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      • A Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor Targeting the IL-6 Receptor β Subunit, Glycoprotein 130

        Hong, Soon-Sun,Choi, Jung Ho,Lee, Sung Yoon,Park, Yeon-Hwa,Park, Kyung-Yeon,Lee, Joo Young,Kim, Juyoung,Gajulapati, Veeraswamy,Goo, Ja-Il,Singh, Sarbjit,Lee, Kyeong,Kim, Young-Kook,Im, So Hee,Ahn, Sun The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. 2015 JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Vol.195 No.1

        <P>IL-6 is a major causative factor of inflammatory disease. Although IL-6 and its signaling pathways are promising targets, orally available small-molecule drugs specific for IL-6 have not been developed. To discover IL-6 antagonists, we screened our in-house chemical library and identified-LMT-28, a novel synthetic compound, as a candidate IL-6 blocker. The activity, mechanism of action, and direct molecular target of LMT-28 were investigated. A reporter gene assay showed that LMT-28 suppressed activation of STAT3 induced by IL-6, but not activation induced by leukemia inhibitory factor. In addition, LMT-28 downregulated IL-6-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3, gp130, and JAK2 protein and substantially inhibited IL-6-dependent TF-1 cell proliferation. LMT-28 antagonized IL-6-induced TNF-alpha production in vivo. In pathologic models, oral administration of LMT-28 alleviated collagen-induced arthritis and acute pancreatitis in mice. Based on the observation of upstream IL-6 signal inhibition by LMT-28, we hypothesized IL-6, IL-6R alpha, or gp130 to be putative molecular targets. We subsequently demonstrated direct interaction of LMT-28 with gp130 and specific reduction of IL-6/IL-6R alpha complex binding to gp130 in the presence of LMT-28, which was measured by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that LMT-28 is a novel synthetic IL-6 inhibitor that functions through direct binding to gp130.</P>

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Impact of interleukin-21 in the pathogenesis of primary Sjogren's syndrome: increased serum levels of interleukin-21 and its expression in the labial salivary glands

        Kang, Kwi Young,Kim, Hyun-Ok,Kwok, Seung-Ki,Ju, Ji Hyeon,Park, Kyung-Su,Sun, Dong-Il,Jhun, Joo Yeon,Oh, Hye Jwa,Park, Sung-Hwan,Kim, Ho-Youn BioMed Central 2011 ARTHRITIS RESEARCH AND THERAPY Vol.13 No.5

        <P><B>Introduction</B></P><P>Interleukin (IL)-21 is a cytokine that controls the functional activity of effector T helper cells and the differentiation of Th17 cells, and promotes B-cell differentiation. To test whether IL-21 participates in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), serum IL-21 level was measured and IL-21 expression in the labial salivary glands (LSG) was examined.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>Serum IL-21 levels in 40 primary SS, 40 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 38 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 20 healthy controls were measured. Serum IL-21 levels of SS patients were assessed for correlations with laboratory data, including anti-nuclear antibody, anti-Ro/La antibodies, globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig) class, and IgG subclass. LSGs from 16 primary SS and 4 controls with sicca symptoms were evaluated for IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) expression by immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy was performed to further characterize the IL-21 positive cells.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Primary SS patients had significantly higher serum IL-21 levels than controls, and these increments correlated positively with levels of IgG, IgG1. Serum IgG1 levels correlated with anti-Ro antibody titers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that lymphocytic foci and the periductal area of the LSGs from SS patients expressed high levels of IL-21 and lower levels of IL-21R, whereas the control LSGs showed minimal expression of both antigens. The more the lymphocyte infiltrated, IL-21expression in LSGs showed a tendency to increase. Confocal microscopic analyses revealed that IL-21 expressing infiltrating lymphocytes in the LSGs of SS patients also expressed CXCR5.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Primary SS is associated with high serum IL-21 levels that correlate positively with serum IgG, especially IgG1, levels. The expression of IL-21 is increased as more lymphocytes infiltrated in LSGs. These observations suggest that IL-21 may play an important role in primary SS pathogenesis.</P>

      • Interleukin 17 (IL-17) Increases the Expression of Toll-like Receptor-2, 4, and 9 by Increasing IL-1β and IL-6 Production in Autoimmune Arthritis

