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Sul, Young-Taeg,Kang, Byung-Soo,Johansson, Carina,Um, Heung-Sik,Park, Chan-Jin,Albrektsson, Tomas Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company 2009 Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Vol.a89 No.4
<P>The present study investigated the effects of surface chemistry and topography on the strength and rate of osseointegration of titanium implants in bone. Three groups of implants were compared: (1) machine-turned implants (turned implants), (2) machine-turned and aluminum oxide-blasted implants (blasted implants), and (3) implants that were machine-turned, aluminum oxide-blasted, and processed with the micro-arc oxidation method (Mg implants). Three and six weeks after implant insertion in rabbit tibiae, the implant osseointegration strength and rate were evaluated. Surface chemistry revealed characteristic differences of nine at.% Mg for Mg implants and 11 at.% Al for blasted implants. In terms of surface roughness, there was no difference between Mg implants and blasted implants in developed surface ratio (Sdr; p = 0.69) or summit density (Sds; p = 0.96), but Mg implants had a significantly lower arithmetic average height deviation (Sa) value than blasted implants (p = 0.007). At both 3 and 6 weeks, Mg implants demonstrated significantly higher osseointegration strength compared with turned (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) and blasted (p = 0.0001, p = 0.035) implants, whereas blasted implants showed significantly higher osseointegration than turned implants at 6 weeks (p = 0.02) but not at 3 weeks (p = 0.199). The present results not only support the hypothesis that biochemical bonding facilitates rapid and strong integration of implants in bone, but also provide evidence for biochemical bonding theory previously proposed by Sul. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2009</P>
반도체 제조장비는 매우 높은 정밀도와 신뢰성이 요구되는 초정밀 시스템으로서 개발이 완료되어 실제 Product line 에 투입되기까지는 오랜 시간 동안 엄격한 시험 평가를 통하여 신뢰성이 입증되어야 한다. 그러나 국내 중소 업계의 경우 고가 시험평가 설비를 보유하고 있지 않아 연구 개발에 많은 어려움을 겪고 있다. 이에 본 과제는 반도체 제조장비 국산화 연구 센터의 국내에서 개발된 반도체 제조장비, 부품/Module 등에 대한 신뢰성을 입증할 수 있는 시험 평가원 구축을 위한 기반 시설 구축과 방향 등에 대한 연구이다
The purpose of this study is to measure financial competency of students in Chung-buk national university. The financial competency included financial attitude, financial knowledge, and financial skills. The major findings are as follows: First, as the financial management competency of university students, their attitude towards financial management was 75 points, knowledge in financial management was 68.5 points, and financial management skill was 59.9 points. Second, male students showed higher scores than female students in all areas. Third, students in the fields of medicine, education, and laws showed higher levels of financial management knowledge yet their financial management skill was low. Forth, students who receive allowances from parents showed high points of attitude towards financial management yet their financial management skill was low. Those who receive allowances from people that are not parents showed lower points in the attitude towards financial management or the knowledge than those who do not receive allowances. Fifth, students who spend money they earned showed higher points in every area than other students’ points. Finally students who received financial education showed similar or lowered points in financial management attitude and financial management knowledge with students who did not receive the financial education. However, the level of their financial management function was higher. Students who have saving accounts, periodicaldeposits, fixed deposits, a check card, or debit card showed higher levels of financial management knowledge and function that those who do not have the above items.
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphologic features of posterior edentulous mandible for Korean patients using cross-sectional CT images. Materials and Methods : Computed tomographic cross-sectional views taken in 2004 and 2005 at Seoul National University Dental Hospital were analyzed by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Four indices were measured to meet the purpose of this study: 1) the horizontal distance between the alveolar crest and mandibular canal (Type), 2) the angle of the mandibular long axis (Angle), 3) the bucco-lingual location of mandibular canal, and 4) the depth of the submandibular fossa. The averages and standard deviations of the measurements were compared according to the location (the first and second molar area) and sex of the patients. Results : Statistically significant difference was found in Type, Angle, and submandibular fossa depth between the first and second molar area (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between men and women in any of the measured indices. Most of the mandibular canals were located in lingual side of posterior mandible. Conclusion : More care should be taken when an implant is installed on the mandibular second molar area.
