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      • 이순신 장례과정 연구

        홍순승(Hong, Sun-seung) 순천향대학교 이순신연구소 2010 이순신연구논총 Vol.- No.14

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이순신은 1598년 11월 19일 노량해전에서 전사한 후 남해 및 고금도에 안치 되었다가 고향인 아산으로 운구되어 다음 해 2월 11일 금성산에 안장되었다. 그리고 15년 뒤인 1614년 현재의 어라산 묘소로 이장되어 오늘에 이르고 있다. 본고는 이순신의 장례 과정을 운구 과정, 초장 과정, 이장 과정, 묘소 관리로 나누어 살펴보았다. 이순신의 전사 직후 그의 유해는 관음포와 노량포구를 거쳐 통제영이 있던 고금도로 옮겨졌다. 그 후 역로를 따라 아산으로 운구 되었다. 초장은 전후의 혼란 속에서도 거국적인 애도 분위기 속에 예관, 사제문, 부의 및유가족 은전 등을 포함한 예장으로 행해졌다.이장은 이순신 사후 평가의 진전에 따라 상향된 위상에 맞는 새로운 장의 요구 , 풍수지리설의 유행, 선조의 현양을 통한 가문의 과시, 공신들의 이장 성행 등을 배경으로 파악했다. 현재의 어라산 묘소는 이장시 묘역 확장 및 다양한 석물이 배설되었고. 그 후제3공화국 시절 대대적인 수보가 있었다. 결론적으로 이순신의 초장 및 이장, 묘소 관리는 각각 당대의 역사적 평가를 반영한 가운데 이루어졌다. After Admiral Lee Sun-Sin died in No-Ryang Naval Battle on November 19, 1598 and he was temporarily buried in Nam-Hae Island, Go-Geum Island, whose coffin was carried to be laid to rest in his hometown Asan, and in turn was permanently laid to rest in Mt. Geum-Sung on the next February 11, 1599. After 15 years, in 1614, his corpse was carried to Mt. Eur-Ra in which the burial site remains to the present time. This article divides his funeral proceedings into four parts: funeral procession, the first burial, moving the corpse to a new place, and the management of the graveyard and the tomb. Upon Admiral Lee Sun-Sin s death, the corpse was carried to Go-Geum Island, the headquarters after passing by Gwanumpo and Norangpogu. Afterwards, the corpse was carried to Asan along the post road. Though the chaos prevailed right after the war, the first burial and funeral was involved in the nationwide sorrowful mood, with the dispatched condolence delegations, ancestor worship, memorial, and condolence money and goods, the solemn funeral with majesty, and the special grace for the bereaved. The reason to move the tomb into a new place was that Admiral Lee Sun-Sin won a reputation for his great achievements after his death. Therefore, he had grown in stature, which was conducive to bring honor to his family and the prevalence of meritorious retainer ancestors tombs to a new place, and Chinese geomantic principles. The current graveyard of Admiral Lee Sun-Sin in Eu-Ra Mountain features extension of the area and establishment of stone figures by his descendants. In the third period of the Republic, the graveyard of Lee Sun-Shin was as good as that of the Royal Family s. Admiral Lee Sun-Sin s the first burial and movement of the burial site into a new place and the maintenance of the graveyard, like all the other Royal Family s counterparts, establish an outstanding historical reputation of him at the time.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Original Articles : Comparison of Melanoma Subtypes among Korean Patients by Morphologic Features and Ultraviolet Exposure

        ( Hong Sun Jang ), ( Jee Hung Kim ), ( Kyu Hyun Park ), ( Jae Seok Lee ), ( Jung Min Bae ), ( Byung Ho Oh ), ( Sun Young Rha ), ( Mi Ryung Roh ), ( Kee Yang Chung ) 대한피부과학회 2014 Annals of Dermatology Vol.26 No.4

