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Sun glint correction methods of hyperspectral data that have been developed so far have not considered the various situations and are often adequate for only certain conditions. Also there is an inaccurate assumption that the signal in NIR wavelength is zero. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the NIR spectral properties of sun glint effect in coastal waters. For the analysis, CASI-1500 airborne hyperspectral data, bathymetry data and in-situ data obtained at coastal area near Sin-Cheon, Jeju Island, South Korea were used. The spectral characteristics of radiance and reflectance at the five NIR wavelengths (744 nm, 758 nm, 772 nm, 786 nm, and 801 nm) are analyzed by using various statistics, spatial and spectral variation of sun-glinted area under conditions of the bottom types of benthos, barren rocks and sand with similar water depth. Through the quantitative analysis, we found that the relation of water depth or bottom type with sun glint is relatively less which is a similar result with the previous studies. However the sun glint are distributed similarly with the patterns of the direction of wave propagation. It is confirmed that the areas with changed direction of wave propagation were not affected by the sun glint. The spatial and spectral variations of radiance and reflectance are mainly caused by the effect of sun glint and waves. The radiance or reflectance of more sun-glinted areas are increased approximately 1.5 times and the standard deviations are also increased three times compared to the less sun glinted areas. Through this study, the further studies of sun glint correction method in coastal water using the patterns of wave propagation and diffraction will be placed.
Background: Although sunscreen is used as a primary strategy to prevent sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer, only a few people regularly use sunscreen. Objectives: To investigate the awareness of effects of sunlight, the extent of sun exposure, and the behaviors about sunscreen uses in Korean. Methods: A questionnaire was administered 255 adult patients visited Dermatology Department at Seoul National University Boramae Hospital. It included questions about the awareness of benefit or harm of sunlight, perceived and actual extent of sun exposure, the use of sun-protective methods including sunscreen. Results: Sun exposure was chosen as the major cause of dyschromia (61.2%), skin cancer (62.8%) and wrinkle (28.6%). Respondents were likely to underestimate the extent of sun exposure. On average, quite a few respondents stated that they were exposed to sunlight more than one hour per day (23.1% on weekdays, 53.4% on weekends). But, only 8.7% thought that their sun exposures were problematic and 62.2% of respondents considered moderate sunlight exposure good for health. People`s sun protective behaviors were inadequate: only 30.8% used sunscreen regularly; 18.4% have never used sunscreen. SPF was the most important factor choosing sunscreen and 86.0% used sunscreen labeled SPF over 30. In contrast, only 40.3% used PA+++ sunscreen. Conclusion: Despite a fairly good knowledge about harmful effects of sunlight, people underestimated the risks of their sun exposure and behaviors were suboptimal.
Background: Although sunscreen is used as a primary strategy for the prevention of sunburn, photoaging, and skincancer, few people regularly use sunscreen. Objective: To investigate awareness regarding the effects of sunlight, the extent of sun exposure, and sunscreen usebehaviors in Korean subjects. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 467 adult patients who visited the Dermatology Department at SeoulNational University Boramae Hospital. The questionnaire covered demographic characteristics, causes of wrinkles,sunspots, and skin cancer, awareness of the harmful effects of sun exposure, perceived and actual extent of sunexposure, and the use of sun-protective methods including sunscreen. Results: Sun exposure was selected as the major cause of age spots (60.6%), skin cancer (60.9%), and wrinkles(25.9%). Respondents were likely to underestimate the extent of sun exposure. On average, quite a few respondentsstated that they were exposed to sunlight for more than one hour per day (22.7% on weekdays, 52.4% onweekends). However, only 9.4% of respondents thought that their sun exposure was problematic and 62.7% ofrespondents considered moderate sunlight exposure healthy. Respondents`` sun-protective behaviors were inadequate:only 29.8% used sunscreen regularly, and 16.5% have never used sunscreen. SPF was the most important factor inchoosing sunscreen, and 83.3% used a sunscreen with a labeled SPF over 30. By contrast, only 34.6% ofrespondents used PA+++ sunscreen. Conclusion: Despite fairly good knowledge regarding the harmful effects of sunlight, subjects underestimated therisks of their sun exposure and sun-protective behaviors were suboptimal. Education on the risk of UV exposure andeffects of sunscreen is still needed. (Korean J Dermatol 2015;53(1):16∼22)
