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This study attempted to provide a spectrum analysis for quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality of singing students rather than the presence or absence of the singer's formant. The regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between ringing quality, SPR, and SPP of singing voice of college student subjects majoring in music. This study measured singing power ratio (SPR) in 41 singing students. Digital audio recordings were made in sung vowels for acoustic analyses. Each sample was judged by 1 experienced singing teacher and 4 voice pathologists on one semantic bipolar 7-point scales (ringing-dull). The results showed that the SPR and SPP had significant correlations with ringing Quality. The SPR had a significant relationship with ringing quality on singing voice in singing students. The SPR can be an important quantitative measurement for evaluating singing voice quality.
To analyze dialy meal of royal meal, studied Jook Soora Sang (Rice Gruel), Mieum Sang (Thin Gruel) and Bankwa Sang, Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won were on record Wonheng Ulmyo Jungri Euigwae (1795). Historic book "Jungri Euigwae" described the king's visit to his father's royal tomb "Hyun Neung Won", during the domain of Cheung Jo, the 22nd king of Choson Dynasty. The results obtained from this study are as follows. Rice Gruel (Jook Soora Sang), taken before breakfast, was arranged the same as the Soora Sang. The table for thin gruel (Mieum) was arranged in three kinds of sets; one for thin gruel, the others for stewed meat (Goem) and sugared fruit (Jeong Kwa). The diet seems to have been quit scientific and restorative. Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won was arranged the same as the other Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang. Therefore setting the table of royal meal had a rule.
Through the rural community educational research institute, ‘NerRigi PeunJigi’ was selected and put on record for the first time in YongSan township, YoungDong county in ChoongChung province. Like the KangKangsullae in Jeolla province and the ‘WorlWorlYi CheungCheung’ in the northern GyeongSang province, it is a play song sung with hand in hand making a big circle. ‘NerRigi’ and ‘PunJigi’ also ‘SoRaeGi’ are song titles, song lyrics and words which are even at present remembered by many people as the local dialect of northern ChoongCheung province. They are round shaped tools used for storing things and carrying water thereby having a close relation to women. When judging from the informants oral statement where all the women uniformally mentioned that they only sung these songs when they were little girls in their hometown before their marriage, it is quite certain the song is a handed down children's folk song sung among the girls around at least before or after 1945. By doing a thorough research in ‘NerRigiPunJigi’ which was recorded in texts of other regions aside northern ChoongCheung province like the neighbouring city Muju which connects to the southern part of ChoongCheung province and also in the cities like AnSung, Icheon, YerJu in KyongKi province and YoungWorl and WonSoeng city in KangWon province which connects to the northern part and to the east, the cities in northern KyongSang province like YoungJoo, Yecheon, MoonKyong and SangJoo, also to the west the cities like CheonAn, YeonGi, Daeduck and KeumSan in the southern ChoongCheung province. We are able to find out the exact location of where ‘NerRigi PunJigi’ play song was actually sung. Also, in the case of ‘NerRigiPunJigi’ which was mostly sung before getting married, that is to say mostly during childhood days and not ever sung after marriage(most of the informants average age in getting married were 18 and 19 giving them roughly 40-50 years of that song completely being forgotten)unlike other songs such as ‘KangKangsullae’ and ‘WorlWorlYi CheungCheung’, there were many difficulties in putting those songs on record. Those who remember the song were at least mostly women in their 70s or above so when this generation passes away, it will be impossible for the song to be carried down or left in record in any way whatsoever, therefore an immediate keen research is vital. This dissertation has its significance in introducing the song ‘NerRigiPunJigi’ which previous papers have not dealt therefore not too much could be done in further discussing the subject. Furthermore, this paper is to be marked as the starting point in focusing on other many more assignments that need to be researched on one by one such as the comparison between ‘KangKangsullae’ and ‘WorlWorYi CheungCheung’, the servitude of ‘NerRigiPunJigi’ and a comparative research on ‘NerRigiPunJigi’ that was put on exhibition at the Eleventh Comprehensive Ethnic Contest.