        Background: Genetic alterations have been identified in melanomas according to different levels of sun exposure. Whereas the conventional morphology-based classification provides a clue for tumor growth and prognosis, the new classification by genetic alterations offers a basis for targeted therapy. Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the biological behavior of melanoma subtypes and compare the two classifications in the Korean population. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients found to have malignant melanoma in Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2012. Age, sex, location of the tumor, histologic subtype, tumor depth, ulceration, lymph node invasion, visceral organ metastasis, and overall survival were evaluated. Results: Of the 206 cases, the most common type was acral melanoma (n=94, 45.6%), followed by nonchronic sun damage-induced melanoma (n=43, 20.9%), and mucosal melanoma (n=40, 19.4%). Twenty-one patients (10.2%) had the chronic sun-damaged type, whereas eight patients (3.9%) had tumors of unknown primary origin. Lentigo maligna melanoma was newly classified as the chronic sun-damaged type, and acral lentiginous melanoma as the acral type. More than half of the superficial spreading melanomas were newly grouped as nonchronic sun-damaged melanomas, whereas nodular melanoma was rather evenly distributed. Conclusion: The distribution of melanomas was largely similar in both the morphology-based and sun exposure-based classifications, and in both classifications, mucosal melanoma had the worst 5-year survival owing to its tumor thickness and advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. (Ann Dermatol 26(4) 485~490, 2014)

      • 이순신 정론Ⅴ

        홍순승(Hong Sun Seung) 순천향대학교 이순신연구소 2012 이순신연구논총 Vol.- No.17

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이순신의 죽음을 둘러싼 논쟁은 학계뿐만 아니라 일반인들 사이에서도 큰 관심거리로 대두되어 왔다. 이는 이순신 사망 직후부터 지금까지 계속되어 왔지만 아직까지 결론이 나지 않고 있다. 이런 가운데 최근 그의 죽음을 상업적 소재로 이용하려는 작가들과 대중 매체가 역사적 사실을 왜곡하고 국민들에게 혼란을 주면서 더욱 미궁에 빠져 드는 느낌이다. 이순신의 죽음에 관해 다양한 설이 나오는 것은 그의 생애가 드라마틱한 요소를 많이 지니고 있기 때문이다. 또한 그가 살았던 시대가 전란의 격동기였고 정치적 갈등과 대립이 극명하게 드러나는 붕당 정치가 본격화된 시점이었기 때문이다. 이러한 상황에서 이순신은 구국의 위업을 달성했음에도 그를 둘러싼 정치적 소용돌이는 그가 죽음을 작위적으로 선택했거나 강요당했을지도 모른다는 의혹에 휘말리게 하였다. 이순신이 전사한 노량 해전은 임진왜란 해전사상 최대의 격전이었다. 그는 아무도 죽음의 예외가 될 수 없었던 치열한 전투 현장에서 용감히 싸우다 장렬하게 전사했다. 그리고 그가 생전에 고백했던 사생관은 전사의 현실성을 높여주었다. 반면, 자살설과 은둔설은 이순신의 죽음이 비정상적이었다는 의혹을 가지고 고난과 죽음의 위기를 겪어야 했던 그의 비극적인 일생을 주관적인 정서를 개입시켜 묘사했다. 이는 무능한 조정에 대한 비판과 당쟁의 부조리를 부각시켜 ‘이순신은 당쟁의 희생물이다.'라는 메시지를 전달하고자 했다. 그러나 이순신 사후 거의 100년이 지난 뒤에 나온 자살설과 최근에 등장한 은둔설은 학설로서의 공인증성은 낮다. 당시의 상황을 목격한 증인이나 실물자료가 빈약하여 검증이 어렵고 단지 추측에 불과하다는 것이 약점이다. 이들은 학설보다는 ‘증명될 수 없는 가설'이나 ‘소설' 로 분류하면 맞을 것이다. 결론적으로 부족한 학술적 증거를 가지고 상상과 추론을 앞세워 자살이니 은둔이니 하는 것은 그의 죽음의 진위를 파악하는데 도움이 되지도 않고 그의 값진 죽음에 모독만 될 것이다. 더 이상 근거 없는 소모적인 논쟁을 중단하고 바람직하게 정리된 입장을 취하는 것이 좋을 것이다. Some disputes over the death of Admiral Yi Sun Sin have been a big issue not only for scholastic fields but among common people. These disputes have been made until now since he died, but the conclusion hasn't proven clearly. Some writers and mass medias misused his tragic death and even distorted the truth and gave confusion to Korean people, and these are making matters worse. His life was full of dramatic factors which cause so many different views and opinions. Also, his time was on the stage of wars against Japan, and it was the time of starting political conflicts and antagonism between the parties in Joseon Dynasty.. Though he beat every Japanese navy through the hard times and difficulties, it was the political turbulence made him be caught in a power struggle and choose or force himself to die. Noryang Sea Battle where Admiral Yi died was the fiercest and greatest among all Imjin Japanese War. He fought bravely and died gloriously on the battlefield, and the death wouldn't be allowed any exceptions, and his funeral was held with a full appreciation from the people. He confessed his opinions on life and death and they made it more likely that he died in action. On the other hand, there has been views that he might commit suicide or seclude himself from the world. This is because some described with suspicion his tragic life full of hardships and risks of death with the eyes of looking at his death was abnormal. They wanted to send some messages - ‘Admiral Yi was a sacrifice of a party strife.' as criticizing the inefficient government and highlighting absurdity of political conflicts. But views on suicide which appeared in 100 years after his death or views on seclusion which has been discussed lately can't be accepted as an official theory. They can't be proven with no witnesses of those times and few realias and can be regared as a guess. They can be treated as a unproven hypothesis or a novel rather than a theory. To sum up, it can't be helpful to recognize the truth of his death to say about suicide or seclusion with little scholastic proof, imagination or inference and it can be an insult over his valuable death. It might be a better idea to stop groundless and wasting disputes and take a righteous and correct views.

