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This paper proposes Internet-based checking scheme for machine-tools with a variant CNC. Checking points defined in this research are classified into two categories such as structured point and operational point. The formal includes the vibration of bearing, temperature of spindle unit and another periodical management. And the latter includes oil checking, clamp locking/unlocking and machining on/off status. Through this research, for the global management of variant CNC machines interspersed with CAC and OAC in manufacturing system, the suitable environment for Internet-based checking of variant CNC machines was designed and the checking methods for CAC and OAC machines were compared with each other.
Effects of N-acetylcysteine and Selenium against Doxorubicin Toxicity in RatsEun-sung Park, Sun-don Kim1, Min-hye Lee, Heung-shik S. Lee, In-se Lee, Je-kyung Sung and Yeo-sung Yoon*
In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipments and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced, range of displacement between computer-simulated three dimensional images and actual postoperative three dimensional images in co-ordinates values was from -1.8 mm to 1.8 mm and 94% in displacement of all co-ordinates values was from -1.0 mm to 1.0 mm and no significant difference between computer-simulated three dimensional images and actual postoperative three dimensional images was noticed(p>0.05). 2. In four cases of orthognathic surgery patients, range of displacement between computer-simulated three dimensional images and actual postoperative three dimensional images in coordinates values was from -6.7 mm to 7.7 mm and 90% in displacement of all co-ordinates values was from -4.0 to 4.0 mm and no significant difference between computer-simulated three dimensional images and actual postoperative three dimensional images was noticed(p>0.05). Conclusively, computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms. Therefore, potentiality that can construct postoperative three dimensional image without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery was presented.
The contemporary business administration is characterized by the fact that it is divided into three parts the capital provider who is in charge of financial resources, the working rank who provides management and labor, and the administrator who is in charge of executive funciton. From the administrator's point of view, the owner manager of the earlier capitalistic economy has been replaced by the "employed manager". And in addition to the factors mentioned above, other factors such as ever-changing situations from outside of the business and the tendency toward the division and specialization of task have forced the "professional manager" to come into existence. Korea, for one thing, has seen its industrial structure under way to rapid change and expansion with remakable rapidity as the result of the four Five-Year Economic Development Plans. However, the training of qualified business administrators is still short of fulfilling the task of producing enlightened man-power for business administration. This task is urgent since the modernization of the administration is essential to effective business management. This treatise conists of five chapters and eight sub-chapters, in which the writer tried to propose a principle of Business Administrative Development and its progressive course. I . Preface. Emphasis was laid on the necessity of training specialized business administrators who can cope with the rapidly changing situation both from outside and within the business firms themselves and on the need for establishment of preparedness for the international competition. Ⅱ. On Theoretical Disclosure of Business Administrative Development. In this chapter, the writer attempted to describe theoretically the importance of Business Administrative Development and its procedures in terms of technical aspect. Ⅲ. A Pragmatic Study of Business Administrative Development. In this chapter, the writer disclosed the results of his survey on the current trends of business administrative development in the manufacturing firms in Daejon Area. He also tried to analyze the outcome of the research survey. The problems found through the research-survey are as follow. The first is that the business administrative development is not realized as a way of coping with the depressive economy. The second is that the program for Business Administrative Development is not as effective as it should be. The third is that Business Administrators find too little time for participating in Educational Projects for Business Administration. Ⅳ. The procedure of Business Administrative Development. This chapter is devoted to the remedial ways found in the research-survey mentioned in the chapter Ⅲ, in order to propose effective procedural development programs which correspond to the enterprise environment. Ⅴ. Conculsions: This is a condensed summary of the treatise. Eight points for the improvement of the Business Administrative Development are provided in this chapter. The first is that the opportunity of participating in the administrative education program should be opened to all in management. The second is that a long-term man-power promotion program should be maintained in order to meet future demands. Thirdly, it is required that activities of an organization in charge of Administrative Education Program be strengthened. The forth is that The Education Program should be improved by means of case-study rather than class room lectures. The fifth is that specialized educators are required in the field of education mentioned above. The sixth is that a complementary measure should be also used to promote the participation by every member of the firm in management with a systematic purposes presented. The seventh points to the fact that desire for self-development on the part of the administrator himself is indispensable to the Administrative Education Program. And finally, there should be the Reviewing Program regularly into the results of the education. The education should be continuous and be repeated on regular intervals.
