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<P>We have described a new and promising strategy for the fabrication of composite and porous photonic crystal microparticles that combines the self-assembly of colloidal particles with photolithography techniques. We fabricated silica/SU-8 composite microparticles with photonic bandgaps <I>via</I> four steps: (1) deposition of the silica colloidal crystals on the photoresist, (2) embedding of the colloidal crystals in the photoresist, (3) UV exposure through a photomask and subsequent development, and (4) release of the microparticles from the substrate. Embedding was performed above the glass transition temperature (<I>T</I><SUB>g</SUB>) of uncrosslinked SU-8. At such temperatures, capillary forces on the silica particles facilitate the migration of colloidal crystals in the SU-8 matrix. Particle migration ceased when the top colloidal crystal layer was trapped at the interface between air and SU-8. In addition, we also prepared porous microparticles with an inverse opaline structure by dissolving the embedded silica particles from the composite structures. The porous microparticles showed enhanced reflectivity at the bandgap position due to the large refractive index contrast. The bandgap position of the microparticles was controlled by the size of the silica particles, which determined the lattice constant. Bilayered composite and porous microparticles with two distinct photonic bandgaps were also prepared by sequential deposition of colloidal crystals composed of two differently sized silica particles.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>A new and promising fabrication strategy of photonic crystal microparticles was demonstrated by combining colloidal self-assembly with photolithography. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c0cp00134a'> </P>
아스피린과 아스피린의 deacetylated form인 sodium salicylate (NaSal)은 대장암, 폐암 및 유방암을 비롯한 다양한 암의 항암제 활성을 나타내는 것으로 잘 알려져 있다. A549 폐암 세포주에 저농도의 NaSal과 genistein을 함께 복합 처리시 상승작용에 의해 세포사멸을 증가시켜서 NaSal에 의한 암억제 효과를 증대시킴을 이미 밝힌 바 있다. 본 연구에서는 A549가 아닌 다른 암세포주와 in vitro solid tumor model인 multicellular spheroids (MTS)을 이용하여 NaSal과 genistein 복합처리 효과를 조사하였다. NaSal/genistein 복합 처리시 A549 세포주와 마찬가지로 HCT116 세포주에서도 세포사멸이 유도되었지만, MCF-7 세포주에서는 유도되지 않았다. 흥미롭게도, MCF-7 세포주는 MTS로 배양되는 동안 NaSal/genistein 복합 처리에 의해 세포 죽음을 나타내었다. 세포 죽음의 형태는 MCF-7 MTS의 발달 단계에 따라 세포사멸 또는 세포괴사로 나타났다. MCF-7 MTS에서의 세포사멸은 불완전한 양상을 보였다. 즉 염색체가 응축되고 쪼개지지만, 핵막은 여전히 관찰되었다. 이상의 연구 결과 NaSal/genistein 복합처리는 MCF-7 MTS 배양 system에서 불완전한 세포사멸과 세포괴사를 일으킴을 알 수 있었다. Aspirin and its deacetylated form, sodium salicylate (NaSal), have been shown to exert chemopreventive activities against many human cancers including those of the colon, lung, and breast. Previously, we showed that combined treatment of NaSal and genistein synergistically induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, indicating that these two natural chemicals could be used in combination for cancer therapy. In this study, we examined effects of NaSal/genistein combined treatment on other cancer cells and in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) and in an in vitro solid tumor model. We found that the combined treatment induces apoptosis in the HCT116 cells and the A549 cells, but not in the MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, the MCF-7 cells responded to the NaSal/genistein combined treatment by undergoing cell death when they were cultivated as MTS. The combined treatment induced apoptosis at an earlier stage in the MCF-7 MTS culture. However, when the MCF-7 MTS was cultivated for a longer period, it induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. We further found that the apoptotic pattern observed in MCF-7 MTS was incomplete: the chromatins were condensed and fragmented, but the nuclear membrane was still intact. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NaSal/genistein combined treatment induces incomplete apoptosis and necrosis in the MCF-7 MTS culture system.