      • The Constitutional Basis of Taxation in Germany

        Sun,Ki,,Hong 동국대학교 비교법문화연구소 2016 DONGGUK LAW REVIEW Vol.8 No.-

        Practically everybody must pay taxes. Taxation limits the availability of personal funds that otherwise could be spent in order to pursue individual goals. Taxation constitutes the most frequent encroachment by the state on individual rights. German constitutional law provides that any encroachment by the state in the private sphere constitutes an infringement of basic rights. Taxation must be treated as a violation of basic rights that requires constitutional justification. In past decades, decisions by the German Federal Constitutional Court concerning tax law became a major source for new jurisprudential approaches to the general doctrine of basic rights in Germany. There are many constitutional provisions in Germany relating to taxation, the constitutional justification of taxation, principles of taxation and limitations on taxation. This paper explores and understands the importance of taxation.

      • KCI등재

        Subjecthood Tests in Korean

        Hong,,Ki-Sun 서울대학교 어학연구소 1994 語學硏究 Vol.30 No.1

        This paper attempts to find some behavioral properties of unequivocal instances of grammatical subjects in Korean in order to provide some reliable subjecthood tests. I will examine nine tests which have been claimed as diagnostics for subjecthood in Korean. I will review each test and show that only some of them are reliable. Others will be shown not to bear any direct relationship to subjecthood, although they tend to pick up subjects in many cases for various reasons.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Expression of Hepatocyte Hepatitis B Core Antigen and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as a Marker in the Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

        ( Sun Young Yim ), ( Tae Hyung Kim ), ( Suh Sang Jun ), ( Eun Sun Kim ), ( Bora Keum ), ( Yeon Seok Seo ), ( Hyung Joon Yim ), ( Yoon Tae Jeen ), ( Hoon Jai Chun ), ( Hong Sik Lee ), ( Soon Ho Um ), ( Chang Duck) 대한간학회 2017 Gut and Liver Vol.11 No.3