        LEE, JUN-HEE,CHO, MI-LA,KIM, JU-IN,MOON, YOUNG-MEE,OH, HYE-JWA,KIM, GEUN-TAE,RYU, SUN,BAEK, SEUNG-HOON,LEE, SUN-HEE,KIM, HO-YOUN,KIM, SUNG-IL The Journal of Rheumatology 2009 The Journal of rheumatology Vol.36 No.4

        <B>Objective.</B><P>To examine the effect of interleukin 17 (IL-17) on the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, 4, and 9 in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice.</P><B>Methods.</B><P>On Days 28 and 32 after induction of CIA in mice, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group) or IL-17 (IL-17 group) was injected into both knee joints. On Day 35, mice were sacrificed. The severity of knee joint arthritis, synovial inflammation, and bone destruction was measured by a scoring system using macrography and histological analysis. Synovial expression of TLR-2, 4, 9, IL-17, IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6 was determined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Synoviocytes of CIA mice were cultured with IL-17 and with neutralizing antibodies to cytokine, and the expression of TLR-2, 4, 9, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 was determined by real-time RT-PCR.</P><B>Results.</B><P>In CIA mice, knee arthritis scores, synovial inflammation, bone destruction scores, and expression of synovial TLR-2, 4, and 9, IL-17, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the IL-17 and PBS groups than in normal DBA1 mice. These variables were also significantly higher in the IL-17 group than in the PBS group. In CIA synoviocytes, IL-17 increased the expression of TLR-2, 4, and 9, and this effect was significantly alleviated by neutralizing antibodies to IL-17, IL-1ß, and IL-6.</P><B>Conclusion.</B><P>IL-17 aggravates joint inflammation and destruction, and increases the synovial expression of TLR-2, 4, and 9 by increasing IL-1ß and IL-6. These results imply that the IL-17-induced increase in expression of TLR-2, 4, and 9, and IL-1ß and IL-6 production are involved in the IL-17-induced aggravation of arthritis.</P>

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        담배 니코틴에 의한 사람 태아 성상세포에서 종양괴사인자(TNF-α)의 발현 억제작용

        손일홍,이성익,양현덕,한선정,석승한,이재규,김재현,박주영,문형인,이성수,Son, Il-Hong,Lee, Sung-Ik,Yang, Hyun-Duk,Han, Sun-Jung,Suk, Seung-Han,Lee, Jai-Kyoo,Kim, Jae-Hyun,Park, Joo-Young,Moon, Hyung-In,Lee, Sung-Soo 대한화학회 2007 대한화학회지 Vol.51 No.3