Turks settled at Chin shan in 439 A. D. and began to contact China in 550 A.D. Rapidly Turks were able to form a sphere of influence by unifying the foreign tribes near by. Wen-Ti of Sui Dynasty succeeded in dividing Turks into two parts-eastern and westerns Turks, Though they were likely to disappear once they got a chance to develop at the end of Sui Dynasty when T'ang Dynasty was in disorder. Kao Jou, the first emperor of T'ang Dynasty, performed an appeasement policy toward Turks, and eventually T'ai Tsung could conquer them by positive policy. Bond policy was put in force to the conquered tribes by T'ang Dynasty, but whether this policy was successful or not depended upon the power of the Dynasty.
아밀로이드전구단백질(amyloid precursor protein; APP)의 대사산물인 베타아밀로이드 침착이 알츠하이머질환의 중요한 병리학적 특징이다. 최근에 발표된 여러 논문에 의하면, 베타아밀로이드의 침착은 베타아밀로이드단백의 생성과 제거의 불균형에 기인한다. 베타아밀로이드의 대사에 관여하거나 알츠하이머질환과 관련이 있는 것으로 보고된 여러 유전자 산물들은 하나의 수용체물질인 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein(LRP)에 수렴된다. 즉, LRP는 아밀로이드전구단백질, apolipoprotein E(apoE), α₂-macroglobulin(α₂M)의 수용체이다. 이외에도 LRP는 심혈관질환과 뇌신경질환과 관련이 있는 적어도 20개 이상의 리간드와 결합하는 다양한 기능을 지녔는데, 주 기능으로서는 이들 리간드의 재흡수를 매개한다. 다양한 세포에서 LRP의 기능은 LRP의 발현과 그 조절에 의해서 이해될 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 LRP의 구조, 기능과 조절에 대해서 논의하며, LRP와 알츠하이머질환과의 관계을 설명하고자 한다. Deposition of beta-amyloid(Aβ), a metabolite of amyloid precursor protein(APP), is a critical pathological feature in Alzheimer’s disease. Aβ deposition reflects an imbalance of Aβ synthesis and/or clearance. Several pathways that impact Aβ metabolism converge on a single receptor molecule, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein(LRP). LRP is a multifunctional cell surface receptor which mediates the endocytic uptake of ligands implicated in cardiovascular and neuronal pathophysiology and which is the major neuronal receptor both for apolipoprotein E(apoE), APP and α₂-macroglobulin(α₂M). The functional roles of LRP in a variety of cells may be partly accounted for by the expression of LRP and its tight regulation. In this paper, we will discuss structure, funnction and regulation of LRP. In addition, the relationship of LRP with Alzheimer’s disease will be discussed based on the recent research data.