This paper aims to investigate how sun wenism became the foremost political doctrine of today's China, wich a major focus upon the developmental processes of historical events. Sun Wen walked the course of anti-imperialism, anti-Ch'ing revolutionist to save China from the incompetent Ch'ing dynasty and the economic exploitation of western powers. Sun Wen initiated his unique Three People's Principles, which acted not only as central ideas behind a series of revolutionary movements in his time but still are providing with a core political ideology for China today. Under this perspective, this paper is composed of following frameworks. In Chapter Two, Sun's activities are summerized centering aroung the Tung meng Hui which was established before the shinhai revolution. The organization functioned as a unifying center for the various revolutionary forces that were widely diversified during Sun's esile in Japan. It was during this time that Sun Wenism came into being, acting both as a central idea for the anti-Ch'ing revolution and as an underlying ideology of the foundation of the Republic of China. Chater three illustrates the development of the shinhai Revolution alng with the then Sun Wen's diplomatic activities. It also clarifies how Sun's revolutionary spirit shows up throughthe progress of the formation of the Republic of China. wian s'kai's anti-revolutionary government which drove the revolution into a failure, and the process of the formation of the Kuomintang are also explained in detail. Finally, The author tried to point out some limitations of Sun's nationalism and his revolutionary movements and to explain how they influenced the revolutionitself and caused subsequent political events in chiness history. Sun Wen's nationalism should be understood not as a mere racial emotionalism but as a revelation of modern democracy in that he advocated the people's rights objecting to th imperial despotism. He longed for a democratic government in China and his efforts contributed to the birth of the first republican government in Asia, wherein lies the historical singnificance.
Huijhou Rebellion was attempted in Japan after Sun Yat-Sen's failure in the First Kwangju Rebellion in 1895 and its progress had a close relationship with Japanese continental policy. In August 1897, Sun Yat-Sen arrived in Japan, putting an end to his 2 years' exile in Europe and since that time on he exerted all his energy to the expansion of Anti-Ching revolutionary organizaiton. As a result, he succeded in binding together several parties as a unified body of Anti-Ching revolutionary power, despite the failure in cooperation with Baohuang pai which had basically different ideas. By the end of 1899 Hsing Han Hui was established and Sun Yat-Sen was elected as its president in general. Meanwhile he got involved in the Philippine independence movement of 1899 and as the movement ended in failure, the weapon of the Philippine independence force was passed on to Sun Yat-Sen's disposal. Also he received Japanese promise to aid in the Huijhou Rebelion in exchange for Macao problem which had long been the target of Japanese government's political design for continental invasion. However, with the advent of new I-to Cabinet in 1900 October 19th, and the consequent change in Japanese diplomatic policy, the Rebellion was proved to be a total failure. By carefully observing the process of the Huijhou Rebellion, following several ideas can be summed up. First, since the rebellion was designed in cooperation with the conflicting Japanese aggressive policy, it was rather natural that the design was frustrated by the Japanese policy variables. Second, Sun Yat-Sen's policitcal ideas thoroughly directed to the western democratic model. Third, his nationalism in this phase was limited only to Anti-Ching nationalism. However Sun Yat-sen's secret involvement in Philippine independence movement in this period proved to be an expression of nationalism, anti-imperialistic in its nature and common among the suppressed nations. Furthermore, a severe oppression imposed by both Britain and Japan upon Sun Yat-sen and his Anti-Ching nationalistic followers had a great impact upon the later development of sun Yat-sen's nationalism.
