viscosity on velocity profiles showed that there is an increase in the velocity profiles of nanofluid and the reverse effect is observed on its temperature distribution. It is seen that the thermal radiation parameter increases the temperature distribution, whereas it decreases the nanoparticle concentration distribution. It is also found that the inverse Darcy number reduces the velocity profile, whereas it enhances the temperature distribution. This work may find applications in advanced nanomechanical bioconvection energy conversion devices, bio-nanocoolant systems, etc.
Solid tumor is generally observed in tissues of epithelial or endothelial cells of lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder, where several genes transcription is regulated by the microRNAs (miRNAs). Argonaute (AGO) protein is a family of protein which assists in miRNAs to bind with mRNAs of the target genes. Hence, study of the binding mechanism between AGO protein and miRNAs, and also with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex is crucial for understanding the RNA silencing mechanism. In the current work, 64 genes and 23 miRNAs have been selected from literatures, whose deregulation is well established in seven types of solid cancer like lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder cancer. In silico study reveals, miRNAs namely, miR-106a, miR-21, and miR-29b-2 have a strong binding affinity towards PTEN, TGFBR2, and VEGFA genes, respectively, suggested as important factors in RNA silencing mechanism. Furthermore, interaction between AGO protein (PDB ID-3F73, chain A) with selected miRNAs and with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex were studied computationally to understand their binding at molecular level. The residual interaction and hydrogen bonding are inspected in Discovery Studio 3.5 suites. The current investigation throws light on understanding miRNAs based gene silencing mechanism in solid cancer.
Plumbagin is a naturally-derived phytochemicalwhich exhibits promising medicinal properties, includinganticancer activities. In the present study, the anticancerpotential of plumbagin has been demonstrated in lungcancer cells by targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS)and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Plumbaginshowed impressive cytotoxic, anti-proliferative,and anti-migratory activities with IC503.10 ± 0.5 μM and4.10 ± 0.5 μM in A549 and NCI-H522 cells, respectively. Plumbagin treatment significantly reduced the size of A549tumor spheroids in a concentration-dependent manner. Plumbagin enhanced ROS production and arrested lung cancercells in S and G2/M phase. Expression of antioxidantgenes such as glutathione S-transferase P1 and superoxidedismutase-2 were found to be upregulated with plumbagintreatment in A549 cells. Plumbagin induced dissipation inmitochondrial membrane potential and affected the expressionof intrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins. Increasedexpression of cytochrome c promotes the activation of proapoptoticprotein Bax with decreased expression of antiapoptoticprotein Bcl-2. Further, plumbagin activated themitochondrial downstream pathway protein caspase-9 andcaspase-3 leading to apoptosis of A549 cells. Collectively,plumbagin could be a promising future phytotherapeuticcandidate for lung cancer treatment via targeting intrinsicmitochondrial apoptotic pathway and ROS.
In the present paper, bioconvective stagnation point flow of nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganisms over a nonlinearly stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium is considered. The scaling group transformation method is introduced to obtain the similarity transformation to convert the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The reduced governing nonlinear differential equations are then solved numerically with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Differential transform method is employed to justify the results obtained by the numerical method. It is found that both the results matched nicely. It is noticed that the density of motile microorganism distribution grows high with an increase in the values of the bioconvection Peclet number. Further, the rate of heat transfer and the rate of mass transfer increase rapidly with an increment in the thermophoresis parameter, heat source parameter, chemical reaction parameter, and Brownian motion parameter, respectively. This work is relevant to engineering and biotechnological applications, such as in the design of bioconjugates and mass transfer enhancement of microfluidics.
Environmental microbes like Bordetella petrii has been established as a causative agent for various infectious diseases in human. Again, development of drug resistance in B. petrii challenged to combat against the infection. Identification of potential drug target and proposing a novel lead compound against the pathogen has a great aid and value. In this study, bioinformatics tools and technology have been applied to suggest a potential drug target by screening the proteome information of B. petrii DSM 12804 (accession No. PRJNA28135) from genome database of National Centre for Biotechnology information. In this regards, the inhibitory effect of nine natural compounds like ajoene (Allium sativum), allicin (A. sativum), cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamomum cassia), curcumin (Curcuma longa), gallotannin (active component of green tea and red wine), isoorientin (Anthopterus wardii), isovitexin (A. wardii), neral (Melissa officinalis), and vitexin (A. wardii) have been acknowledged with anti-bacterial properties and hence tested against identified drug target of B. petrii by implicating computational approach. The in silico studies revealed the hypothesis that lpxD could be a potential drug target and with recommendation of a strong inhibitory effect of selected natural compounds against infection caused due to B. petrii, would be further validated through in vitro experiments.
The objective of this research is to empirically assess the relationship between political stability and FDI inflows in the context of Nepal. Time series data for the period 1998-2016 is used in the study. This study uses a co-integration approach, bounds test, ARDL model, and Granger causality test. The empirical findings confirm the existence of a long run relationship between FDI and political stability. The results show that a 1% increase in FDI inflows results in a 0.14% increase in political stability in the long run. It implies that an increment of FDI inflows will help create political stability in Nepal. The coefficient in the short run is also significant. In addition, the result confirms bi-directional causality between political stability and FDI in Nepal. Only one of the indicators of the World Governance Indicators (WGI) that represents the political stability is taken into consideration in the study. This paper exclusively considers the case of Nepal in order to determine the relationship between political stability and FDI in Nepal.
Nepal has huge potential of hydro and other renewable energy resources including solar energy. However, only 70% of the total population have access to electricity despite the long history of hydropower development in the country. Still more than 37% population in rural areas and around 73% population in Karnali Province, one of the least developed provinces, are living without access to electricity despite taking several initiatives and implementing various policies by government supporting electrification in off-grid rural areas. Government together with donors and private sector has extensively been promoting the off-grid solar photovoltaic (PV) echnology in un-electrified areas to increase electricity access. So far, more than 900,000 households in rural areas of Nepal are getting electricity from stand-alone solar PV systems. However, there are many challenges including financial, technical, institutional, and governance barriers in Nepal. This study based on extensive review of literatures and author's own long working experiences in renewable energy sector in Nepal, shares the best practices and lessons of off-grid solar PV for increasing access to electricity in rural areas of Nepal. This study suggests that flexible financial instruments, financial innovations, bundling of PV systems for concentrating energy loads, adopting standards process, local capacity building, and combination of technology, financing and institutional aspects are a key for enhancing effectiveness of solar PV technology in rural areas of Nepal.