        니코틴은 사람 대식세포에서 interleukin 2 (IL-2)와 종양괴사인자 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF-α) 가 생성되는 것을 억제하는데, 이러한 억제작용은 cytokine 유전자 발현 중 전사단계에서 전사인자의 활성을 억제함으로써 일어난다. 이러한 니코틴의 면역반응 억제작용은 아프타성궤양 및 궤양성대장염, 알레르기성폐 포염, 건초열 등에서도 보고되고 있다. 만일 중추신경계에서도 위와 같은 니코틴의 면역억제 작용이 일어난 다면 다발성경화증과 같은 면역반응 매개질환의 치료에 새로운 전기가 마련될 수 있을 것이다. 본 연구에서 는 중추신경계의 여러 면역반응 매개질환의 병태생리에 대한 이해를 넓히고자, 이미 알려진 니코틴의 cytokine 생성억제가 사람 중추신경계의 성상세포에서도 일어남을 확인하고 그 억제기전을 밝히고자 하였다. 이를 위 하여 사람 태아 성상세포에 다양한 농도의 니코틴과 IL-1β를 처리한 다음 TNF-α mRNA의 발현 정도와 NF- κB의 활성을 비교, 분석하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 사람 태아 성상세포를 0.1-20 μg/ml의 니코틴으로 처리해 본 결과 10 μg/ml 이상의 농도에서 세포독성능이 나타나기 시작하였다. 2. 사람 태아 성상세포에 IL- 1β를 처리하면 2시간만에 TNF-α mRNA가 최대로 발현되었으며 그 이후로는 점진적으로 감소하였다. 3. 사 람 태아 성상세포를 1 및 0.1 μg/ml의 니코틴으로 전처리한 후 IL-1β로 자극한 군에서는 IL-1β 단독 처리군에 비해 TNF-α mRNA의 발현이 감소하는 양상을 보였다. 1 μg/ml의 니코틴을 처리한 경우에는 8시간 이후부터 TNF-α mRNA의 발현이 현저하게 감소하여 12시간에 최대로 감소하였다. 또한 0.1 μg/ml의 니코틴을 처리한 군에서는 24시간에 가장 현저하게 감소하였다. 4. 성상세포에 IL-1β로 처리한 군에서는 강력한 NF-κB의 활성 을 확인할 수 있었으며, 니코틴을 전처리하고 IL-1β 자극한 군에서는 NF-B의 활성이 감소하였다. 결론적으로 일정농도 이상의 니코틴은 세포독성효과를 나타내나 적정한 농도와 시간 경과후 니코틴은 사람 태아 성상세포에서 IL-1β에 의해 유도되는 TNF-α의 발현 감소를 유도하며, 이는 NF-κB의 활성을 감소시킴으로써 나타난다고 생각된다. The Tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α), is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and contributes to the degeneration of oligodendrocytes as well as neurons. Nicotine has been found to have immunosuppressive and inflammation-suppressing effects. Astrocytes, the major glial cells in the CNS, are capable of producing TNF-α at both the mRNA and protein levels in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) or TNF-α. Nicotine has been shown to influence glial cell functions. To order to explore the role of astrocytes in the production of TNF-α, astrocytes were pretreated with nicotine and are stimulated with IL-1β to determine their effects on TNF-α production. The results are as follows. Cytotoxic effects of nicotine on human fetal astrocytes were noted above 10 μg/ml of nicotine. The effect of IL-1β on TNF-α mRNA expression in primary cultured human fetal astrocytes was maximal at 2 h after IL- 1β(100 pg/ml) treatment. Human fetal astrocytes were pretreated with 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/ml of nicotine and then stimulated with IL-1β (100 pg/ml) for 2 h. The inhibitory effect of nicotine on expressions of TNF-α mRNA in human fetal astrocytes with pretreated 0.1 μg/ml of nicotine is first noted at 8 hr, and the inhibitory effect is maximal at 12 h. The inhibitory effect at 1 μg/ml of nicotine is inhibited maximal at 24 h. Nicotine at 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/ml concentrations significantly inhibits IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation. Collectively, this study indicates that nicotine might inhibit the expression of TNF-α in activated human fetal astrocytes.

      • KCI등재

        류마티스 관절염 동물 모델에서 활막의 RANKL/OPG mRNA 발현 비율 및 IL-17의 효과

        이준희 ( Jun Hee Lee ),김근태 ( Geun Tae Kim ),류선 ( Sun Ryu ),김주인 ( Ju In Kim ),백승훈 ( Seung Hoon Baek ),김성일 ( Sung Il Kim ) 대한류마티스학회 2006 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.13 No.2

        Objective: To investigate the synovial mRNA expression of receptor activator of NFκB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression ratio, and to evaluate the effects of IL-17 in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. Methods: After induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by type II collagen in DBA1 mice, mice were anesthetized at day 28 and a small aperture in the skin of the knee was performed. Mice, in which arthritis of knee was present, were selected and divided into 3 groups, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), IL-17 (IL-17 group) or anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-17 group) was injected to both knee joint at day 28 and 32. At day 35, mice were sacrificed and synovium of knee joints were isolated. Synovial mRNA expression of RANKL, RANK and OPG was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical stain. Results: Synovial RANKL and RANK mRNA expressions were significantly different among IL-17, PBS, anti-IL-17 and normal group (IL-17>PBS>anti-IL-17>normal group), and synovial OPG mRNA expressions in PBS, IL-17 and anti-IL-17 group were significantly high than those in normal group, however, there was no significant difference among IL-17, PBS and anti-IL-17 group. RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio was significantly different among these groups (IL-17>PBS>anti-IL-17>normal group). In immunohistochemical stain, RANKL, RANK and OPG-positive cells were expressed at synovium. Conclusion: Synovial RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio was enhanced in CIA, and IL-17 induced higher RANKL/OPG ratio in the synovium of CIA, which was blocked by anti-IL-17 antibody. These results suggest that RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio play an important roles on bone destruction, and IL-17 may be actively involved in bone destruction by enhancing RANKL/OPG ratio in CIA model.