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이순신은 1598년 11월 19일 노량해전에서 전사한 후 남해 및 고금도에 안치 되었다가 고향인 아산으로 운구되어 다음 해 2월 11일 금성산에 안장되었다. 그리고 15년 뒤인 1614년 현재의 어라산 묘소로 이장되어 오늘에 이르고 있다. 본고는 이순신의 장례 과정을 운구 과정, 초장 과정, 이장 과정, 묘소 관리로 나누어 살펴보았다. 이순신의 전사 직후 그의 유해는 관음포와 노량포구를 거쳐 통제영이 있던 고금도로 옮겨졌다. 그 후 역로를 따라 아산으로 운구 되었다. 초장은 전후의 혼란 속에서도 거국적인 애도 분위기 속에 예관, 사제문, 부의 및유가족 은전 등을 포함한 예장으로 행해졌다.이장은 이순신 사후 평가의 진전에 따라 상향된 위상에 맞는 새로운 장의 요구 , 풍수지리설의 유행, 선조의 현양을 통한 가문의 과시, 공신들의 이장 성행 등을 배경으로 파악했다. 현재의 어라산 묘소는 이장시 묘역 확장 및 다양한 석물이 배설되었고. 그 후제3공화국 시절 대대적인 수보가 있었다. 결론적으로 이순신의 초장 및 이장, 묘소 관리는 각각 당대의 역사적 평가를 반영한 가운데 이루어졌다. After Admiral Lee Sun-Sin died in No-Ryang Naval Battle on November 19, 1598 and he was temporarily buried in Nam-Hae Island, Go-Geum Island, whose coffin was carried to be laid to rest in his hometown Asan, and in turn was permanently laid to rest in Mt. Geum-Sung on the next February 11, 1599. After 15 years, in 1614, his corpse was carried to Mt. Eur-Ra in which the burial site remains to the present time. This article divides his funeral proceedings into four parts: funeral procession, the first burial, moving the corpse to a new place, and the management of the graveyard and the tomb. Upon Admiral Lee Sun-Sin s death, the corpse was carried to Go-Geum Island, the headquarters after passing by Gwanumpo and Norangpogu. Afterwards, the corpse was carried to Asan along the post road. Though the chaos prevailed right after the war, the first burial and funeral was involved in the nationwide sorrowful mood, with the dispatched condolence delegations, ancestor worship, memorial, and condolence money and goods, the solemn funeral with majesty, and the special grace for the bereaved. The reason to move the tomb into a new place was that Admiral Lee Sun-Sin won a reputation for his great achievements after his death. Therefore, he had grown in stature, which was conducive to bring honor to his family and the prevalence of meritorious retainer ancestors tombs to a new place, and Chinese geomantic principles. The current graveyard of Admiral Lee Sun-Sin in Eu-Ra Mountain features extension of the area and establishment of stone figures by his descendants. In the third period of the Republic, the graveyard of Lee Sun-Shin was as good as that of the Royal Family s. Admiral Lee Sun-Sin s the first burial and movement of the burial site into a new place and the maintenance of the graveyard, like all the other Royal Family s counterparts, establish an outstanding historical reputation of him at the time.
Background: Although deleterious effects of sunlight have been increased recently, the surveillance of the attitudes toward sun-exposure and the behavioral aspect of using sunscreens in Koreans has hot been carried out. Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the attitude toward the harmfulness of sun-exposure and behaviors of using sunscreens in Korea. Method: Five hundred and fifty-two subjects were surveyed to assess the attitude toward sun-exposure, as well as the subjects knowledge about, and the use of sunscreens. Underlying data including demographic data, skin colors, skin types, occupation, and sun-exposure, were obtained. Results: Fifty-four percent of subjects believed that sun-exposure is bad for their skins, but, on the contrary, 12.5% believed it to be beneficial. Fifty-two percent of subjects used sunscreens. Almost all subjects(93.8%) knew why to use sunscreens but 62.7% of subjects did not know the meaning of sun protective factors(SPF). Women, indoor workers, subjects less than 40 years old, with less sun-exposed, fair colored skin, or with skin type I, II, III tended to know the deleterious effects of sunlight and the meaning of SPF and used more sunscreen. Conclusion: High risk population-men, outdoor workers, subjects oider than 40 years old, with more sun-exposed, dark colored skin, or skin type VI, V could be targeted with campaigns that promote attitudinal and behavioral changes.
Sun Wen's nationalism witnessed a grand Switchover from the old San Min Chu I revolution to the brand new stage, triggered by the May 4th Revolution in 1919, after the development extending over a guarter of century from the late 19th century through the early 20th. It came in evidence at length in November 1923, as the advocation of Anti-imperialism and Anti-militarists ideology and the reshuffling of Kuomintang which followed. It was also characterized by a declaration of pro-communism and the acceptance of the policy for laborers and farmers, which provided the momentum and the kuomintang to take off from a local construction centering around the kwantung province supported by Huitang and foreign immigrants toward a nation-wide and mass organization. This study aimed to clarify the fundamental factors underlying this historical tunover and proceeded the discussions in following order; First, the domestic situation of china since after the second revolution until sunk switchover of nationalism was examined. Second, the relations between Sun Wen and the then Sino-Politics of western powers were analized of which the details include: ① the relation between Sun Wen and Western powers, ② the relation between Sun Wen and Japan. ③ the relation between Sun Wen and Comintern. Third, the determinants and nature of the reorganization of the Kuomintang and the evolution of nationalism thereafter were investigated. Through the aforementioned discussions, the author concluded that the motive for the switch-over of the Sun Wen's nationalism could be summed up as follows: The reflection on the successive frustrations during the so-called old San Min Chu I period, the lessons from the subsequent new cultural movement and the May 4th movement, the deepened understanding of the October Revolution in Russia and the rise of the Chinese Communist Party were considered to have had major influences. Specifically, the denouncement from the part of the imperialistic countries including Japan, and the rapprochement policy toward Sun of Comintern on the other side, which was the result of Lenin's oriental policy acted as a decisive factor.