        Background/Aims: We aimed to clarify the association of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)/hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) with the disease status and treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: We investigated 171 biopsy-proven entecavir-treated CHB patients (109 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive, 62 HBeAg-negative). HBcAg expression was positive when ≥10% of hepatocytes stained, and classified into nuclear, mixed, and cytoplasmic patterns. HBsAg expressions were intracytoplasmic (diffuse, globular, and submembranous) and membranous. The histologic activity index (HAI) and fibrosis stage followed Ishak system. Results: In HBeAg-positive patients, older age, increased HAI score, advanced fibrosis, and reduced viral load were observed when HBcAg expression shifted from nucleus to cytoplasm in HBcAg-positive patients, and HBsAg expression from non-submembranous to submembranous in HBcAg-negative patients (all, p<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients, only intracytoplasmic HBsAg expression patterns had clinical relevance with decreased ALT levels and viremia. In HBeAg-positive patients without favorable predictors of virologic response, negative HBcAg and membranous HBsAg expression predicted greater virologic response (both, p<0.05). The probability of HBeAg seroclearance was higher in patients with increased HAI or lacking HBcAg expression (both, p<0.05). Higher serum HBsAg levels and hepatocyte HBcAg positivity were associated with reduced serum HBsAg during first and post-first year treatment, respectively (both, p<0.05). Conclusions: Hepatocyte HBcAg/HBsAg expression is a good marker for disease status and predicting treatment response. (Gut Liver 2017;11:417-425)

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Mechanism of Intestinal Transport of an Organic Cation, Tributylmethylammonium in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

        Hong,Soon-Sun,Moon,Sang-Cherl,Shim,Chang-Koo The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2006 Archives of Pharmacal Research Vol.29 No.4

        Many quaternary ammonium salts are incompletely absorbed after their oral administration and may also be actively secreted into the intestine. However, the underlying mechanism(s) that control the transport of these cations across the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, the mechanism of absorption of quaternary ammonium salts was investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers, a human colon carcinoma cell line. Tributylmethylammonium (TBuMA) was used as a model quaternary ammonium salts. When TBuMA was administrated at a dose of 13.3 imole/kg via iv and oral routes, the AUC values were $783.7{\pm}43.6\;and\;249.1{\pm}28.0{\mu}mole\;min/L$ for iv and oral administration, indicating a lower oral bioavailability of TBuMA $(35.6\%)$. The apparent permeability across Caco-2 monolayers from the basal to the apical side was 1.3 times (p<0.05) greater than that from the apical to the basal side, indicating a net secretion of TBuMA in the intestine. This secretion appeared to be responsible for the low oral bioavailability of the compound, probably mediated by p-gp (p-glycoprotein) located in the apical membrane. In addition, the uptake of TBuMA by the apical membrane showed a $Na^+$ dependency. Thus, TBuMA appears to absorbed via a $Na^+$ dependent carrier and is then secreted via p-gp related carriers.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        An Experimental Study on Lift Force Generation Resulting from Spanwise Flow in Flapping Wings

        Hong,,Young-Sun The Korean Society for Aeronautical and Space Scie 2006 International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sc Vol.7 No.2

        Using a combination of force transducer measurement to quantify net lift force, high frame rate camera to quantify and subtract inertial contributions, and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) to calculate aerodynamic contributions in the spanwise plane, the contribution of spanwise flow to the generation of lift force in wings undergoing a pure flapping motion in hover is shown as a function of flapping angle throughout the flapping cycle. These experiments were repeated at various flapping frequencies and for various wing planform sizes for flat plate and span wise cambered wings. Despite the previous identification of the importance of span wise fluid structures in the generation of lift force in flapping wings throughout the existing body of literature, the direct contribution of spanwise flow to lift force generated has not previously been quantified. Therefore, in the same manner as commonly applied to investigate the chordwise lift distribution across an airfoil in flapping wings, spanwise flow due to bulk flow and rotational fluid dynamic mechanisms will be investigated to validate the existence of a direct component of the lift force originating from the flapping motion in the spanwise plane instead.

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