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Civil infrastructures, such as bridges and tunnels are most important assets and their failure during service will have significant economic and social impact in any country. Behavior of a bridge can be evaluated only through actual monitoring/measurements of bridge members under the loads of interest. Theoretical analysis alone is not a good predictor of the ability of a bridge. In some cases, theoretical analyses can give less effect than actual since theoretical analyses do not consider the actual condition of the bridge, support conditions, level of corrosion and damage in members and connections etc. Hence actual measurements of bridge response should be considered in making decisions on structural integrity, especially in cases of high value bridges (large spans and major crossings). This paper describes in detail the experimental investigations carried out on an open web type steel railway bridge. Strain gages and displacement transducers were installed at critical locations and responses were measured during passage of locomotives. Stresses were evaluated and extrapolated to maximum design loading. The responses measured from the bridge were within the permissible limits. The methodology adopted shall be used for assessing the structural integrity of the bridge for the design loads.
This paper discusses the optimization of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process parameters for joining Aluminum alloy (AA6061-T6) with Magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets. Prior to optimization an empirical relationship was developed to predict the Tensile Shear Fracture Load (TSFL) incorporating the four most important FSSW parameters, i.e., tool rotational speed, plunge rate, dwell time and tool diameter ratio, using response surface methodology (RSM). The experiments were conducted based on four factor, five levels central composite rotatable design (CCD) matrix. The maximum TSFL obtained was 3.61kN, with the tool rotation of 1000 rpm, plunge rate of 16 mm/min, dwell time of 5 sec and tool diameter ratio of 2.5.
The gelation and melting behavior of 1:1, 1:3 xanthan-carob mixed gels were evaluated at isothermal and non-isothermal states, as a function of total polymer concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1%. A thermal hysteresis was observed between gelation and melting. The higher the polymer concentration, the higher the melting temperature. The gelation points were determined by three criteria. Depending on the criterion used the gelation temperature was different (52 to 70℃). Pseudo-equilibrium modulus and elastic active network chain (EANC) concentration were calculated from the plateau modulus in the frequency spectrum. Temperature dependence of the monomeric friction coefficient was estimated from the relaxation time and EANC. Time-temperature superposition theory was not applicable due to dramatic phase transitions occurring during the gelation of X/C mixture.
<P>Silver/biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by adding 100 mg silver nitrate to 2% polyvinyl alcohol solution and reduced the silver nitrate using 2% trisodium citrate for high performance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates. Optical properties of nanoparticle were measured using UV/VIS spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging microscopy. Nanoparticle morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Substrate reproducibility and repeatability was checked by measuring SERS signals of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) and Rhodamine 6G.</P>
This paper portrays the perception of buying behaviour, factors of product preferences and product switch-over among women consumers in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu. To conduct this study, 300 respondents from 20 village blocks of Vellore district were selected using stratified random sampling as the technique and descriptive sampling as the design. The study came out with interesting results and conclusions. It was found that more than half of the respondents were purchasing the product without a bill. It was also found that the respondents who repaired their product in the authorized service centre during warranty period did not continue the same after the warranty period and preferred nearby repair shops. It was further found that more than half of the respondents were checking expiry date and quality standards while purchasing a product. The study's scope was limited to women consumers at Vellore district. It could be used for further research in other aspects such as gender comparison in Vellore district and comparison with other districts of Tamil Nadu and other states of India. It was suggested that there is still a necessity to upgrade the standard of the people in many aspects like education, occupation and level of income, which shall help them to compete with the neighboring cities on living standards.
<P><B>Objective</B></P><P>To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects.</P><P><B>Materials and Methods</B></P><P>Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>For the group result (<I>p</I> < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.</P>
Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60 – 1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47 – 3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7 – 3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3 – 1.01 mg per 100 mg b-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 lmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical–scavenging activity.
영토에 대한 우려는 20세기 중국 외교정책에서 핵심적인 사항이었 을 뿐만 아니라 향후 중국의 외교정책을 결정하는데 있어서도 가장 중요한 요인으로 작용할 것이다. 본 연구는 역사 사료에 대한 분석을 바탕으로 공간과 시간의 통합된 개념이라는 새로운 패러다임을 통해 중국이 영토 문제를 자각하는 방식을 설명하고 있다. 이를 위해 어떻 게 공간과 시간이 영토 인식의 이론적 틀로 작동하고 있는지를 분석 하고 이 틀을 통해 영토에 대한 의식을 하나의 신화로 형성해나가는 과정을 추적하고 있다. China’s territorial concern have been central to its foreign policy during the 20th century and continues to be a determinant in shaping its strategic options in future. This study presents the well documented historical details with in a framework of China’s territorial consciousness and proposes the paradigm of integrated notion of space-time with the objective of “understanding” more than “explaınıng”. In order to do so this study articulates the theory of territorial consciousness with the operational concepts of space-time and then attempts its validity in China’s case wıthın the framework of “myth”.
Study DesignRetrospective review.PurposeTo determine the accuracy of thoracolumbar pedicle screw insertion with the routine use of three-dimensional (3D) intraoperative imaging and navigation over a large series of screws in an Asian population.Overview of LiteratureThe use of 3D intraoperative imaging and navigation in spinal surgery is aimed at improving the accuracy of pedicle screw insertion. This study analyzed 2,240 pedicle screws inserted with the routine use of intraoperative navigation. It is one of very few studies done on an Asian population with a large series of screws.MethodsPatients who had undergone thoracolumbar pedicle screws insertion using intraoperative imaging and navigation between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) images acquired after the insertion of pedicle screws were analyzed for breach of the pedicle wall. The pedicle screw breaches were graded according to the Gertzbein classification. The breach rate and revision rate were subsequently calculated.ResultsA total of 2,240 thoracolumbar pedicle screws inserted under the guidance of intraoperative navigation were analyzed, and the accuracy of the insertion was 97.41%. The overall breach rate was 2.59%, the major breach rate was 0.94%, and the intraoperative screw revision rate was 0.7%. There was no incidence of return to the operating theater for revision of screws.ConclusionsThe routine use of 3D navigation and intraoperative CT imaging resulted in consistently accurate pedicle screw placement. This improved the safety of spinal instrumentation and helped in avoiding revision surgery for malpositioned screws.