( Hong Sun Jang ),( Jee Hung Kim ),( Kyu Hyun Park ),( Jae Seok Lee ),( Jung Min Bae ),( Byung Ho Oh ),( Sun Young Rha ),( Mi Ryung Roh ),( Kee Yang Chung ) 대한피부과학회 2014 Annals of Dermatology Vol.26 No.4
Background: Genetic alterations have been identified in melanomas according to different levels of sun exposure. Whereas the conventional morphology-based classification provides a clue for tumor growth and prognosis, the new classification by genetic alterations offers a basis for targeted therapy. Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the biological behavior of melanoma subtypes and compare the two classifications in the Korean population. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients found to have malignant melanoma in Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2012. Age, sex, location of the tumor, histologic subtype, tumor depth, ulceration, lymph node invasion, visceral organ metastasis, and overall survival were evaluated. Results: Of the 206 cases, the most common type was acral melanoma (n=94, 45.6%), followed by nonchronic sun damage-induced melanoma (n=43, 20.9%), and mucosal melanoma (n=40, 19.4%). Twenty-one patients (10.2%) had the chronic sun-damaged type, whereas eight patients (3.9%) had tumors of unknown primary origin. Lentigo maligna melanoma was newly classified as the chronic sun-damaged type, and acral lentiginous melanoma as the acral type. More than half of the superficial spreading melanomas were newly grouped as nonchronic sun-damaged melanomas, whereas nodular melanoma was rather evenly distributed. Conclusion: The distribution of melanomas was largely similar in both the morphology-based and sun exposure-based classifications, and in both classifications, mucosal melanoma had the worst 5-year survival owing to its tumor thickness and advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. (Ann Dermatol 26(4) 485~490, 2014)
This paper aims to find out Sun Wen's political thoughts with special references to the formation of the early stages and its development. Sun Wen's nationalism was developed against the inefficiency and corruption of the conquering Ching dynasty from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, and the wretchedness of China which had been deprived of her political, economic and territorial rights by the gunboat diplomacy of the Western powers. Sun Wen born in Kuang Doong where he was easily touched by anti-Ching nationalism and reformism, was already infected by the revolutionary ideas of anti-Ching nationalism in his early days. Living and being educated in Western cultural area as a boy, he had fully realized the back wardness of his own country and deepened his political senses. He became a Christian and adhered to the Western cultures and especially he was charmed by American democracy. In 1885, at the age of 19, he fixed his aim of anti-Ching revolution, and in 1886 entered a modern Western medical school, and in 1892, became doctor. Sun Wen carefully prepared the ground for an anti-Ching revolution during the 5 years in the medical school and the days as a practitioner. He finally established the Hsing Choong Hui, the predecessor of the Kuomintang, and he gave rise to the First Kuangju Rebellion which was the first armed strife against the Ching Dynasty. Since this rebellion proved a complete failure, he fled from his own country as a revolutionist in exile. Living in exile, he rose that famous London Event, and during the following 2 years' stay in London, the Three People's Principles were built up. With the above mentioned background, discussions in this study can be summarized as follows: First, Sun Wen, who yielded the seat of honor which would be the head of the future Government, was a model of true leader. Secondly, he had many admirable qualifications to be a gifted leader; magnanimity, broad perspective, calmness and courage. He was also a great reader who constantly pursued self-development, which manifests that he was endowed with talents to be a good leader who could lead a right way of revolution. Finally, Sun Wen's political thoughts can be condensed to the Three People's Principles along with the Five Rights Constitution, which was based upon Western thought of civil rights. The Sun Wenism consists of the principles of nationalism, of people's right, and of people's welfare, which, after all, refers to the national democracy, the political democracy and the social democracy. His nationalism in this period was confined only to anti-Ching nationalism and his social democracy, the theory of the people's welfare was characterized as social reformism.