본 연구는 영화비평가 정성일이 <오아시스>(이창동, 2002)에 대해서 쓴 비평문「판타지, 기만적인 환영술」을 비판적으로 분석한다. 그간 한국영화계에서 영화비평은 독립적인 분과로 논의되지 못했다. 산적하는 영화들 안에서 영화적 가치를 발굴해 정리하고 새로운 영화 언어를 대중 언어로 번역하는 것이 영화비평의 역할이라 했을 때 이는 문제가 있다. 영화비평에 대한 그간의 접근은 한국영화사의 맥락에서 특정 영화비평집단을 세대론적으로 조망하거나 특정 개인의 비평 세계를 전기적 관점에서 서술한 것에 머문 한계가 있다. 정성일은 1990년대 한국영화비평의 전성기를 주도했던 한국의 대표적인 영화비평가이다. 호불호가 갈리지만 그의 글은 대중들 사이에서 영화비평이라는 개념이 성립되는 과정에 주요한 이미지를 제공했다. 특히 본 연구가 다루는 정성일의<오아시스> 비판은 논쟁 참여를 전제해 작성된 덕분에 비평담론 자체가 중심에 서있고 무엇보다 정성일의 영화에 대한 태도가 여타의 글에 비해 명확하게 드러나는 특징이 있다. 더구나 그 논쟁은 영화의 윤리, 완성도, 자의식 등을 두고 벌어진 영화비평계 내부의 마지막 논쟁이라는 영화비평사적 의의도 있다. 나아가 영화 한편에 대한 긴 글이기 때문에 한국의 대표적 비평가가 영화를 비평하는 구체적 실천 양상이 현장감 있게 녹아 있기도 하다. 영화를 종교처럼 대한다는 비판이 존재하지만 정성일 영화비평의 경쟁력은 숏의 배치, 장르 문법, 카메라 시선과 같은 영화의 자의식을 정밀하게 분석하는 것에서 나온다. 영화란 무엇인가와 같은 근본적인 질문에 기반을 둔 이런 태도는 영화를 여타의 학문에 종속시킨 종래의 비평 태도와 차별되며 영화를 진지하게 바라보는 태도를 대중화시킨 의의가 있다. 하지만 그것만큼의 오류도 발견된다. <오아시스>를 비판할 때 투영되는 정성일의 관점의 가능성과 한계를 구체적으로 밝힘으로써 한국영화비평의 전성기를 주도했던 한 영화비평가의 개성적 세계관을 비판적으로 조망하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다. 독립적인 분과로 인식되기는커녕 죽음까지 운운되는 영화비평의 위기 시대에 한국의 대표적 영화비평가의 세계관이 상징적으로 녹아 있는 글을 정밀하게 분석하는 것은 그것 자체로 의미 있다. This study analyzes the critique “Fantasy, deceptive hallucination” which sung-il jung wrote about < Oasis >(Changdong Lee 2002). Film critique has not been recognized and discussed as an independent field in the Korean film industry so far. It can be problematic if the role of film criticism is to get the cinematic values arranged among the pile of films and to translate new cinematographic language into the public language. The approach to the film critique to this point has limitation that in the context of Korean film industry, it viewed certain group of film critics in the perspective of theory of generation and it described certain person`s world of criticism in a biographical way. sung-il Jung is one of the representative film critics in Korea who lead the golden age of Korean film criticism in the 1990s. His writings provided important image in the process of establishing the concept of film critique among the public, even though they are controversial. The Jung`s criticisms this study exclusively deals with are based on the premise of argumentative participation, so the discourse is central and fundamental, and it brings out the cinematic view of Jung precisely compared to the other writings and articles, which is the advantages of this study. Moreover, the argument has significance in the field of film criticism for being the last dispute inside the field of film critique over the morals, degree of completion, and the consciousness of identity. Above and beyond, because this paper is a long writing about a movie, it contains detailed and vivid practical aspect which the representative critic of Korea criticizes the movie. Although there are criticisms of discussing movies like a form of religion, sung-il Jung`s film critique is competitive for detailed and precise analyze of films` sense of identity such as plot of shots, code of genre, and the eyes of cameras. This attitude based on the fundamental questions such as what is film is considered significant for popularizing and promoting earnest attitude toward movies, and is differentiated with the traditional attitudes of criticism which are to subordinate films in the other fields of study. However, due to being so, some errors are discovered. The purpose of this study is to critically outlook a distinctive world view of a film critic who enjoyed the film critique`s prime by concretely describing its possibilities and limitations through revealing Jung`s point of view which is his prerequisite for watching movies. The work of precise analyzing of one of the Korean representative film critics` writings which contains symbolic world view is significant and meaningful by itself in the time of the film criticisms` crisis when the idea of the demise of film criticism is being mentioned, let alone its separation as the independent field.