Recently the increasing tendency of adolescents toward the problem of adolescents sexual crime, veneral disease, abortion and unwed mothers has been observed and regarded as a social problems which requires urgent and concrete solutions. This survery was attempted for the purpose of presenting some data helpful for planning the fundamentals of a sex education plan. Thus, the general aims of this survey are to ; 1, Find out high school male students' knowledge, attitude and experience in sex. 2. Find out the need for high school male students' sex education. 238 purposely selected students were in their junior year in high school in B city. The group survey method was used for colleetion of data with a questionnaire which was developed espeeially for this survey. Data was collected for 4 days from Oct. 13th to Oct. 16th in 1980. Frequency, percentage and mean, standard deviation for age are used for statistical analysis. Results of this survey can be summarized as follows. 1. Knowledge. High school male students are lacking in the knowledge of veneral disease, purity, ovulation time, contraception. pregnancy, fertilization and reproductive physiology. 2. Attitude More students tend to think pre-marital sexual experience is acceptable if love is present. Approximately 50% of the students permit pre-marital pregnancy. 3. Experience. 29.8% of the students had sexual experience. Students who made someone become pregnant was 3.4% and 2.9% experienced abortion with their partners. Students who experienced veneral disease are 3.8% and the percentage of the students who had sexual intercourse with prostitutes was 12.6%. 16.0% of the students had experienced homosexuality. 4. Needs of sex education for high school students. Based on the survey results, contents of sex education necessary for high school students are ;Knowledge of veneral disease , purity, ovulation time, contraception, pregnancy, reproductive physiology, abortion, the control method of sexual desire, the value and conception of purity the right attitude toward pre-marital sexual experience, masturbation, hygienic sexual activities and counselling. In conclusion, sex education is needed and must be taught as a new subjest which contains all aspects sex education Sex education must be taught as a regular course in the curriculum of all korean high schools of all levels.
The aim of this paper is to describe the special features of marriage and the family depicted by the 18th century major novelists in their works, With the rise of protestantism and capitalism a new conception of marriage (companionship based on mutual love) was brought early to England. However, in practice for most marriages in the 18th century England the main consideration was still the property. Thus, property marriage was one of the prevalent themes in the novels of the period. The conflicts between two concepts of marriage, one based on romantic love and the other based on the property interests, were also invariably dealt with in almost every major novel. In developing the marriage theme, most writers employed the family as a microcosm of the world. Thus, the family structure of the period was reflected in their works. Usually, the father was the absolute head of the family and a woman's property became her husband's on marriage. Daughters were considered as the property of their parents. Under these circumstances, in the novels of the period we witness property marriage, hypergamy, mock marriage, bigamy and adultery, and monogamy. These were portrayed faithfully by writers of the period whose works are believed to be reflections of their society.
It was the precedence pivot of their protection island in an object in favorite customer (relational customer) that the loyalty degree for an indoor driving range was high and even the precedence pivot examined, Relations between customers and the influence in a study. If it tries to summarize analysis of a study it seems to be next. First, Quality of service, In other words result of service, Mutual relations with service provider and a consumer, And it was confirmed by having influence that all the physical environment paid attention to customer satisfaction. In addition, I was able to confirm that general satisfaction for service had an affirmative influence on name value for service provider. The second, However, I appeared in what I did not have influence that the result and the environment of service paid attention to switch expense in quality of service on and, But I appeared by having influence that only mutual relations characteristics among service provider and a consumer paid attention to switch expense. The third, General satisfaction for service and name value for service provider, And I appeared by having influence that the switch expense that it was late for paid attention to recycling intention for specification service. The fourth, Satisfaction for service, Large Korea name value among service provider, And I appeared by having influence that the recycling intention paid attention to learning through the grapevine.
Sudden increase of the student population and knowledge have brought to use audiovisual media as a educational method which delivery a lot of knowledge rapidly. Media use make attain to the educational goal, the learner take part in learning voluntarily and the learner themself gain the function that discover and understand the problems. Most of the educational curriculums are mentioned by media instructions. If the correct media use promptly and effectively, it will agree with nursing goals, philosophies and conceptual frameworks which teachers desire. The audiovisual media is seen from mass communication and direct learning viewpoint. If teachers use audiovisual media to nursing clinical practice, it will be much helpful to patient care in the clinic. When teachers use audiovisual media as a auxiliary instrument of the nursing instruction,the goal of audiovisual media must agree with total nursing educational curriculum. The audiovisual media play an important role on voluntary and active learning program viewpoint. Nursing teachers must know how to use audiovisual media effectively, utilize prompt time and must study hard to manage and treat audiovisual teaching materials correctly. Nowadays, scales of audiovisual education are developing and expanding gradually on the approach of educational tehchnology viewpoint. The above studies suggest that ; 1. The establishment of facilities in connection with research and development of audiovisual program relate to nursing. 2. The establishment of audiovisual library on a national scale. 3. Multimedia approach on the instruction technology viewpoint.
Purpose : The aim of present study is to estimate the relationship among reference lines used for taking the extraoral radiography and panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods : Lateral cephalographs of 40 adults, aged 22 to 30 years were taken. Angles between reference lines (Frankfort line, canthomeatal line, infraorbitomeatal line, and occlusal plane) were measured. Results : Angles between Frankfort line and canthomeatal line, Frankfort line and infraorbitomeatal line, Frankfort line and occlusal plane, canthomeatal line and infraorbitomeatal line, canthomeatal line and occlusal plane, and infraorbitomeatal line and occlusal plane were 16.1°(±2.2), 5.8°(±2.4), 8.7°(±3.5), 10.3°(±1.3), 24.8°(±4.0), and 14.5°(±4.4), respectively. Conclusion : Angle between frankfort and canthomeatal line is very different with commonly known angle. Frankfort horizontal reference lines used for panoramic radiography need an exact definition and more accurate standard is needed for the taking of panoramic radiograph (Korean J Oral Maxillofac Radiol 2001; 31 : 205-7)