Background: Most ETOH addiction preclinical studies have focused on the rewards of chronic ETOH self-administration or the ETOH reinstatement model. Acute ETOH administration studies are scarce despite the potential of ETOH to cause sedation, intoxication and reduced acute functional tolerance. Here, we established a rat model of acute ETOH administration induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 g/kg ethanol and assessed the similarities in physiological and behavioral effects between acupuncture and Sigma1 R antagonists. Methods: Male Wistar rats (300−330 g) received pretreatment with (1) saline injection, (2) saline + mechanical stimulation using a mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7), (3) ETOH (1 g/kg) injection, (4) ETOH + HT7, or (5) the selective σ1 R antagonist BD 1047 (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP) injection). ETOH (1 g/kg) or saline was IP injected after 10 min. Then, ETOH-induced immobility was evaluated in an open field arena, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) indicating ethanol-induced emotional changes were recorded in a recording chamber, and the rats were sacrificed for the analysis of protein levels of σ1 R in several regions of the brain. Results: Acute ethanol exposure increased the immobile time, 22-kHz USVs, and protein levels of σ1 R in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, pretreatment with acupuncture at HT7 induced recovery of immobile time, reduced 22-kHz USVs, and regulated the protein levels of σ1 R in the VTA. These effects have similarities with IP injection of BD 1047 (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: This study showed that acupuncture at HT7 regulates immobility and 22-kHz USVs via Sigma1 R in the VTA upon acute ETOH exposure.
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of an oral exercise program including whole-body exercises on oral function in older people. Methods: The participants (aged ≥65 years) were divided into three groups: intervention group I (only oral exercise), intervention group Ⅱ (oral exercise with whole-body exercises), and control group (no intervention). The oral health status, saliva flow rate, and oral muscle strength were evaluated. Analyses were performed to compare the three groups and identify the changes in the aforementioned parameters before and after the program. Results: The saliva flow rate significantly increased in intervention groups Ⅰand Ⅱ after the program. Oral muscle strength evaluation using the Iow a oral performance instrument showed that the anterior tongue strength increased significantly in intervention group I; the posterior tongue strength and cheek strength also increased but not significantly. The anterior tongue, posterior tongue, and cheek strengths significantly increased in intervention group Ⅱ. Conclusions: The oral exercise program including whole-body exercises showed positive effects on the saliva flow rate and oral strength. No significant differences were observed in the quality of life related to oral health.
We investigated the developmental characteristics and life cycle of the lawn cutworm, Spodoptera depravata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of the most important pests causing economic damage in grass production. For larval culture, we provided the zoysiagrass at 25°C and 60 ± 5% humidity. The durations of the developmental stages were as follows: 4.11 ± 0.19 days for eggs, 25.17 ± 3.02 for larvae, 8.80 ± 0.28 for pupae, and 7.57 ± 0.95 for adults. We grew the larvae to the 7th instar stage, unlike previous studies, in which it was assumed that the 6th instar was the final age. There was a significant positive correlation between the body length and head capsule width of each instar larvae. In terms of morphology, the eggs changed from light green immediately following oviposition to black as they developed, and the grass-fed larvae changed from light yellow immediately after hatching to green as development continued. We observed a pattern of black spots at regular intervals on the dorsal sides of the abdomens of the final instar larvae. Furthermore, we detected two notable designs on the dorsal side of the front of the head. The pupal colors changed from light brown and green immediately after pupation, to dark brown as the pupal cuticle hardened. The wingspans of the adults were similar in both sexes. However, the forewings of the males had obvious outer lines and eyespots with dark gray-brown backgrounds, whereas the corresponding features on the female forewings were less obvious. The oviposition preperiod was 2.11 days, the oviposition period was 4.2 days, the average fecundity per female was approximately 341 eggs, and the hatching rate was approximately 76.1%. © 2019 The Korean Society of Sericultural Sciences Int. J. Indust. Entomol. 38(2), 38-50 (2019)
Oil spills have occurred throughout the years of industrialization and represent a global challenge as they affect vast areas of the ocean. The toxicity of crude oil to aquatic organisms has been extensively investigated, but the potential impacts of crude oil on vertebrate development remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of dispersants used in treating a recent oil spill, as well as that of crude oil, on vertebrates by using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model species, which has been widely used in empirical studies of both early embryonic development and adult physiology. Chronic exposure to crude oil resulted in marked developmental abnormalities, including pericardial edema, abnormal trunk vessel development, retardation of axonal branching, and abnormal jaw development. Embryonic development was affected more severely by exposure to the oil-dispersant combination than to the oil alone. Thus, the zebrafish in vivo model system suggests that dispersant treatment can have detrimental developmental effects on vertebrates and its potential impact on marine life, as well as humans, should be carefully considered in clean-up efforts at the site of an oil spill.