A Mitsubishi process, which pertains to continuous Cu production, involves a smelting furnace, cleaning furnace, and convertingfurnace connected in series. One of the main issues pertaining to the smelting furnace is the frequent interruption ofoperations required to allow the inspection and replacement of lances, because lances are frequently fractured. The presentstudy was aimed at modifying the operating conditions of the smelting furnace to suppress lance fractures. A numericalmodel was developed to simulate the transport phenomena in the furnace, including multi-phase behaviors. The simulationresults showed that the lances were exposed to a severely erosive atmosphere with high temperatures. Further calculationindicated that raising the positions of the lances could lower the temperature of the lances, and reducing the occurrence ofsplashed melt, which contains erosive sulfides. The smelting furnace was operated under the conditions of the raised lanceheight and attentively monitored for several months. It was confirmed that by implementing such a change of the lanceheights, the occurrence of lance failures has been considerably reduced without notably affecting the reaction ability of thesmelting furnace.
The correlation between education and development, with time, went through many changes along with the changes of perspectives. Since both of these concepts encompass wide ranges of social phenomena and factors, the analysis remains always complicated. However, in the era of SDGs and at the time when post-development debates have been raised, it is important to address this conceptual correlation through the conceptual analysis. Diferent development theories, as refected in the discussion, have presented the vitality of education in development process from diferent angle, in deeper analysis it became clearer that actually two major trends exist—education ‘for’ development and education ‘in’ development—under which all can be grouped. However, the critics of those diferent development theories paint the picture with an assumption that the role of education in the process of development has been misunderstood and mis-presented to some extent. This poses the debate towards fnding how the role of education to development process can be better realized and, therefore, this paper analysed it from three key thoughts towards redefning the paradigm. Goulet argues that development needs authentic in ethical way where Sen more freedom should be given by widening individual’s capability. However, in close analysis on Freirean thoughts, the limits of this relation remain un-encompassed as the defnition of development is rather contextual and fexible for the discourses on the role of education for social justice.
Background Vitamin D (Vit. D) is used extensively during tuberculosis treatment. Low levels of serum Vit. D increase the risk of active tuberculosis development. Altered expression of the proteins involved in Vit. D metabolism impairs cathelicidin production, thereby increasing the host susceptibility to tuberculosis. Objective We are trying to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes could afect tuberculosis development. Methods We included participants of the Korean Association Resource (KARE), part of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), and used their recorded data. A total of 8840 people (4182 men and 4658 women) were eligible subjects. The 5-kb regions from the ends of transcripts of GC, LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes were amplifed to select 13, 47, 70, and 15 SNPs, respectively. For association analysis and statistical analysis, PLINK version 1.07 and PASW Statistics version 18.0 were used. Results Signifcant correlation was observed in 11, 2, and 1 SNPs in LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes. The efect of rs6747692 of LRP2 on transcription factor binding was confrmed using RegulomeDB. We confrmed that rs2239182 of VDR is located in the genomic eQTL region and can afect transcription factor binding and gene expression. Conclusions Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in Vit. D metabolism infuence immune system components. Therefore, such polymorphisms may infuence the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion and alter the defense mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The correlation between genetic variation and tuberculosis development can provide new guidelines for the management of tuberculosis.
This article begins with an awareness of two. One is to consider the meaning of "letter" sensibility, as expressed in Yi Sang`s text in relation to newspapers and printed media, which constituted modern media in the city of Gyeong-seong [京城] in the 1930`s. The other is to analyze Yi Sang`s dream of writing and of realizing his goals through the letter expression. Therefore, the objective of this article is to investigate the unique ideas about letters and the meaning of the expressions in the literary texts of Yi Sang, who omnidirectionally participated in the so-called "modernity of media," as he drew figures, blueprints, and illustrations and worked as a magazine editor and literary coterie within modern Korean literature in the 1930`s. On the basis of this investigation, we tried to clarify the patterns in Yi Sang`s dreams of writing. Yi Sang`s unique ideas about letters were incorporated into his works in various forms and expressed through his original literary language. Moreover, his ideas had a sociocultural impact at that time beyond the function of delivering literary meanings. In his essay, "Lingering Impressions of a Mountain Village," he expressed the natural mood that sprang up from rural society by replacing with metaphoric language acquired fromand sensitized by "urban emotions." Hence, various aspects of Yi Sang`s literature constituting the so-called "rhetoric of city" were patterned by reflecting urban phenomena in visual forms in many parts of his works. The metaphoric system of the "rhetoric of city" established the unique metaphor in the viewpoint of the new modernity by the emotions and senses of those living in a city in the 20th century, saying good-bye to the senses of the 19th century. The characteristic elements of Yi Sang`s literature in the area of Korean literature in the 1930`s, which resulted from various forms of letters and their application to literary works, can ultimately be considered ventriloquial reactions to the speed of the capitalistic society that was changing rapidly, as well as to the disturbance of time and the entanglement of space in the changing process. This is a key factor in Yi Sang`s literature as well as the novel writing pattern that advocated the autonomy of art as "objectless writing`" based on the letter sensibility and the sign game method. Moreover, the new form of literature realized by Yi Sang`s letter sensibility and his literary world still requires an interpretation from a novel point of view, in the sense that it was an abstract painting that expressed the uneven consciousness of those living in a city, generated from the regulatory system of capitalistic reason that was rapidly expanding in the urban space of Gyeong-seong in the 1930`s.
