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This paper reports on a study of the high-temperature tribological performance of self-lubricating nickel-based compositeclad. A porous and crack free clad containing matrix, reinforcement, and lubricant phase is developed on titanium 31 alloyusing microwave irradiation. The microstructure of both NiCrSiB/WC and NiCrSiB/WC/Ag/BaF2 clad revealed very goodmetallurgical bonding with the substrate. The average microhardness of NiCrSiB/WC and NiCrSiB/WC/Ag/BaF2 clad is710.58 HV and 650.25 HV respectively, is comparatively higher than the titanium 31 substrate (320 HV). The addition of Agand BaF2solid lubricants in the clad endowing clad to operate at a broad temperature range. Compared with the NiCrSiB/WCclad, solid lubricant encapsulate clad has shown very low friction coefficient and wear rates. The sliding wear characteristicsof the clad were investigated by varying load and temperatures. The results revealed that oxide phases (NiO and Cr3O)andlubricant phases (Ag and BaWO4)formed at low and high temperatures are adequate to reduce delamination and material loss.
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Set induction refers to the process of using a thought-provoking statement, interesting fact, or an audio-visual stimulus at the beginning of lecture to gain student’s attention and give an overview about the lecture topic. In the present study, students were introduced to three types of set induction namely narratives, food-based analogies and humor-based images or activities at the beginning of anatomy lecture and their response to it is collected and analyzed. The objective of the study is to estimate the difference in a questionnaire-based perception score between the three different types of set induction; estimate sex differences in the questionnaire-based perception score. Students rated the validated, 7-item perception questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale. Students felt that food-based analogies and humor-based images were more interesting, motivated them to participate in lecture-discussion than the narrative set induction. The familiarity of set induction varied between all the three different types of set induction. There was no significant difference in the perception of different types of set induction between male and female undergraduate students. Based on the student’s feedback, it could also serve as a memory aid and ease the students learning experience. Majority of students responded positively to the use of set induction and recommended for its use in future classes.
<P>Ubiquitination of core stem cell transcription factors can directly affect stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination must occur in a timely and well-coordinated manner to regulate the protein turnover of several stemness related proteins, resulting in optimal embryonic stem cell maintenance and differentiation. There are two switches: an E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme that tags ubiquitin molecules to the target proteins for proteolysis and a second enzyme, the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUBs), that performs the opposite action, thereby preventing proteolysis. In order to maintain stemness and to allow for efficient differentiation, both ubiquitination and deubiquitination molecular switches must operate properly in a balanced manner. In this review, we have summarized the importance of the ubiquitination of core stem cell transcription factors, such as Oct3/4, c-Myc, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog, and LIN28, during cellular reprogramming. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of DUBs in regulating core stem cell transcriptional factors and their function in stem cell maintenance and differentiation. We also discuss the possibility of using DUBs, along with core transcription factors, to efficiently generate induced pluripotent stem cells. Our review provides a relatively new understanding regarding the importance of ubiquitination/deubiquitination of stem cell transcription factors for efficient cellular reprogramming.</P>
Suresh, Sekar,Prithiviraj, Elumali,Venkatalakshmi, Nagella,Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik,Ganesh, Lakshmanan,Lee, Hyun-Jeong,Prakash, Seppan The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.4
Sildenafil citrate (SIL) a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) has been used for long time as a first line oral drug for erectile dysfunction. Though it has beneficial effects on erectile organ it also has some adverse effects in other cells and/or tissues related to reproductive system when exposed to longer duration. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the long term effect of SIL on sperm parameters in Wistar albino rat. The animals are divided into two groups, for group I - rats were treated with saline (vehicle alone) and group - II oral administration of 5 mg/kg b.w. of SIL was administrated orally once in a day for 120 days. At the end of the trial period animals were sacrificed and epididymal sperm were subjected to various analysis. Results showed significant reduction in sperm count, motility, viability and morphologically intact sperm in long term PDE5I exposed animals when compared to control. Acrosomal status and fertility test also showed significant reduction in long term PDE5I exposed animals. The present study clearly indicated that long term SIL has shown to induce alteration in sperm quality and quantity, leading to decline in fertility rate. Indicate that SIL impinge on spermatogenesis as well as epididymal function. Understanding the molecular down-stream events involved in long-term exposure to PDE5 inhibitor can be valuable to supervise on related infertility issues and to suggest corrective measures.
Herbal remedies have become popular, due in part to the lower risk of adverse reactions. Thousands of plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases. Among them, species of the genus Piper are important medicinal plants used in various systems of medicine. The Piper longum fruit has been used in traditional medicine, including the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Although there are numerous indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its efficacy. The primary constituents isolated from various parts of P. longum are piperine, piperlongumine,sylvatin, sesamin, diaeudesmin piperlonguminine, pipermonaline, and piperundecalidine. It is most commonly used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma,constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria,viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomachache, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. This study provides detailed information about the P. longum fruit, including phytochemistry, pharmacological profile and safety profile. In view of the commercial, economic, and medicinal importance of the P. longum plant, it is useful for researchers to study the plant in detail.
Chemical bath deposition technique has been used for simultaneous synthesis of CdS nanopowder and nanofilm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies show a predominant α-CdS structure. Structural parameters show a random lattice disorder and bond length contraction leading to high density of nanopowder and nanofilm in comparison to standard CdS. The columnar structure growth of the nanofilm devoid of grain boundaries may be explored for window layers.
Supercritical water has great potential as a coolant for nuclear reactor. Its use will lead to higher thermalefficiency of Rankine cycle. However, in certain conditions heat transfer may get deteriorated which maylead to undesirable high clad surface temperature. It is necessary to estimate the operating conditions inwhich heat transfer deterioration (HTD) will take place, so as to establish thermal margins for safereactor operation. In the present work, the heat flux corresponding to onset of HTD for vertically upwardflow of supercritical water in a pipe is obtained over a wide range of system parameters, namely pressure,mass flux, and pipe diameter. This is done by performing large number of simulations using an inhouseCFD code, which is especially developed and validated for this purpose. The identification of HTDis based on observance of one or more peak/s in the computed wall temperature profile. The existingcorrelations for predicting the onset of HTD are compared against the results obtained by presentsimulations as well as available sets of experimental data. It is found that the prediction accuracy of thecorrelation proposed by Dongliang et al. is best among the existing correlations