본 연구는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동이 구성원의 혁신 행동에 미치는 영향을 검증하고 구성원의 기업가정신의 매개 효과와 LMX의 조절 효과를 확인하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 가설은 선행연구와 긍정정서확장구축이론, 자기효능감이론 등을 근거로 하여 설정하였다. 자료는 국내 기업의 직장인 20대이상의 279명을 대상으로 온라인 설문을 통하여 수집하였다. 수집된 데이터의 신뢰성과 타당성 검증은 SPSS 25.0과 AMOS 25.0로 하였으며, 가설검증은 SPSS프로세스 매크로 3.0으로 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 리더의 관리자 코칭행동은 구성원의 기업가정신과 혁신행동에 각각 정(+)의 영향을 주었고, 코칭행동과 혁신행동의 관계에서 기업가정신이 매개효과를 가지는 것이 확인되었다. 또한 LMX는 관리자코칭행동과 기업가정신의 관계에 조절효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동과 혁신행동간 관계에서 기업가정신을 제시하였다는데 의의를 가지며, 구성원의 기업가정신과 혁신행동을 촉진하는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동의 효과성을 실증함으로써 조직에서 리더의 관리자 코칭행동을 활성화하기 위한 시스템을 마련하고 구성원들의 기업가정신 강화와 LMX 향상을 위한 시사점, 그리고 향후 연구방안을 논의하였다. The purpose of this study is to verify the effect of leader's managerial coaching behavior on employees' innovative behavior and to confirm the mediating effect of entrepreneurship and the moderating effect of LMX(Leader-Member Exchange). Hypotheses were established based on prior research and variety of theories including broaden-build theory and self-efficacy theory. The survey was accessed via the online, 279 employees over 20's or older, who have worked in various domestic organizations were participated. SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 25.0 were used to verify the reliability and validity of the collected data, and the hypothesis was analyzed by SPSS process macro 3.0. The study found that leader's managerial coaching behavior has positive effects on both employees' entrepreneurship and innovative behavior and that entrepreneurship has mediating effect between leader's managerial coaching behavior and an employees' innovative behavior. The results of this study suggested leader's managerial coaching behavior is a prominent factor in facilitating innovative behavior among employees. Implications include an organizational requirement to develop systems for initiating effective managerial coaching behavior in leadership, and for improvement of both entrepreneurship and LMX among employees.
Objective: This paper is to analyze the impact of musical training to the fast α wave activation of the EEG. Background: EEG is neurological research method that can observe the brain function in real time. EEG can be used to determine the nervousness and relaxedness of a person who receives stimuli in a structured environment. Therefore, it is possible to interpret the functional state of human brain by the analysis of EEG. Method: The brain activities of two groups of university students in the point of RFA(Relative Fast Alpha) caused by different music are analyzed in this paper. One is the group of music majors and the other is the group of non-majors. Results: Music major and non-major groups show meaningful differences in RFA during exposed to classic and metal music. Conclusion: Learning experience on music affects RFA increment of music majors. Application: The result of this study will be used as basic data to evaluate the learning effects of students who want to study music.
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Manuka honey (MH) has been shown anti-bacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria. However, the inhibitory effect of MH on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 has not yet been examined. In this study, MH significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm. Moreover, pre- and post-treatment with MH also significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm. Cellular metabolic activities exhibited that the viability of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells was reduced in the presence of MH. Further, colony forming unit of MH-treated E. coli O157:H7 biofilm was significantly reduced by over 70%. Collectively, this study suggests the potential of anti-biofilm properties of MH which could be applied to control E. coli O157:H7.