Through the theoretical study on Sa-sang constitutional medicine from a evolutionary point of view, the result was obtained as follows. 1. The system of Sa-Sim-Sin-Mul(事心身物) in Sa-sang constitutional medicine is similar to the theory of evolution of Teilhard de Chardin. 2. The concept of Yin and Yang in Sa-sang constitutional medicine can be set up by the demand and necessity in the progress of evolution and the time of the differentiation of functions. 3. The Sung-Jung(性情) of each Sa-sang constitution can be explained as the strategy and form survival. 4. The theory of physiology, pathology and therapy in Sa-sang constitutional medicine can be hypothesized by the evolutionary standards which are related with the thermo-metabolism and hematopoietic-immune system.
특히 국가이념이 비교적 많이 담겨 있는 공산주의 도덕과 국어 교육에 어떠한 변화가 일어났는가 하는 점을 성찰해보고자 한 것이다. 해방 이후 북한은, 1948년 9월 맑스-레닌주의에 입각한 헌법을 제정하여, 정부를 수립한 이래 몇 차례에 걸쳐 헌법을 개정하였다. 1) 1960년대 후반 ‘주체사상’을 확립하면서 이 이념을 첨가하기 위하여 1972년에, 2) 1980년대 후반 ‘조선민족제일주의’와 ‘우리 식 사회주의’를 외친 이후 소련이 붕괴되는 것을 지켜보면서 1992년에, 3) 김일성 사망 이후 ‘붉은기사상’으로 ‘강성대국론’의 입장을 띠면서 ‘유일사상’을 강화하기 위하여 1998년에 이루어졌다. 그 결과, 이들 교과서에서는 소련식 사회주의기에는 ‘프로레타리아 혁명’과 더불어 ‘일제 청산’이, 주체사상기에는 ‘공산주의적 혁명가’가, 민족제일주의기에는 ‘사회주의 · 공산주의 건설자’가, 그리고 강성대국론기에는 ‘주체혁명 위업 완수’가 주된 이념을 이루고 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. This study is focused on the changes of the educational ideologies shown in the North Korean textbooks, especially how they have been changed according as the Constitutional law has been revised. The North Korea established the law in 1948, which was based on Marx-hninism. I would like to call it 'the period of Soviet Socialism.' Since then, it has been changed three times. First, it was revised to introduce hnin+Juche Ideology in 1972, which can be called 'the period of Self-reliance Ideology.' Second, it was revised in 1992 and the revision was based on Juche ideology completely. It can be called 'the period of Nations First. 'Third, it was revised to reinforce Juche ideology in 1998. It can be called 'the period of Forceful Nation.' In the first period (1945-), they specified that the most important educational ideologies were 'proletarian revolution' and the 'liquidation of Japanese imperialism' in their constitution. In the second period (1967-), the most important educational ideology was to be a 'communistic revolutionist'. In the third period (1986-), the most important educational ideology was to be the 'socialistic-communistic construhr.' And in the forth period (1994-), the most important educational ideology is to accomplish the 'Juche revolution.' The educational ideologies shown in the North Korean textbooks have been changed according to the revisions of constitution. First, in the period of Soviet Socialism, they were focused on rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism, hostility towards bourgeoisie and beautification of I1 Sung Kim in their ''North Korean" language education. Second, in the period of Self-reliance Ideology, idolization of I1 Sung Kim was reinforced in them. Third, in the period of Nations First, they reinforced rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism and began to make an idol of Jung I1 Kim in them. Forth, after the death of I1 Sung Kim, in the period of Forceful Nation, they have deified I1 Sung Kim and strengthened idolization of Jung I1 Kim. Furthermore, in the education of ethics, most of textbooks begin with indoctrinating the ideas of I1 sung Kim and his son. They were focused on rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism, hostility toward bourgeoisie, and proletarian revolution. This inclination was exactly same as moral education. But their socialism and denunciation of revisionism was reinforced in its textbook, also.