      • KCI등재

        폐포 대식세포 및 단핵구가 Interleukin-2 Enhanced Natural Killer 및 LAK Activity에 미치는 영향

        조철호,김병일,김세규,천선희,김형중,장준,안철민,김성규,이원영,윤정구 대한내과학회 1992 대한내과학회지 Vol.42 No.5

        저자들은 폐포 대식세포 및 말초혈액내의 단핵구가 NK 활성도 및 LAK 활성도에 미치는 영향을 보기위하여, 임파구에 여러 가지 농도(0, 100 : 1, 10 : 1, 1 : 1)의 폐포 대식세포와 단핵구를 넣어 IL-2 enhanced NK 활성도 및 LAK 활성도를 비교하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1) 여러 가지 농도의 단해구는 IL-2 enchanced NK 활성도 및 LAK 활성도에 영향을 미치지 않았다. 2) 동량의 페포대식세포(임파구 : 폐포 대식세포= 1 : 1)는 IL-2 enhanced NK 활성도를 의의있게 억제하였으나(p<0.05), 소량의 폐포대식세포(임파구 : 폐포 대식세포-10 : 1과 100 : 1)는 IL-2 enhanced NK 활성도를 억제하지 못하였다. 3) 임팍와 폐포 대식세포의 비율이 1 : 1과 10 : 1에서는 LAK 활성도를 의의있게 억제하였으나, 소량의 폐포대식세포(임파구 : 폐포 대식세포=100 : 1)는 LAK 활성도를 억제하지 못하였다(p<0.05). 이상의 결과로 IL-2 enhanced NK 활성도 및 LAK 활성도는 폐포 대식세포의 양에 비례하여 억제되었으나, 말초혈액내의 단핵구에 의해서는 영향받지 않는 것을 알 수 있었다. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are thought to function as primary effector cells against tumors growing in the lung. Systemic administration of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and IL-2 resulted in partial antitumor response in patients with advanced cancer. LAK activity is influenced by various factors. We studied the effects of AM and blood monocytes from healthy donors on IL-2 enhanced NK activity against K-562 cells and LAK activity against Raji cells utilizing a 4h ^(51)Cr release assay. The following results were obtained: 1) The addition of different doses of human blood monocytes showed no suppression or enhancement of IL-2 enhanced NK and LAK activity. 2) The addition of high dose of AM (Lymphocyte: AM=1:1) significantly suppressed IL-2 enhanced NK activity. Smaller doses of AM (Lymphocyte: AM= 10:1and 100:1) did not suppress IL-2 enhanced NK activity. 3) The addition of high dose of AM (Lymphocyte: AM = 1:1 and 10:1) significantly suppressed LAK activity. The smallest dose of AM (Lymphocyte: AM= 100:1) did not suppress LAK activity. In conclusion, IL-2 enhanced NK and LAK activity were dose-dependently suppressed by human alveolar macrophages. However IL-2 enhanced NK and LAK activity were not suppressed by blood monocytes.

      • KCI등재

        한국인 전반적 급진성 치주염 환자에서 IL-6 유전자 다변성에 관한 연구

        방선정,김일신,김옥수,김영준,정현주,Bang, Sun-Jung,Kim, Il-Shin,Kim, Ok-Su,Kim, Young-Jun,Chung, Hyun-Ju 대한치주과학회 2008 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.38 No.4

        Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of generalized aggressive periodontitis with IL-6 promoter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 52 generalized aggressive periodontitis patients(GAP) and 30 periodontally healthy control subjects, who were systemically healthy non-smokers. Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal swab. The IL-6 promotor SNP at the positions of -597, -572, and -174 were genotyped by amplifying the polymorphic region using polymerase chain reaction(PCR), restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. Result: The genotype distributions for G/G, G/A and A/A genotypes of IL-6 -597 were 30.8%, 40.4%, and 28.8% in the GAP group and 53.3%, 40%, and 6.7% in the control group and were statistically different between 2 groups(p<0.05). Allele 2 frequency of IL-6 -597 were significantly higher in the GAP group than the control group(p<0.01). At the position of IL-6 -572, the distribution for C/C, C/G and G/G genotypes were 23.1%, 55.8% and 21.2% in the GAP group and 20%, 33.3%, and 46.7% in the control group. In female subjects, the genotype distribution were significantly different between 2 groups(p<0.01). In male subjects, allele 2 frequency of IL-6-572 was significantly lower in the GAP group than the control group(p<0.05). The genotype distribution of IL-6 -174 in the GAP group were 96.2%, 3.8% for G/G, G/C genotypes whereas only the G/G genotype was detected in the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, significant associations were found in IL-6 gene promoter(-597, -572) polymorphisms and generalized aggressive periodontitis. Further cohort study will be necessary in larger population.