저선량 γ선 조사가 참박의 초기생육과 생리활성에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위하여 참박 종자에 γ선을 O~2OGy 수준으로 조사하여 생육을 관찰하였다. 저선량 γ선에 의한 참박의 초기생육은 대조구에 비해 4~16Gy에서 다소 증가하였고, 생육 조사시 측정한 자엽의 경우 catalase와 peroxidase활성이 대조구에 비해 8Gy조사구에서 가장 높았으며 본엽은 peroxidase 활성이 4Gy 조사구에서 확연히 증가하였다. 저선량 γ선을 조사한 박 식물체의 광 스트레스에 대한 반응효과는 광계Ⅱ의 광화학적 효율이 대조구와 8Gy의 경우 50%정도 감소되었으나 4Gy에서는 40%정도의 감소를 보였다. 반면 Fo는 광저해가 진행됨에 따라 약간의 증가를 보였으나 대조구나 저선량 조사구사이의 차이는 거의 없는 것으로 나타났다. 광계Ⅱ의 광양자 수율, φ_PSⅡ과 광계Ⅱ 반응중심의 흥분 포획능, 1/Fo-l/Fm 또한 광저해가 진행되는 동안 감소하여 φ_PSⅡ는 대조구와 8 Gy의 경우 20%정도 감소를 보인 반면 4Gy조사구는 15%의 감소를 보였고, 1/Fo-lF/m은 대조구와 8Gy는 55%,4 Gy는 45%의 감소를 나타냈다. 비광화학적 소멸인 NPQ는 대조구와 저선량 조사구 모두 70% 정도 감소되는 경향을 보였다. 이러한 결과를 볼 때 종자의 종피를 투과한 저선량의 γ선이 참박의 생육을 촉진시키고 4Gy에서 광 스트레스에 대한 저해가 감소되었다. Gourd seeds were irradiated with the doses of 0∼20 Gy to investigate the effect of the low dose ??-radiation on the early growth and physiological activity. The stimulating effects of the low dose ??-radiation on the early growth were not noticeably high, but were increased generally at 4∼16 Gy irradiation group. The catalase and peroxidase activity of cotyledon from seeds irradiated with ??-radiation were increased at 8 Gy irradiation group. The peroxidase activity of leaf was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group. The photochemical yield of PSⅡ, estimated as Fv/Fm, decreased with increasing illumination time by 50% after 4hrs in the control and 8 Gy irradiation group, while Fo slightly increased. However, Fv/Fm in the 4 Gy irradiation group decreased by 40% of inhibition, indicating that photoinhibition decreased by the low dose ??-radiation. Changes in the effective quantum yield of PSⅡ, Φ_PSⅡ and 1/Fo-1/Fm, a measure of the rate constant of excitation trapping by the PSⅢ reaction center, showed similar pattern to Fv/Fm. NPQ decreased by 70% after photoinhibitory treatment with showing similar pattern between the control and the irradiation group. These results showed the positive effect of low dose ??-radiation on the seedling growth and the reduction of photoinhibition in the 4 Gy irradiation group.
Indole contents and microorganisms producing indole were investigated from traditional Korean soybean paste. Distributions of indole contents were 0∼140㎍/g in the soybean paste and the mean was 8.1㎍/g. Through quantitative analysis of indole and sensory evaluation indole was found to be the main cause of feacal odor in soybean paste. Microorganisms producing indole isolated in soybean paste were rods, Gram positive and spore formation, so they were Bacillus species. But the microorganisms were different from characters of known Bacillus species, so they were types of Bacillus species.
Background and Objectives : The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug resistanceassociated protein (MRP) confers multidrug resistance (MDR) to cancer cells. MDR cells could be sensitized to anticancer drugs when treated concomitantly with a chemosensitizer. In this study, orange peel have been screened for the development of chemosensitizers reversing MDR. Materials and methods : Expression of Pgp in AML-2/WT and AML-2/D100 were determined using western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Candidates for chemosensitizers were isolated, purified from orange peel using sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica-gel column chromatography, whose structure was determined using ^1H-NMR, ^13C-NMR, ^1H-^1H-COSY, 13C-NMR, EI-Mass, IR. Chemosensitizing effect of NP-28 on AML-2/DX100 over expressing Pgp and MRP was determined by the MTT assay. Membrane toxicity was evaluated by the RBC hemolysis test. Antioxidant effects were examined by using a fluorescence probe (2’-7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate). Results : A potent candidate, NP-28, has a flavonoid nucleus with some methoxy moiety. NP-28 is believed to have high therapeutic index, being non-transportable inhibitor and possibly, of inhibiting other efflux pumps such as MRP and antioxidant effects. NP-28 is also unlikely to be a substrate of Pgp. NP-28 did not increase Pgp levels. Conclusion : NP-28 has a Chemosensitizing effect to reverse Pgp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular accumulation of drugs. Furthermore, they do not increase expression of Pgp, which can allow a long term use without the concern about Pgp activation. NP-28 is anticipated as an ideal second-generation flavonoid chemosensitizer and/or possibly other therapeutic agents by further investigation.