      • KCI등재

        류마티스 관절염 동물 모델에서 Toll-Like Receptors의 발현

        이준희 ( Jun Hee Lee ),이수봉 ( Soo Bong Lee ),김근태 ( Geun Tae Kim ),류선 ( Sun Ryu ),김주인 ( Ju In Kim ),이선희 ( Sun Hee Lee ),김성일 ( Sung Il Kim ) 대한류마티스학회 2006 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.13 No.2

        Objective: To evaluate the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4 and 9 and investigate the effects of IL-17 on the expression of TLRs in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. Methods: After induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by type II collagen in DBA1 mice, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, PBS group) or IL-17 (IL-17 group) was injected to both knee joint at day 28 and 32. At day 35, mice were sacrificed and knee joints were isolated. Synovial mRNA expressions of TLR-2, 4 and 9 determined by real-time RT-PCR were compared among normal DBA1 mice (normal group), PBS and IL-17 group. Results: Synovial TLR-2, 4, and 9 mRNA expressions of IL-17 and PBS group were significantly higher than normal group, and those of IL-17 group were higher than PBS group. Conclusion: Synovial TLR-2, 4 and 9 expression was enhanced in CIA and up-regulated by local overexpression of IL-17. These results suggest that TLRs play a roles on CIA and IL-17 induced aggravation of arthritis in CIA.

      • KCI등재

        Interleukin-17이 배양된 류마티스관절염 활막세포에서 vascular endothelial growth factor 생성에 미치는 영향

        곽임수 ( Ihm Soo Kwak ),남태수 ( Tae Soo Nam ),나하연 ( Ha Yeon Rha ),서정탁 ( Jeung Tak Suh ),김유선 ( Yoo Sun Kim ),김성일 ( Sung Il Kim ) 대한류마티스학회 2001 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.8 No.3

        Objective: To investigate the the effects of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from cultured rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Methods: Fibroblast-like synovial cells(FLS) were prepared from the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis patients and cultured in the presence of IL-17, IL-17 with or without transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β). VEGF levels were determined in the culture supernatants by sandwitch ELISA. Results: Stimulation of FLS by serial concentration of IL-17, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-1β increased the production of VEGF by 2.1-2.7, 2.2-3.0, 2.0-2.9, 2.3-3.1 fold over the constitutive levels of unstimulated FLS. Stimulation of FLS by IL-17 with TGF-β or TNF-α or IL-1β also increased the production of VEGF according to culture periods by 1.6-1.8, 1.1-1.9, 1.5-1.7 fold over the levels stimulated with TGF-β or TNF-α or IL-1β, respectively. This results indicated that IL-17 increased the effect of TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-1β on FLS, leading synergistic enhancement of VEGF production. Conclusion: IL-17 may be involved in the neovascularization in rheumatoid synovitis by enhancing the production of VEGF.

      • KCI등재

        OMC-2010 추출물이 마우스의 비장세포 cytokine 생성에 미치는 영향

        배기상 ( Gi Sang Bae ),박경철 ( Kyoung Chel Park ),최선복 ( Sun Bok Choi ),조일주 ( Il Joo Jo ),서상완 ( Sang Wan Seo ),김종진 ( Jong Jin Kim ),신용국 ( Yong Kook Shin ),김민선 ( Min Sun Kim ),박규환 ( Kyu Hwan Park ),김현식 ( Hyu 대한본초학회 2012 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.27 No.5

        Objective : This study was performed to estimate the effects of OMC-2010 extract on cytokine production in mouse spleen cells. Methods : Mouse spleen cells were pre-treated with ethanol and water extract of OMC-2010 for 1 h, then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) for 48 h. Then the cells were harvested for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect cytokines. Results : OMC-2010 ethanol extract significantly inhibited the LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-5 mRNA expressions, but not shown such changes in IL-6, IL-4, IL-13. OMC-2010 water extract significantly inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-alpha, and IL-5 mRNA expressions, but not shown such changes in IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-4, IL-13. Conclusions : Theses results could suggest that both ethanol and water OMC-2010 extract could inhibit the TNF-alpha and IL-5 mRNA expression.

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